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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885415

ABSTRACT

The field of immunometabolism investigates and describes the effects of metabolic rewiring in immune cells throughout activation and the fates of these cells. Recently, it has been appreciated that immunometabolism plays an essential role in the progression of viral infections, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Regarding COVID-19, the aberrant immune response underlying the progression of diseases establishes two major respiratory pathologies, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or pneumonia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Both innate and adaptive immunity (T cell-based) were impaired in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Current findings have deciphered that macrophages (innate immune cells) are involved in the inflammatory response seen in COVID-19. It has been demonstrated that immune system cells can change metabolic reprogramming in some conditions, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and infectious disease, including COVID-19. The growing findings on metabolic reprogramming in COVID-19 allow an exploration of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties as future therapies to combat this hyperinflammatory response. The elucidation of the exact role and mechanism underlying this metabolic reprograming in immune cells could help apply more precise approaches to initial diagnosis, prognosis, and in-hospital therapy. This report discusses the latest findings from COVID-19 on host metabolic reprogramming and immunometabolic responses.

3.
Arch Virol ; 166(7): 1819-1840, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141432

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infection accompanied by pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has affected millions of people globally. To date, there are no highly efficient therapies for this infection. Probiotic bacteria can interact with the gut microbiome to strengthen the immune system, enhance immune responses, and induce appropriate immune signaling pathways. Several probiotics have been confirmed to reduce the duration of bacterial or viral infections. Immune fitness may be one of the approaches by which protection against viral infections can be reinforced. In general, prevention is more efficient than therapy in fighting viral infections. Thus, probiotics have emerged as suitable candidates for controlling these infections. During the COVID-19 pandemic, any approach with the capacity to induce mucosal and systemic reactions could potentially be useful. Here, we summarize findings regarding the effectiveness of various probiotics for preventing virus-induced respiratory infectious diseases, especially those that could be employed for COVID-19 patients. However, the benefits of probiotics are strain-specific, and it is necessary to identify the bacterial strains that are scientifically established to be beneficial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dysbiosis , Humans , Immunomodulation , Microbiota , Probiotics/classification , Probiotics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Species Specificity
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 90: 107204, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065215

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed significant public health problems for the human populations worldwide after the 1918 influenza A virus (IVA) (H1N1) pandemic. Although numerous efforts have been made to unravel the mechanisms underlying the coronavirus, a notable gap remains in our perception of the COVID-19 pathogenesis. The innate and adaptive immune systems have a pivotal role in the fate of viral infections, such as COVID-19 pandemic. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known as short noncoding RNA molecules and appear as indispensable governors of almost any cellular means. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that miRNAs participate in essential mechanisms of cell biology, regulation of the immune system, and the onset and progression of numerous types of disorders. The immune responses to viral respiratory infections (VRIs), including influenza virus (IV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and rhinovirus (RV), are correlated with the ectopic expression of miRNAs. Alterations of the miRNA expression in epithelial cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic and acute airway infections. Hence, analyzing the role of these types of nucleotides in antiviral immune responses and the characterization of miRNA target genes might contribute to understanding the mechanisms of the interplay between the host and viruses, and in the future, potentially result in discovering therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of acute COVID-19 infection. In this article, we present a general review of current studies concerning the function of miRNAs in different VRIs, particularly in coronavirus infection, and address all available therapeutic prospects to mitigate the burden of viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans
5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106928, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726576

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. There is a gap in our understanding regarding the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19. However, many clinical trials are underway across the world for screening effective drugs against COVID-19. Nevertheless, currently, no proven effective therapies for this virus exists. The vaccines are deemed as a significant part of disease prevention for emerging viral diseases, since, in several cases, other therapeutic choices are limited or non-existent, or that diseases result in such an accelerated clinical worsening that the efficacy of treatments is restricted. Therefore, effective vaccines against COVID-19 are urgently required to overcome the tremendous burden of mortality and morbidity correlated with SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we will describe the latest evidence regarding outstanding vaccine approaches and the challenges for vaccine production.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Development/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
IUBMB Life ; 72(10): 2097-2111, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696287

ABSTRACT

The pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected millions of people worldwide. To date, there are no proven effective therapies for this virus. Efforts made to develop antiviral strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 are underway. Respiratory viral infections, such as influenza, predispose patients to co-infections and these lead to increased disease severity and mortality. Numerous types of antibiotics such as azithromycin have been employed for the prevention and treatment of bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infections in patients with a viral respiratory infection (e.g., SARS-CoV-2). Although antibiotics do not directly affect SARS-CoV-2, viral respiratory infections often result in bacterial pneumonia. It is possible that some patients die from bacterial co-infection rather than virus itself. To date, a considerable number of bacterial strains have been resistant to various antibiotics such as azithromycin, and the overuse could render those or other antibiotics even less effective. Therefore, bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection are considered critical risk factors for the severity and mortality rates of COVID-19. Also, the antibiotic-resistant as a result of overusing must be considered. In this review, we will summarize the bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection in some featured respiratory viral infections, especially COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Haemophilus influenzae/drug effects , Haemophilus influenzae/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Legionella pneumophila/drug effects , Legionella pneumophila/pathogenicity , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/virology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/pathogenicity
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106885, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695737

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is an etiological agent of pandemic COVID-19, which spreads rapidly worldwide. No proven effective therapies currently exist for this virus, and efforts to develop antiviral strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 are underway. The rapidly increasing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 virology provides a notable number of possible immunological procedures and drug targets. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this review, we describe the latest information in the context of immunological approaches and emerging current antiviral strategies for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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