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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 740, 2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We present a yet to be described association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old physician with history of SARS-CoV-2 infection presented to the emergency department with 2 weeks of fever, chills, and right sided cervical lymphadenopathy. He was treated empirically for presumed folliculitis with worsening of symptoms leading to repeat presentation to the emergency department. Extensive workup was unrevealing of an infectious cause and needle biopsy of the lesion was unrevealing. An excisional lymph node biopsy revealed follicular hyperplasia with necrotic foci showing abundance of histiocytes at the edge of necrosis with CD8 predominance of T-cells. Final diagnosis was deemed to be Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. Antibiotic therapy was discontinued, and the patient's symptoms resolved with steroid therapy and expectant management. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a patient developing Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinicians should be aware of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease as a possibility when approaching patients with hyper-inflammatory states who present with cervical lymphadenopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis , Lymphadenopathy , Adult , Diagnosis, Differential , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/complications , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(6): 802-814, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global health threat and a significant source of human morbidity and mortality. While the virus primarily induces lung injury, it also has been reported to cause hepatic sequelae. METHODS: We aimed to detect the virus in formalin-fixed tissue blocks and document the liver injury patterns in patients with COVID-19 compared with a control group. RESULTS: We were able to detect viral RNA in the bronchioalveolar cell blocks (12/12, 100%) and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of the lung (8/8, 100%) and liver (4/9, 44%) of patients with COVID-19. Although the peak values of the main liver enzymes and bilirubin were higher in the patients with COVID-19 compared with the control group, the differences were not significant. The main histologic findings were minimal to focal mild portal tract chronic inflammation (7/8, 88%, P < .05) and mild focal lobular activity (6/8, 75%, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: We found that most patients who died of COVID-19 had evidence of mild focal hepatitis clinically and histologically; however, the virus was detected in less than half of the cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Formaldehyde , Liver/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tissue Fixation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Tissue Fixation/methods
3.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 155(6): 802-814, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a global health threat and a significant source of human morbidity and mortality. While the virus primarily induces lung injury, it also has been reported to cause hepatic sequelae. METHODS: We aimed to detect the virus in formalin-fixed tissue blocks and document the liver injury patterns in patients with COVID-19 compared with a control group. RESULTS: We were able to detect viral RNA in the bronchioalveolar cell blocks (12/12, 100%) and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of the lung (8/8, 100%) and liver (4/9, 44%) of patients with COVID-19. Although the peak values of the main liver enzymes and bilirubin were higher in the patients with COVID-19 compared with the control group, the differences were not significant. The main histologic findings were minimal to focal mild portal tract chronic inflammation (7/8, 88%, P < .05) and mild focal lobular activity (6/8, 75%, P = .06). CONCLUSIONS: We found that most patients who died of COVID-19 had evidence of mild focal hepatitis clinically and histologically; however, the virus was detected in less than half of the cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Formaldehyde , Liver/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tissue Fixation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Tissue Fixation/methods
4.
Hum Pathol ; 113: 92-103, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201239

ABSTRACT

Information on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with COVID-19 is limited, and clinical correlation has not been reported. This study investigated the key features of BAL fluids from COVID-19 patients and assessed their clinical significance. A total of 320 BAL samples from 83 COVID-19 patients and 70 non-COVID-19 patients (27 patients with other respiratory viral infections) were evaluated, including cell count/differential, morphology, flow cytometric immunophenotyping, and immunohistochemistry. The findings were correlated with clinical outcomes. Compared to non-COVID-19 patients, BAL from COVID-19 patients was characterized by significant lymphocytosis (p < 0.001), in contrast to peripheral blood lymphopenia commonly observed in COVID-19 patients and the presence of atypical lymphocytes with plasmacytoid/plasmablastic features (p < 0.001). Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that BAL lymphocytes, including plasmacytoid and plasmablastic cells, were composed predominantly of T cells with a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Both populations had increased expression of T-cell activation markers, suggesting important roles of helper and cytotoxic T-cells in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lung. More importantly, BAL lymphocytosis was significantly associated with longer hospital stay (p < 0.05) and longer requirement for mechanical ventilation (p < 0.05), whereas the median atypical (activated) lymphocyte count was associated with shorter hospital stay (p < 0.05), shorter time on mechanical ventilation (p < 0.05) and improved survival. Our results indicate that BAL cellular analysis and morphologic findings provide additional important information for diagnostic and prognostic work-up, and potential new therapeutic strategies for patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EBioMedicine ; 62: 103112, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been accompanied by the emergence of distinct viral clades, though their clinical significance remains unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the phylogenetic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Chicago, Illinois, and assess their relationship to clinical parameters. METHODS: We performed whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolates collected from COVID-19 patients in Chicago in mid-March, 2020. Using these and other publicly available sequences, we performed phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and phylodynamic analyses. Patient data was assessed for correlations between demographic or clinical characteristics and virologic features. FINDINGS: The 88 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences in our study separated into three distinct phylogenetic clades. Clades 1 and 3 were most closely related to viral sequences from New York and Washington state, respectively, with relatively broad distributions across the US. Clade 2 was primarily found in the Chicago area with limited distribution elsewhere. At the time of diagnosis, patients infected with Clade 1 viruses had significantly higher average viral loads in their upper airways relative to patients infected with Clade 2 viruses, independent of disease severity. INTERPRETATION: These results show that multiple variants of SARS-CoV-2 were circulating in the Chicago area in mid-March 2020 that differed in their relative viral loads in patient upper airways. These data suggest that differences in virus genotype can impact viral load and may influence viral spread. FUNDING: Dixon Family Translational Research Award, Northwestern University Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (NUCATS), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University Emerging and Re-emerging Pathogens Program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load , Female , Humans , Male , Whole Genome Sequencing
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