Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 3 de 3
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 129(2): 189-193, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944163


BACKGROUND: Vaccine nonresponse during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has considerable individual and societal risks. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with lack of seroconversion after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Demographic and clinical data were collected from 805 patients who had validated antibody assays against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at least 14 days after completion of their COVID-19 vaccination. Clinical characteristics from patients with a negative (< 0.4 U/mL) antibody response were assessed and summarized. RESULTS: A total of 622 (77.3%) patients attained seroconversion as defined by a titer of greater than or equal to 0.4 U/mL, whereas 183 out of 805 (22.7%) patients exhibited no seroconversion after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Univariately, older age (P = .02) and male sex were associated with a lower likelihood of seroconversion (P = .003). Therapy with immunosuppressive drugs was noted in 93 (50.8%) of seronegative patients with most (n = 83/93, 89.2%) receiving ongoing immunosuppressive therapy at the time of vaccination. Among the 134 (73.2%) seronegative patients with immunodeficiency, 110 (82.1%) had primary immunodeficiency. Cancer (n = 128, 69.9%), B cell depletion therapy (n = 90/115, 78.3%), and immunosuppressant steroid use (n = 71/93 on immunosuppressants, 76.3%) were the other common characteristics among the vaccine nonresponders. More importantly, our study did not evaluate the actual efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSION: Vaccine responses vary by age and sex, with men showing lower rates of seroconversion as compared with women. Primary immunodeficiency along with active malignancy and ongoing immunosuppression with steroids or B cell depletion therapy appeared to be the most common characteristics for those with a lack of vaccine seroconversion after COVID-19 vaccination.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Seroconversion , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(7): 791-804, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912032


CONTEXT.­: Studies of lungs in patients with COVID-19 have focused on early findings. OBJECTIVE.­: To systematically study histopathologic and imaging features and presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in lung tissue from patients in later stages of COVID-19. DESIGN.­: Autopsies, explants, surgical lung biopsies, transbronchial biopsies, cryobiopsies, and needle biopsies from patients with COVID-19 whose onset of symptoms/confirmed diagnosis was more than 28 days before the procedure were studied. Available images were reviewed. Reverse transcription droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was performed on lung tissue. RESULTS.­: Of 44 specimens (43 patients; median age, 59.3 years; 26 [60.5%] male) features of acute lung injury (ALI) were seen in 39 (88.6%), predominantly organizing pneumonia and diffuse alveolar damage, up to 298 days after onset of COVID-19. Fibrotic changes were found in 33 specimens (75%), most commonly fibrotic diffuse alveolar damage (n = 22) and cicatricial organizing pneumonia (n = 12). Time between acquiring COVID-19 and specimen was shorter in patients with diffuse ALI (median, 61.5 days) compared with patients with focal (140 days) or no ALI (130 days) (P = .009). Sixteen (of 20; 80%) SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription droplet digital polymerase chain reaction tests were positive, up to 174 days after COVID-19 onset. Time between COVID-19 onset and most recent computed tomography in patients with consolidation on imaging was shorter (median, 43.0 days) versus in patients without consolidation (87.5 days; P = .02). Reticulations were associated with longer time to computed tomography after COVID-19 onset (median, 82 versus 23.5 days; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS.­: ALI and SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in patients with COVID-19 for many months. ALI may evolve into fibrotic interstitial lung disease.

COVID-19 , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
Circulation ; 143(3): 230-243, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039948


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its resultant clinical presentation, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an emergent cause of mortality worldwide. Cardiac complications secondary to this infection are common; however, the underlying mechanisms of such remain unclear. A detailed cardiac evaluation of a series of individuals with COVID-19 undergoing postmortem evaluation is provided, with 4 aims: (1) describe the pathological spectrum of the myocardium; (2) compare with an alternate viral illness; (3) investigate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression; and (4) provide the first description of the cardiac findings in patients with cleared infection. METHODS: Study cases were identified from institutional files and included COVID-19 (n=15: 12 active, 3 cleared), influenza A/B (n=6), and nonvirally mediated deaths (n=6). Salient information was abstracted from the medical record. Light microscopic findings were recorded. An angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 immunohistochemical H-score was compared across cases. Viral detection encompassed SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry, ultrastructural examination, and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Male sex was more common in the COVID-19 group (P=0.05). Nonocclusive fibrin microthrombi (without ischemic injury) were identified in 16 cases (12 COVID-19, 2 influenza, and 2 controls) and were more common in the active COVID-19 cohort (P=0.006). Four active COVID-19 cases showed focal myocarditis, whereas 1 case of cleared COVID-19 showed extensive disease. Arteriolar angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 endothelial expression was lower in COVID-19 cases than in controls (P=0.004). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 myocardial expression did not differ by disease category, sex, age, or number of patient comorbidities (P=0.69, P=1.00, P=0.46, P=0.65, respectively). SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry showed nonspecific staining, whereas ultrastructural examination and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction were negative for viral presence. Four patients (26.7%) with COVID-19 had underlying cardiac amyloidosis. Cases with cleared infection had variable presentations. CONCLUSIONS: This detailed histopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular cardiac series showed no definitive evidence of direct myocardial infection. COVID-19 cases frequently have cardiac fibrin microthrombi, without universal acute ischemic injury. Moreover, myocarditis is present in 33.3% of patients with active and cleared COVID-19 but is usually limited in extent. Histological features of resolved infection are variable. Cardiac amyloidosis may be an additional risk factor for severe disease.

COVID-19 , Coronary Thrombosis , Fibrin/metabolism , Myocardium , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Thrombosis/metabolism , Coronary Thrombosis/mortality , Coronary Thrombosis/pathology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology