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1.
Nat Med ; 28(4): 809-813, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713203

ABSTRACT

Large traditional clinical trials suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors improve symptoms in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In the midst of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic, we sought to confirm these benefits in a new type of trial that was patient centered and conducted in a completely remote fashion. In the CHIEF-HF trial ( NCT04252287 ), 476 participants with HF, regardless of EF or diabetes status, were randomized to 100 mg of canagliflozin or placebo. Enrollment was stopped early due to shifting sponsor priorities, without unblinding. The primary outcome was change in the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Total Symptom Score (KCCQ TSS) at 12 weeks. The 12-week change in KCCQ TSS was 4.3 points (95% confidence interval, 0.8-7.8; P = 0.016) higher with canagliflozin than with placebo, meeting the primary endpoint. Similar effects were observed in participants with HFpEF and in those with HFrEF and in participants with and without diabetes, demonstrating that canagliflozin significantly improves symptom burden in HF, regardless of EF or diabetes status. This randomized, double-blind trial, conducted without in-person interactions between doctor and patient, can serve as a model for future all-virtual clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Canagliflozin/pharmacology , Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Patient-Centered Care , Quality of Life , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume
2.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(7): e0480, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that elevated soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 concentrations, a marker of pulmonary epithelial injury, reflect ongoing lung injury in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 and associate with continued ventilator dependence. DESIGN: We associated serial plasma soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 levels and markers of systemic inflammation including d-dimer, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate with 30-day mortality and ventilator dependence. SETTING: Adult medical ICUs and general medicine wards at an academic teaching hospital in Boston, MA. PATIENTS: Adult patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure admitted to the ICU (n = 72) and non-ICU patients managed with supplemental oxygen (n = 77). INTERVENTIONS: Observational study from April 25 to June 25, 2020. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: ICU patients had a higher baseline body mass index and median soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2, d-dimer, and C-reactive protein concentrations compared with non-ICU patients. Among ICU patients, elevated baseline modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and log (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2) were associated with 30-day mortality, whereas initial Pao2/Fio2 and markers of systemic inflammation were similar between groups. Only log (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2) associated with ventilator dependence over time, with the last measured log (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2) concentration obtained on ICU day 11.5 (interquartile range [7-17]) higher in patients who required reintubation or tracheostomy placement compared with patients who were successfully extubated (2.10 [1.89-2.26] vs 1.87 ng/mL [1.72-2.13 ng/mL]; p = 0.03). Last measured systemic inflammatory markers, modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and Pao2/Fio2 were not different between patients who were successfully extubated compared with those with continued ventilator dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 is a biomarker readily measured in blood that can provide dynamic information about the degree of a patient's lung injury and real-time assessment of the likelihood of extubation success. Measures of systemic inflammation, illness severity, and oxygenation did not associate with ventilator outcomes.

4.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(3): e007767, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The expense of clinical trials mandates new strategies to efficiently generate evidence and test novel therapies. In this context, we designed a decentralized, patient-centered randomized clinical trial leveraging mobile technologies, rather than in-person site visits, to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of canagliflozin for the treatment of heart failure, regardless of ejection fraction or diabetes status, on the reduction of heart failure symptoms. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred patients will be enrolled with a medical record-confirmed diagnosis of heart failure, stratified by reduced (≤40%) or preserved (>40%) ejection fraction and randomized 1:1 to 100 mg daily of canagliflozin or matching placebo. The primary outcome will be the 12-week change in the total symptom score of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will be daily step count and other scales of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. RESULTS: The trial is currently enrolling, even in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: CHIEF-HF (Canagliflozin: Impact on Health Status, Quality of Life and Functional Status in Heart Failure) is deploying a novel model of conducting a decentralized, patient-centered, randomized clinical trial for a new indication for canagliflozin to improve the symptoms of patients with heart failure. It can model a new method for more cost-effectively testing the efficacy of treatments using mobile technologies with patient-reported outcomes as the primary clinical end point of the trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04252287.


Subject(s)
Canagliflozin/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Telemedicine , Actigraphy/instrumentation , Canagliflozin/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Exercise Tolerance/drug effects , Fitness Trackers , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Mobile Applications , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(20): 2368-2378, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912306

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profoundly changed clinical care and research, including the conduct of clinical trials, and the clinical research ecosystem will need to adapt to this transformed environment. The Heart Failure Academic Research Consortium is a partnership between the Heart Failure Collaboratory and the Academic Research Consortium, composed of academic investigators from the United States and Europe, patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and industry members. A series of meetings were convened to address the challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, review options for maintaining or altering best practices, and establish key recommendations for the conduct and analysis of clinical trials for cardiovascular disease and heart failure. This paper summarizes the discussions and expert consensus recommendations.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Endpoint Determination , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Statistics as Topic
7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(11): 1345-1357, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758959

ABSTRACT

Standard evaluation and management of the patient with suspected or proven cardiovascular complications of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome related-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is challenging. Routine history, physical examination, laboratory testing, electrocardiography, and plain x-ray imaging may often suffice for such patients, but given overlap between COVID-19 and typical cardiovascular diagnoses such as heart failure and acute myocardial infarction, need frequently arises for advanced imaging techniques to assist in differential diagnosis and management. This document provides guidance in several common scenarios among patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection and possible cardiovascular involvement, including chest discomfort with electrocardiographic changes, acute hemodynamic instability, newly recognized left ventricular dysfunction, as well as imaging during the subacute/chronic phase of COVID-19. For each, the authors consider the role of biomarker testing to guide imaging decision-making, provide differential diagnostic considerations, and offer general suggestions regarding application of various advanced imaging techniques.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Multimodal Imaging/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Management , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(10): 1244-1258, 2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735195

