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1.
Viruses ; 14(12):2771, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2163617

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to afflict many countries around the world. The resurgence of COVID-19 cases and deaths in many countries shows a complacency in adhering to preventive guidelines. Consequently, vaccination continues to be a crucial intervention to reduce the effects of this pandemic. This study investigated the impact of preventive measures and COVID-19 vaccination on the infection, medication, and hospitalization. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 23 December 2021 and 12 March 2022 in Algeria. To evaluate the effectiveness of strategies aimed at avoiding and minimizing SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity, a questionnaire was created and validated. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were computed to identify associations between dependent and independent variables. Variables with a p-value of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Our results indicated that out of 2294 answers received, only 16% of our sample was vaccinated, and more than 60% did not apply preventive guidelines. As a result, 45% were infected with SARS-CoV-2, 75% took treatment (even preventive), and 9% were hospitalized. The logistic regression showed that the impact of preventive measures on the unvaccinated is statistically not significant (OR: 0.764, 95% CI = 0. 555-1.052;p = 0.09). However, this relationship changes significantly for people who are vaccinated (OR: 0.108, 95% CI = 0.047-0.248;p < 0.0001). Our results also demonstrated that the impact of protective measures on non-vaccinated individuals is statistically significant in reducing the need to receive anti-COVID-19 treatments (OR: 0.447, 95% CI = 0.321-0.623;p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the results showed that the impact of preventive measures on the non-vaccinated population is also statistically significant in reducing the risk of hospitalization (OR: 0.211, 95% CI = 0.081-0.548;p < 0.0001). Moreover, vaccinated individuals who neglect preventive measures must take the COVID-19 medication at a rate of 3.77 times (OR: 3.77) higher than those who follow preventive measures and are vaccinated. In short, our findings demonstrate the importance of combining preventive measures and vaccination in order to fight against the pandemic. Therefore, we advise the Ministry of Health and relevant authorities to put more effort into enhancing public knowledge about the COVID-19 infection and vaccination through education and awareness initiatives. Parallel to implementing vaccination as additional preventive strategy, behavioral change initiatives must be improved to encourage adherence to COVID-19 prevention recommendations.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recently emerged novel coronavirus, "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)", caused a highly contagious disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has severely damaged the world's most developed countries and has turned into a major threat for low- and middle-income countries. Since its emergence in late 2019, medical interventions have been substantial, and most countries relied on public health measures collectively known as nonpharmaceutical interventions. AIMS: To centralize the accumulative knowledge on non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 for each country under one worldwide consortium. METHODS: International COVID-19 Research Network collaborators developed a cross-sectional online-survey to assess the implications of NPIs and sanitary supply on incidence and mortality of COVID-19. Survey was conducted between January 1 and February 1, 2021, and participants from 92 countries/territories completed it. The association between NPIs, sanitation supplies and incidence and mortality were examined by multivariate regression, with log-transformed value of population as an offset value. RESULTS: Majority of countries/territories applied several preventive strategies including social distancing (100.0%), quarantine (100.0%), isolation (98.9%), and school closure (97.8%). Individual-level preventive measures such as personal hygiene (100.0%) and wearing facial mask (94.6% at hospital; 93.5% at mass transportation; 91.3% in mass gathering facilities) were also frequently applied. Quarantine at a designated place was negatively associated with incidence and mortality compared to home quarantine. Isolation at a designated place was also associated with reduced mortality compared to home isolation. Recommendations to use sanitizer for personal hygiene reduced incidence compared to recommendation to use soap did. Deprivation of mask was associated with increased incidence. Higher incidence and mortality were found in countries/territories with higher economic level. Mask deprivation was pervasive regardless of economic level. CONCLUSION: NPIs against COVID-19 such as using sanitizer, quarantine, and isolation can decrease incidence and mortality of COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705110

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a respiratory viral infection, has affected 388 million individuals worldwide as of the February 4, 2022. In this review, we have outlined the important liver manifestations of COVID-19 and discussed the possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and their diagnosis and management. Factors that may contribute to hepatic involvement in COVID-19 include direct viral cytopathic effects, exaggerated immune responses/systemic inflammatory response syndrome, hypoxia-induced changes, vascular changes due to coagulopathy, endothelitis, cardiac congestion from right heart failure, and drug-induced liver injury. The majority of COVID-19-associated liver symptoms are mild and self-limiting. Thus management is generally supportive. Liver function tests and abdominal imaging are the primary investigations done in relation to liver involvement in COVID-19 patients. However, imaging findings are nonspecific. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA has been found in liver biopsies. However, there is limited place for liver biopsy in the clinical context, as it does not influence management. Although, the management is supportive in the majority of patients without previous liver disease, special emphasis is needed in those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis B and C infections, and alcoholic liver disease, and in liver transplant recipients.

5.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403622

ABSTRACT

A growing body of literature on the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming available, but a synthesis of available data has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review of currently available clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and chest imaging data related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS from 01 January 2019 to 24 February 2020. Study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted using the clinical and laboratory data, and random-effects models were applied to estimate pooled results. A total of 61 studies were included (59,254 patients). The most common disease-related symptoms were fever (82%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 56%-99%; n = 4410), cough (61%, 95% CI 39%-81%; n = 3985), muscle aches and/or fatigue (36%, 95% CI 18%-55%; n = 3778), dyspnea (26%, 95% CI 12%-41%; n = 3700), headache in 12% (95% CI 4%-23%, n = 3598 patients), sore throat in 10% (95% CI 5%-17%, n = 1387) and gastrointestinal symptoms in 9% (95% CI 3%-17%, n = 1744). Laboratory findings were described in a lower number of patients and revealed lymphopenia (0.93 × 109/L, 95% CI 0.83-1.03 × 109/L, n = 464) and abnormal C-reactive protein (33.72 mg/dL, 95% CI 21.54-45.91 mg/dL; n = 1637). Radiological findings varied, but mostly described ground-glass opacities and consolidation. Data on treatment options were limited. All-cause mortality was 0.3% (95% CI 0.0%-1.0%; n = 53,631). Epidemiological studies showed that mortality was higher in males and elderly patients. The majority of reported clinical symptoms and laboratory findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection are non-specific. Clinical suspicion, accompanied by a relevant epidemiological history, should be followed by early imaging and virological assay.

