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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1462, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655608

ABSTRACT

Managing patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requires frequent changes in mechanical ventilator respiratory settings to optimize arterial oxygenation assessed by arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and saturation (SaO2). Pulse oxymetry (SpO2) has been suggested as a non-invasive surrogate for arterial oxygenation however its accuracy in COVID-19 patients is unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of COVID-19 status on the association between SpO2 and arterial oxygenation. We prospectively included patients with ARDS and compared COVID-19 to non-COVID-19 patients, regarding SpO2 and concomitant arterial oxygenation (SaO2 and PaO2) measurements, and their association. Bias was defined as mean difference between SpO2 and SaO2 measurements. Occult hypoxemia was defined as a SpO2 ≥ 92% while concomitant SaO2 < 88%. Multiple linear regression models were built to account for confounders. We also assessed concordance between positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial-induced changes in SpO2 and in arterial oxygenation. We included 55 patients, among them 26 (47%) with COVID-19. Overall, SpO2 and SaO2 measurements were correlated (r = 0.70; p < 0.0001), however less so in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients (r = 0.55, p < 0.0001 vs. r = 0.84, p < 0.0001, p = 0.002 for intergroup comparison). Bias was + 1.1%, greater in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients (2.0 vs. 0.3%; p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, bias was associated with COVID-19 status (unstandardized ß = 1.77, 95%CI = 0.38-3.15, p = 0.01), ethnic group and ARDS severity. Occult hypoxemia occurred in 5.5% of measurements (7.7% in COVID-19 patients vs. 3.4% in non-COVID-19 patients, p = 0.42). Concordance rate between PEEP trial-induced changes in SpO2 and SaO2 was 84%, however less so in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients (69% vs. 97%, respectively). Similar results were observed for PaO2 regarding correlations, bias, and concordance with SpO2 changes. In patients with ARDS, SpO2 was associated with arterial oxygenation, but COVID-19 status significantly altered this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Prospective Studies
3.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(4)2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496134

ABSTRACT

Parenchymal bands and ground-glass opacities consistent with a pattern of late organising pneumonia are frequently observed 6 months after ICU admission for #COVID19, whereas fibrotic changes of limited extent are only observed in about 1/3 of patients https://bit.ly/2UGOsbr.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2283-2294, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. METHODS: In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33°C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, ≥37.8°C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. RESULTS: A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P = 0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score ≥4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02908308.).


Subject(s)
Fever/therapy , Hypothermia, Induced , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Aged , Body Temperature , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coma/etiology , Coma/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/adverse effects , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/complications , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 614569, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000108

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) related to Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with high mortality. It has been suggested that venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was suitable in this indication, albeit the effects of ECMO on the mechanical respiratory parameters have been scarcely described. In this case-series, we prospectively described the use of venovenous ECMO and its effects on mechanical respiratory parameters in eleven COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS. Implantation of ECMO occurred 6 [3-11] days after the onset of mechanical ventilation. At the time of ECMO implantation, all patients received neuromuscular blocking agents, three (27%) received inhaled nitric oxide and prone positioning was performed in all patients with 4 [3-5] sessions of PP per patient. Under ECMO, the tidal volume was significantly decreased from 6.1 [4.0-6.3] to 3.4 [2.5-3.6] mL/kg of predicted body weight and the positive end-expiratory pressure level was increased by 25 ± 27% whereas the driving pressure and the mechanical power decreased by 33 ± 25% and 71 ± 27%, respectively. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio significantly increased from 68 [58-89] to 168 [137-218] and the oxygenation index significantly decreased from 28 [26-35] to 13 [10-15]. The duration of ECMO was 12 [8-25] days. Nine (82%) patients experienced ECMO-related complications and the main complication was major bleeding requiring blood transfusions. Intensive care unit mortality rate was 55% but no patient died from ECMO-related complications. In COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS, venovenous ECMO allowed ultra-protective ventilation, improved oxygenation and should be considered in highly selected patients with the most severe ARDS.

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