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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21308, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493219

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to present and evaluate novel oral vaccines, based on self-amplifying RNA lipid nanparticles (saRNA LNPs), saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum LNPs, and saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum, to neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) variants alpha and delta. After invitro evaluation of the oral vaccines on HEK293T/17 cells, we found that saRNA LNPs, saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum LNPs, and saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum could express S-protein at both mRNA and protein levels. In the next step, BALB/c mice were orally vaccinated with saRNA LNPs, saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum LNPs, and saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum at weeks 1 and 3. Importantly, a high titer of IgG and IgA was observed by all of them, sharply in week 6 (P < 0.05). In all study groups, their ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 was upper 1, indicating Th1-biased responses. Wild-type viral neutralization assay showed that the secreted antibodies in vaccinated mice and recovered COVID-19 patients could neutralize SARS-COV-2 variants alpha and delta. After oral administration of oral vaccines, biodistribution assay was done. It was found that all of them had the same biodistribution pattern. The highest concentration of S-protein was seen in the small intestine, followed by the large intestine and liver.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lactobacillus plantarum/genetics , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transfection/methods , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tissue Distribution
2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108231, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458727

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate self-replicating RNA lipid nanoparticles (saRNA LNPs) to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants delta (B.1.617 lineage) and alpha (B.1.1.7 lineage). Before immunization of mice with saRNA LNPs, we saw high expression of S-protein at both mRNA and protein levels after transfection of HEK293T/17 cells with saRNA LNPs. After oral immunization of BALB/c mice with 0.1 - 10 µg saRNA LNPs , a high quantity of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and IgA antibodies were seen with a dose-dependent pattern. Importantly, the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 in serum of vaccinated mice showed Th1/Th2 skewing response. We also found that the secreted antibodies could neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants delta (B.1.617 lineage) and alpha (B.1.1.7 lineage). Re-stimulated splenocytes of vaccinated mice showed high secretion of IFN-γ, IL-6, and TNF- α . The authors think that although the preclinical study confirmed the efficacy of saRNA LNPs against SARS-CoV-2, the actual efficacy and safety of the oral vaccine must be evaluated in clinical trials.

3.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 2021 Jul 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The expression of specific miRNAs and their mRNA targets are changed in infectious disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of pro-neuroinflammatory miRNAs, anti- neuroinflammatory miRNAs, and their mRNA targets in the serum of COVID-19 patients with different grades. METHODS: COVID-19 patients with different grades were enrolled in this study and the expression of pro-neuroinflammatory miRNAs, anti-neuroinflammatory miRNAs, and their target mRNAs was analyzed by q-PCR. RESULTS: The relative expression of anti- neuroinflammatory miRNAs (mir-21, mir-124, and mir-146a) was decreased and the relative expression of their target mRNAs (IL-12p53, Stat3, and TRAF6) was increased. Also, the relative expression of pro-neuroinflammatory miRNAs (mir-326, mir-155, and mir-27b) was increased and the relative expression of their target mRNA (PPARS, SOCS1, and CEBPA) was decreased in COVID-19 patients with increase of disease grade. A negative significant correlation was seen between mir-21 and IL-12p53 mRNA, mir-124 and Stat3 mRNA, mir-146a and TRAF6 mRNA, mir-27b and PPARS mRNA, mir-155 and SOCS1 mRNA, and between mir-326 and CEBPA mRNA in COVID-19 patients (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the relative expression of anti- neuroinflammatory miRNAs was decreased and the relative expression of their targeted mRNAs was increased in COVID-19 patients from asymptomatic to critical illness. Also, this study showed that the relative expression of pro-neuroinflammatory miRNAs was increased and the relative expression of their targeted mRNA was decreased in COVID-19 patients from asymptomatic to critical illness.

4.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 75, 2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of four up/down-regulated inflammatory miRNAs and their mRNA targets in the serum samples of COVID-19 patients with different grades. Also, we investigated the relative expression of these miRNAs and mRNAs during hospitalization. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 5 mL of blood sample were taken from COVID-19 patients with different grades and during hospitalization from several health centers of Yazd, Tehran, and Zahedan province of Iran from December 20, 2020 to March 2, 2021. The relative expression of miRNAs and mRNAs was evaluated by q-PCR. RESULTS: We found that the relative expression of hsa-miR-31-3p, hsa-miR-29a-3p, and hsa-miR-126-3p was significantly decreased and the relative expression of their mRNA targets (ZMYM5, COL5A3, and CAMSAP1) was significantly increased with the increase of disease grade. Conversely, the relative expression of hsa-miR-17-3p was significantly increased and its mRNA target (DICER1) was significantly decreased with the increase of disease grade. This pattern was exactly seen during hospitalization of COVID-19 patients who did not respond to treatment. In COVID-19 patients who responded to treatment, the expression of selected miRNAs and their mRNA targets returned to the normal level. A negative significant correlation was seen between (1) the expression of hsa-miR-31-3p and ZMYM5, (2) hsa-miR-29a-3p and COL5A3, (3) hsa-miR-126-3p and CAMSAP1, and (4) hsa-miR-17-3p and DICER1 in COVID-19 patients with any grade (P < 0.05) and during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we gained a more accurate understanding of the expression of up/down-regulated inflammatory miRNAs in the blood of COVID-19 patients. The obtained data may help us in the diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The ethics committee of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. (Ethical Code: IR.ZAUMS.REC.1399.316) was registered for this project.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Carrier Proteins/genetics , Collagen/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , DEAD-box RNA Helicases/genetics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Ribonuclease III/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047083

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology uses the unique properties of nanostructures with a size of 1 to 200 nanometers. Different nanoparticles have shown great promise for the production of new vaccines and drugs. Nanostructures can be used to deliver immunological compounds more effectively than microstructures to target sites. Different nanostructures can be applied to form a new generation of vaccines, adjuvants, and immune system drugs. The goal of nanotechnology is to better respond to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious diseases.

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