6.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(12): 1362-1388, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137993

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory viral infection, has affected more than 78 million individuals worldwide as of the end of December 2020. Previous studies reported that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus infections may affect the gastrointestinal (GI) system. In this review we outline the important GI manifestations of COVID-19 and discuss the possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and their diagnosis and management. GI manifestations are reported in 11.4-61.1% of individuals with COVID-19, with variable onset and severity. The majority of COVID-19-associated GI symptoms are mild and self-limiting and include anorexia, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain/discomfort. A minority of patients present with an acute abdomen with aetiologies such as acute pancreatitis, acute appendicitis, intestinal obstruction, bowel ischaemia, haemoperitoneum or abdominal compartment syndrome. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA has been found in biopsies from all parts of the alimentary canal. Involvement of the GI tract may be due to direct viral injury and/or an inflammatory immune response and may lead to malabsorption, an imbalance in intestinal secretions and gut mucosal integrity and activation of the enteric nervous system. Supportive and symptomatic care is the mainstay of therapy. However, a minority may require surgical or endoscopic treatment for acute abdomen and GI bleeding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Acute Disease , Gastrointestinal Tract , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(4): 1188-1201, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090244

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2. Although pulmonary manifestations have been identified as the major symptoms, several hematological abnormalities have also been identified. This review summarizes the reported hematological abnormalities (changes in platelet, white blood cell, and hemoglobin, and coagulation/fibrinolytic alterations), explores their patho-mechanisms, and discusses its management. Common hematological abnormalities in COVID-19 are lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated D-dimer levels. These alterations are significantly more common/prominent in patients with severe COVID-19 disease, and thus may serve as a possible biomarker for those needing hospitalization and intensive care unit care. Close attention needs to be paid to coagulation abnormalities, and steps should be taken to prevent these occurring or to mitigate their harmful effects. The effect of COVID-19 in patients with hematological abnormalities and recognized hematological drug toxicities of therapies for COVID-19 are also outlined.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Lymphopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Erythrocytes/pathology , Hematologic Diseases/therapy , Humans , Leukocytes/pathology , Lymphopenia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239235, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771765

ABSTRACT

New evidence on the COVID-19 pandemic is being published daily. Ongoing high-quality assessment of this literature is therefore needed to enable clinical practice to be evidence-based. This review builds on a previous scoping review and aimed to identify associations between disease severity and various clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus and LILACS for studies published between January 1, 2019 and March 22, 2020. Clinical studies including ≥10 patients with confirmed COVID-19 of any study design were eligible. Two investigators independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A quality effects model was used for the meta-analyses. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression identified sources of heterogeneity. For hospitalized patients, studies were ordered by overall disease severity of each population and this order was used as the modifier variable in meta-regression. Overall, 86 studies (n = 91,621) contributed data to the meta-analyses. Severe disease was strongly associated with fever, cough, dyspnea, pneumonia, any computed tomography findings, any ground glass opacity, lymphocytopenia, elevated C-reactive protein, elevated alanine aminotransferase, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, older age and male sex. These variables typically increased in prevalence by 30-73% from mild/early disease through to moderate/severe disease. Among hospitalized patients, 30-78% of heterogeneity was explained by severity of disease. Elevated white blood cell count was strongly associated with more severe disease among moderate/severe hospitalized patients. Elevated lymphocytes, low platelets, interleukin-6, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and D-dimers showed potential associations, while fatigue, gastrointestinal symptoms, consolidation and septal thickening showed non-linear association patterns. Headache and sore throat were associated with the presence of disease, but not with more severe disease. In COVID-19, more severe disease is strongly associated with several clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics. Symptoms and other variables in early/mild disease appear non-specific and highly heterogeneous. Clinical Trial Registration: PROSPERO CRD42020170623.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , Blood Cell Count , Blood Proteins/analysis , Blood Sedimentation , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prevalence , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment
9.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695900

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the quality of information included in websites aimed at the public on COVID-19. METHODS: Yahoo!, Google and Bing search engines were browsed using selected keywords on COVID-19. The first 100 websites from each search engine for each keyword were evaluated. Validated tools were used to assess readability [Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES)], usability and reliability (LIDA tool) and quality (DISCERN instrument). Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Eighty-four eligible sites were analysed. The median FRES score was 54.2 (range: 23.2-73.5). The median LIDA usability and reliability scores were 46 (range: 18-54) and 37(range:14-51), respectively. A low (<50 %) overall LIDA score was recorded for 30.9 % (n = 26) of the websites. The median DISCERN score was 49.5 (range: 21-77). The DISCERN score of ≤50 % was found in 45 (53.6 %) websites. The DISCERN score was significantly associated with LIDA usability and reliability scores (p < 0.001) and the FRES score (p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: The majority of websites on COVID-19 for the public had moderate to low scores with regards to readability, usability, reliability and quality. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Prompt strategies should be implemented to standardize online health information on COVID-19 during this pandemic to ensure the general public has access to good quality reliable information.

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