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1.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(5): 436-442, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031553

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe changes in emergency department (ED) psychiatric visits during the pandemic in both rural and nonrural regions in the United States. Methods: This cohort study was performed across 22 EDs in the Midwest and Southern United States from January 1, 2019 to April 22, 2021. Prevalence of psychiatric visits before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, defined as starting on March 1, 2020, were compared. Psychiatric and nonpsychiatric visits were defined on the basis of primary clinician-assigned diagnosis. The primary end point was average daily visits normalized to the average daily visit count before the pandemic, labeled as relative mean daily visits (RMDVs). Results: Psychiatric visits decreased by 9% [RMDVs, 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-0.93] during the pandemic period, whereas nonpsychiatric visits decreased by 17% (RMDVs, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.81-0.84). Black patients were the only demographic group with a significant increase in psychiatric visits during the pandemic (RMDVs, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.19). Periods of outbreaks of psychiatric emergencies were identified in most demographic groups, including among male and pediatric patients. However, the outbreaks detected among Black patients sustained the longest at 6 months. Unlike older adults who experienced outbreaks in the spring and fall of 2020, outbreaks among pediatric patients were detected later in 2021. Conclusion: In this multisite study, total ED visits declined during the pandemic; however, psychiatric visits declined less than nonpsychiatric visits. Black patients experienced a greater increase in psychiatric emergencies than other demographic groups. There is also a concern for increasing outbreaks of pediatric psychiatric visits as the pandemic progresses.

2.
BMJ ; 377: e069271, 2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909708

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a user centered clinical decision support tool versus usual care on rates of initiation of buprenorphine in the routine emergency care of individuals with opioid use disorder. DESIGN: Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (EMBED). SETTING: 18 emergency department clusters across five healthcare systems in five states representing the north east, south east, and western regions of the US, ranging from community hospitals to tertiary care centers, using either the Epic or Cerner electronic health record platform. PARTICIPANTS: 599 attending emergency physicians caring for 5047 adult patients presenting with opioid use disorder. INTERVENTION: A user centered, physician facing clinical decision support system seamlessly integrated into user workflows in the electronic health record to support initiating buprenorphine in the emergency department by helping clinicians to diagnose opioid use disorder, assess the severity of withdrawal, motivate patients to accept treatment, and complete electronic health record tasks by automating clinical and after visit documentation, order entry, prescribing, and referral. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of initiation of buprenorphine (administration or prescription of buprenorphine) in the emergency department among patients with opioid use disorder. Secondary implementation outcomes were measured with the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. RESULTS: 1 413 693 visits to the emergency department (775 873 in the intervention arm and 637 820 in the usual care arm) from November 2019 to May 2021 were assessed for eligibility, resulting in 5047 patients with opioid use disorder (2787 intervention arm, 2260 usual care arm) under the care of 599 attending physicians (340 intervention arm, 259 usual care arm) for analysis. Buprenorphine was initiated in 347 (12.5%) patients in the intervention arm and in 271 (12.0%) patients in the usual care arm (adjusted generalized estimating equations odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 2.43, P=0.58). Buprenorphine was initiated at least once by 151 (44.4%) physicians in the intervention arm and by 88 (34.0%) in the usual care arm (1.83, 1.16 to 2.89, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: User centered clinical decision support did not increase patient level rates of initiating buprenorphine in the emergency department. Although streamlining and automating electronic health record workflows can potentially increase adoption of complex, unfamiliar evidence based practices, more interventions are needed to look at other barriers to the treatment of addiction and increase the rate of initiating buprenorphine in the emergency department in patients with opioid use disorder. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03658642.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Opioid-Related Disorders , Adult , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy
6.
Ann Emerg Med ; 79(2): 158-167, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265634

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: People with opioid use disorder are vulnerable to disruptions in access to addiction treatment and social support during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study objective was to understand changes in emergency department (ED) utilization following a nonfatal opioid overdose during COVID-19 compared to historical controls in 6 healthcare systems across the United States. METHODS: Opioid overdoses were retrospectively identified among adult visits to 25 EDs in Alabama, Colorado, Connecticut, North Carolina, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island from January 2018 to December 2020. Overdose visit counts and rates per 100 all-cause ED visits during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared with the levels predicted based on 2018 and 2019 visits using graphical analysis and an epidemiologic outbreak detection cumulative sum algorithm. RESULTS: Overdose visit counts increased by 10.5% (n=3486; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.18% to 17.0%) in 2020 compared with the counts in 2018 and 2019 (n=3020 and n=3285, respectively), despite a 14% decline in all-cause ED visits. Opioid overdose rates increased by 28.5% (95% CI 23.3% to 34.0%) from 0.25 per 100 ED visits in 2018 to 2019 to 0.32 per 100 ED visits in 2020. Although all 6 studied health care systems experienced overdose ED visit rates more than the 95th percentile prediction in 6 or more weeks of 2020 (compared with 2.6 weeks as expected by chance), 2 health care systems experienced sustained outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Despite decreases in ED visits for other medical emergencies, the numbers and rates of opioid overdose-related ED visits in 6 health care systems increased during 2020, suggesting a widespread increase in opioid-related complications during the COVID-19 pandemic. Expanded community- and hospital-based interventions are needed to support people with opioid use disorder and save lives during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Opiate Overdose/therapy , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
8.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(10): 1328-1333, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693393

ABSTRACT

Importance: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread throughout the US in the early months of 2020, acute care delivery changed to accommodate an influx of patients with a highly contagious infection about which little was known. Objective: To examine trends in emergency department (ED) visits and visits that led to hospitalizations covering a 4-month period leading up to and during the COVID-19 outbreak in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study of 24 EDs in 5 large health care systems in Colorado (n = 4), Connecticut (n = 5), Massachusetts (n = 5), New York (n = 5), and North Carolina (n = 5) examined daily ED visit and hospital admission rates from January 1 to April 30, 2020, in relation to national and the 5 states' COVID-19 case counts. Exposures: Time (day) as a continuous variable. Main Outcomes and Measures: Daily counts of ED visits, hospital admissions, and COVID-19 cases. Results: A total of 24 EDs were studied. The annual ED volume before the COVID-19 pandemic ranged from 13 000 to 115 000 visits per year; the decrease in ED visits ranged from 41.5% in Colorado to 63.5% in New York. The weeks with the most rapid rates of decrease in visits were in March 2020, which corresponded with national public health messaging about COVID-19. Hospital admission rates from the ED were stable until new COVID-19 case rates began to increase locally; the largest relative increase in admission rates was 149.0% in New York, followed by 51.7% in Massachusetts, 36.2% in Connecticut, 29.4% in Colorado, and 22.0% in North Carolina. Conclusions and Relevance: From January through April 2020, as the COVID-19 pandemic intensified in the US, temporal associations were observed with a decrease in ED visits and an increase in hospital admission rates in 5 health care systems in 5 states. These findings suggest that practitioners and public health officials should emphasize the importance of visiting the ED during the COVID-19 pandemic for serious symptoms, illnesses, and injuries that cannot be managed in other settings.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Organizational Innovation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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