ABSTRACT

Increases in cardiac troponin indicative of myocardial injury are common in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and are associated with adverse outcomes such as arrhythmias and death. These increases are more likely to occur in those with chronic cardiovascular conditions and in those with severe COVID-19 presentations. The increased inflammatory, prothrombotic, and procoagulant responses following severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection increase the risk for acute nonischemic myocardial injury and acute myocardial infarction, particularly type 2 myocardial infarction, because of respiratory failure with hypoxia and hemodynamic instability in critically ill patients. Myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathy, acute heart failure, and direct injury from SARS-CoV-2 are important etiologies, but primary noncardiac conditions, such as pulmonary embolism, critical illness, and sepsis, probably cause more of the myocardial injury. The structured use of serial cardiac troponin has the potential to facilitate risk stratification, help make decisions about when to use imaging, and inform stage categorization and disease phenotyping among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Heart Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Risk Assessment/methods , Troponin/analysis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100504, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite over 4 million cases of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States, limited data exist including socioeconomic background and post-discharge outcomes for patients hospitalized with this disease. METHODS: In this case series, we identified patients with COVID-19 admitted to 3 Partners Healthcare hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts between March 7th, 2020, and March 30th, 2020. Patient characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes were determined. FINDINGS: A total of 247 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were identified; the median age was 61 (interquartile range [IQR]: 50-76 years), 58% were men, 30% of Hispanic ethnicity, 21% enrolled in Medicaid, and 12% dual-enrolled Medicare/Medicaid. The median estimated household income was $66,701 [IQR: $50,336-$86,601]. Most patients were treated with hydroxychloroquine (72%), and statins (76%; newly initiated in 34%). During their admission, 103 patients (42%) required intensive care. At the end of the data collection period (June 24, 2020), 213 patients (86.2%) were discharged alive, 2 patients (0.8%) remain admitted, and 32 patients (13%) have died. Among those discharged alive (n = 213), 70 (32.9%) were discharged to a post-acute facility, 31 (14.6%) newly required supplemental oxygen, 19 (8.9%) newly required tube feeding, and 34 (16%) required new prescriptions for antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, methadone, or opioids. Over a median post-discharge follow-up of 80 days (IQR, 68-84), 22 patients (10.3%) were readmitted. INTERPRETATION: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are frequently of vulnerable socioeconomic status and often require intensive care. Patients who survive COVID-19 hospitalization have substantial need for post-acute services.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(3): 280-288, 2020 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although patients with cardiovascular disease face excess risks of severe illness with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), there may be indirect consequences of the pandemic on this high-risk patient segment. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine longitudinal trends in hospitalizations for acute cardiovascular conditions across a tertiary care health system. METHODS: Acute cardiovascular hospitalizations were tracked between January 1, 2019, and March 31, 2020. Daily hospitalization rates were estimated using negative binomial models. Temporal trends in hospitalization rates were compared across the first 3 months of 2020, with the first 3 months of 2019 as a reference. RESULTS: From January 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020, 6,083 patients experienced 7,187 hospitalizations for primary acute cardiovascular reasons. There were 43.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.4% to 56.0%) fewer estimated daily hospitalizations in March 2020 compared with March 2019 (p < 0.001). The daily rate of hospitalizations did not change throughout 2019 (-0.01% per day [95% CI: -0.04% to +0.02%]; p = 0.50), January 2020 (-0.5% per day [95% CI: -1.6% to +0.5%]; p = 0.31), or February 2020 (+0.7% per day [95% CI: -0.6% to +2.0%]; p = 0.27). There was significant daily decline in hospitalizations in March 2020 (-5.9% per day [95% CI: -7.6% to -4.3%]; p < 0.001). Length of stay was shorter (4.8 days [25th to 75th percentiles: 2.4 to 8.3 days] vs. 6.0 days [25th to 75th percentiles: 3.1 to 9.6 days]; p = 0.003) and in-hospital mortality was not significantly different (6.2% vs. 4.4%; p = 0.30) in March 2020 compared with March 2019. CONCLUSIONS: During the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a marked decline in acute cardiovascular hospitalizations, and patients who were admitted had shorter lengths of stay. These data substantiate concerns that acute care of cardiovascular conditions may be delayed, deferred, or abbreviated during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(5): 533-546, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The degree of myocardial injury, as reflected by troponin elevation, and associated outcomes among U.S. hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe the degree of myocardial injury and associated outcomes in a large hospitalized cohort with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to 1 of 5 Mount Sinai Health System hospitals in New York City between February 27, 2020, and April 12, 2020, with troponin-I (normal value <0.03 ng/ml) measured within 24 h of admission were included (n = 2,736). Demographics, medical histories, admission laboratory results, and outcomes were captured from the hospitals' electronic health records. RESULTS: The median age was 66.4 years, with 59.6% men. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, was more prevalent in patients with higher troponin concentrations, as were hypertension and diabetes. A total of 506 (18.5%) patients died during hospitalization. In all, 985 (36%) patients had elevated troponin concentrations. After adjusting for disease severity and relevant clinical factors, even small amounts of myocardial injury (e.g., troponin I >0.03 to 0.09 ng/ml; n = 455; 16.6%) were significantly associated with death (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.37 to 2.24; p < 0.001) while greater amounts (e.g., troponin I >0.09 ng/dl; n = 530; 19.4%) were significantly associated with higher risk (adjusted HR: 3.03; 95% CI: 2.42 to 3.80; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial injury is prevalent among patients hospitalized with COVID-19; however, troponin concentrations were generally present at low levels. Patients with CVD are more likely to have myocardial injury than patients without CVD. Troponin elevation among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is associated with higher risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Troponin I/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Electronic Health Records , Female , Heart Injuries/complications , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , New York City , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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