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2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 176-182, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279595

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine population-based estimates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a densely populated urban community of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in April, June and August 2020 in low- and high-transmission neighbourhoods. Participants were selected at random to provide blood for Elecsys immunoassay for detection of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 antibodies. A Bayesian regression model was used to estimate seroprevalence after adjusting for the demographic characteristics of each district. RESULTS: In total, 3005 participants from 623 households were enrolled in this study. In Phase 2, adjusted seroprevalence was estimated as 8.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-13.1] and 15.1% (95% CI 9.4-21.7) in low- and high-transmission areas, respectively, compared with 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.7) and 0.4% (95% CI 0-1.3) in Phase 1. In Phase 3, it was 12.8% (95% CI 8.3-17.7) and 21.5% (95% CI 15.6-28) in low- and high-transmission areas, respectively. The conditional risk of infection was 0.31 (95% CI 0.16-0.47) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.28-0.52) in low- and high-transmission neighbourhoods, respectively, in Phase 2. Similar trends were observed in Phase 3. Only 5.4% of participants who tested positive for COVID-19 were symptomatic. The infection fatality rate was 1.66%, 0.37% and 0.26% in Phases 1, 2 and 3, respectively. CONCLUSION: Continuing rounds of seroprevalence studies will help to improve understanding of secular trends and the extent of infection during the course of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Urban Population
3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(5): e711-e720, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189095

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had negative repercussions on the entire global population. Despite there being a common goal that should have unified resources and efforts, there have been an overwhelmingly large number of clinical trials that have been registered that are of questionable methodological quality. As the final paper of this Series, we discuss how the medical research community has responded to COVID-19. We recognise the incredible pressure that this pandemic has put on researchers, regulators, and policy makers, all of whom were doing their best to move quickly but safely in a time of tremendous uncertainty. However, the research community's response to the COVID-19 pandemic has prominently highlighted many fundamental issues that exist in clinical trial research under the current system and its incentive structures. The COVID-19 pandemic has not only re-emphasised the importance of well designed randomised clinical trials but also highlighted the need for large-scale clinical trials structured according to a master protocol in a coordinated and collaborative manner. There is also a need for structures and incentives to enable faster data sharing of anonymised datasets, and a need to provide similar opportunities to those in high-income countries for clinical trial research in low-resource regions where clinical trial research receives considerably less research funding.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e552-e557, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104369

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised concern about the possibility and effects of mother-infant transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through breastfeeding and close contact. The insufficient available evidence has resulted in differing recommendations by health professional associations and national health authorities. We present an approach for deciding public health policy on infant feeding and mother-infant contact in the context of COVID-19, or for future emerging viruses, that balances the risks that are associated with viral infection against child survival, lifelong health, and development, and also maternal health. Using the Lives Saved Tool, we used available data to show how different public health approaches might affect infant mortality. Based on existing evidence, including population and survival estimates, the number of infant deaths in low-income and middle-income countries due to COVID-19 (2020-21) might range between 1800 and 2800. By contrast, if mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection are recommended to separate from their newborn babies and avoid or stop breastfeeding, additional deaths among infants would range between 188 000 and 273 000.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mother-Child Relations , Policy Making , Public Health , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infant
6.
J Pediatr Surg Case Rep ; 59: 101533, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609080

ABSTRACT

Gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 are rare and have primarily been limited to diarrhea or vomiting. Intussusception is the most common cause of bowel obstruction in infants, with up to 30% of pediatric intussusception cases having a preceding viral illness. We present the rare case of intussusception in a SARS-CoV-2 positive infant. This is the first documented case of survival in a SARS-CoV-2 positive patient presenting with intussusception as the primary manifestation. As our knowledge of this disease evolves, surgeons need to remain suspicious for possible gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19.

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