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Mikrochim Acta ; 189(9): 316, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971724


A colorimetric sensor array designed on a paper substrate with a microfluidic structure has been developed. This array is capable of detecting COVID-19 disease by tracking metabolites of urine samples. In order to determine minor metabolic changes, various colorimetric receptors consisting of gold and silver nanoparticles, metalloporphyrins, metal ion complexes, and pH-sensitive indicators are used in the array structure. By injecting a small volume of the urine sample, the color pattern of the sensor changes after 7 min, which can be observed visually. The color changes of the receptors (recorded by a scanner) are subsequently calculated by image analysis software and displayed as a color difference map. This study has been performed on 130 volunteers, including 60 patients infected by COVID-19, 55 healthy controls, and 15 cured individuals. The resulting array provides a fingerprint response for each category due to the differences in the metabolic profile of the urine sample. The principal component analysis-discriminant analysis confirms that the assay sensitivity to the correctly detected patient, healthy, and cured participants is equal to 73.3%, 74.5%, and 66.6%, respectively. Apart from COVID-19, other diseases such as chronic kidney disease, liver disorder, and diabetes may be detectable by the proposed sensor. However, this performance of the sensor must be tested in the studies with a larger sample size. These results show the possible feasibility of the sensor as a suitable alternative to costly and time-consuming standard methods for rapid detection and control of viral and bacterial infectious diseases and metabolic disorders.

COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microfluidics , Silver/chemistry
Front Psychol ; 13: 838074, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855425


Background: Measuring family caregivers' quality of life plays a significant role in improving the quality, efficiency, development, and provision of efficient services for patients with COVID-19. As a result, evaluating the quality of life requires the use of valid and reliable measures that are culturally appropriate. This study was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Quality of Life in Life-Threatening Illness-Family Carer Version (QOLLTI - F) in patients with COVID-19. Methods: This methodological study was carried out in 2021 at Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran. After gaining approval from the tool creator, the translation was carried out utilizing the forward-backward approach. Cognitive interviews with 10 family caregivers of COVID-19 patients were used to demonstrate face validity. Moreover, construct validity was identified by performing exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (n = 251), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (n = 200), and convergent validation using Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) questionnaire. For scale reliability, internal consistency and stability were performed using Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient and test-retest, respectively. Results: 451 family caregivers of patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Three factors with a cumulative variance of 51.85% were extracted during EFA: (1) Caregiver's physical-emotional status, (2) Satisfaction with the situation, and (3) Caregiver's concerns. CFA showed that the model enjoyed a moderate to a good fit of information (RMSEA: 0.087; NFI: 0.98; CFI: 0.91; IFI: 0.91; GFI 0.89; standardized RMR: 0.070). A significant correlation was found between the Persian version of the ZBI and participants' total scores of QOLLTI - F v3 (r = -0.196, P = 0.000). Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient = 0.719 and ICC stability reliability = 0.71 of the questionnaire were confirmed. Conclusion: The Persian version of the QOLLTI - F v3 is a valid and reliable scale that can measure family caregivers' quality of life during a Life-Threatening illness in patients with COVID-19. This instrument may be utilized in clinical trials and research to enhance the quality of life for family carers in Iranian society.