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1.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections revealed a protective effect of the intervention. Since then, 20 new RCTs have been completed. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D for ARI prevention using a random effects model. Pre-specified sub-group analyses were done to determine whether effects of vitamin D on risk of ARI varied according to baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration or dosing regimen. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry from inception to 1st May 2020. Double-blind RCTs of supplementation with vitamin D or calcidiol, of any duration, were eligible if they were approved by a Research Ethics Committee and if ARI incidence was collected prospectively and pre-specified as an efficacy outcome. Aggregate data, stratified by baseline 25(OH)D concentration, were obtained from study authors. The study was registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42020190633). FINDINGS: We identified 45 eligible RCTs (total 73,384 participants). Data were obtained for 46,331 (98.0%) of 47,262 participants in 42 studies, aged 0 to 95 years. For the primary comparison of vitamin D supplementation vs. placebo, the intervention reduced risk of ARI overall (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99;P for heterogeneity 0.01). No statistically significant effect of vitamin D was seen for any of the sub-groups defined by baseline 25(OH)D concentration. However, protective effects were seen for trials in which vitamin D was given using a daily dosing regimen (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93);at daily dose equivalents of 400-1000 IU (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.89);and for a duration of <=12 months (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.93). No significant interaction was seen between allocation to vitamin D vs. placebo and dose frequency, dose size, or study duration. Vitamin D did not influence the proportion of participants experiencing at least one serious adverse event (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.09). Risk of bias within individual studies was assessed as being low for all but three trials. A funnel plot showed left-sided asymmetry (P=0.008, Egger's test). INTERPRETATION: Vitamin D supplementation was safe and reduced risk of ARI, despite evidence of significant heterogeneity across trials. Protection was associated with administration of daily doses of 400-1000 IU vitamin D for up to 12 months. The relevance of these findings to COVID-19 is not known and requires investigation. FUNDING: None.

2.
World Development ; 138(24), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1735047

ABSTRACT

This research assesses how low-income households in rural Kenya coped with the immediate economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. It uses granular financial data from weekly household interviews covering six weeks before the first case was detected in Kenya to five weeks after during which various containment measures were implemented. Based on household-level fixed-effects regressions, our results suggest that income from work decreased with almost one-third and income from gifts and remittances reduced by more than one-third after the start of the pandemic. Nevertheless, household expenditures on food remained at pre-COVID levels. We do not find evidence that households coped with reduced income through increased borrowing, selling assets or withdrawing savings. Instead, they gave out less gifts and remittances themselves, lent less money to others and postponed loan repayments. Moreover, they significantly reduced expenditures on schooling and transportation, in line with the school closures and travel restrictions. Thus, despite their affected livelihoods, households managed to keep food expenditures at par, but this came at the cost of reduced informal risk-sharing and social support between households.

7.
Trials ; 22(1): 126, 2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid emergence and the high disease burden of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 have created a medical need for readily available drugs that can decrease viral replication or blunt the hyperinflammatory state leading to severe COVID-19 disease. Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic, known for its immunomodulatory properties. It has shown antiviral effect specifically against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and acts on cytokine signaling pathways that have been implicated in COVID-19. METHODS: DAWn-AZITHRO is a randomized, open-label, phase 2 proof-of-concept, multicenter clinical trial, evaluating the safety and efficacy of azithromycin for treating hospitalized patients with COVID-19. It is part of a series of trials testing promising interventions for COVID-19, running in parallel and grouped under the name DAWn-studies. Patients hospitalized on dedicated COVID wards are eligible for study inclusion when they are symptomatic (i.e., clinical or radiological signs) and have been diagnosed with COVID-19 within the last 72 h through PCR (nasopharyngeal swab or bronchoalveolar lavage) or chest CT scan showing typical features of COVID-19 and without alternate diagnosis. Patients are block-randomized (9 patients) with a 2:1 allocation to receive azithromycin plus standard of care versus standard of care alone. Standard of care is mostly supportive, but may comprise hydroxychloroquine, up to the treating physician's discretion and depending on local policy and national health regulations. The treatment group receives azithromycin qd 500 mg during the first 5 consecutive days after inclusion. The trial will include 284 patients and recruits from 15 centers across Belgium. The primary outcome is time from admission (day 0) to life discharge or to sustained clinical improvement, defined as an improvement of two points on the WHO 7-category ordinal scale sustained for at least 3 days. DISCUSSION: The trial investigates the urgent and still unmet global need for drugs that may impact the disease course of COVID-19. It will either provide support or else justify the discouragement of the current widespread, uncontrolled use of azithromycin in patients with COVID-19. The analogous design of other parallel trials of the DAWN consortium will amplify the chance of identifying successful treatment strategies and allow comparison of treatment effects within an identical clinical context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU Clinical trials register EudraCT Nb 2020-001614-38 . Registered on 22 April 2020.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Standard of Care , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Proof of Concept Study , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
European Respiratory Journal ; 56, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1007191

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 caused a pandemic in 2020 with a 'lockdown' resulting in reduced mobility. Activity tracker companies noticed reduced physical activity (PA) in the general population. If observed in patients, this may add to the devastating consequences of physical inactivity. Aim: To investigate PA levels of lung transplant (LTX) recipients before and during the Belgian soft lockdown measures of COVID-19. A decline in daily step count during lockdown measures was hypothesized. Methods: 16 LTX recipients (56% male, mean±SD age 61±6.7 years, 30.2±12.7 months post LTX) involved in an RCT (NCT04122768) were included in the present sub-analysis. Daily step counts were collected by activity trackers, >4 weeks prior to (phase 1) and 4 weeks during the Belgian lockdown (phase 2). The differences in PA between both phases were compared with paired t-tests. Results: Daily number of steps was low in phase 1 (mean±SD 6910±4225 steps/day) but did not change during phase 2 (7016±5665 steps/day), p=0.89, see figure 1. Conclusions: The Belgian COVID-19 lockdown measures did not significantly affect the PA levels of LTX recipients compared to the preceding period.

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