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1.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic raised concerns about the effects of stress on sleep and mental health, particularly among people with chronic conditions, including people with heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine changes in sleep, sleep-related cognitions, stress, anxiety, and depression among people with HF who participated in a randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia before the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants self-reported sleep characteristics, symptoms, mood, and stress at baseline, 6 months after cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia or HF self-management education (attention control), and during the pandemic. RESULTS: The sample included 112 participants (mean age, 63 ± 12.9 years; 47% women; 13% Black; 68% New York Heart Association class II or III). Statistically significant improvements in sleep, stress, mood, and symptoms that occurred 6 months post treatment were sustained during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Improving sleep and symptoms among people with HF may improve coping during stressful events, and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia may be protective.

2.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(3): e28309, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our clinical trial of a mobile exercise intervention for adults 18 to 65 years old with type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurred during COVID-19 social distancing restrictions, prompting us to test web-based recruitment methods previously underexplored for this demographic. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives for this study were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and cost of using social media news feed advertisements, a clinic-based approach method, and web-based snowball sampling to reach inadequately active adults with T1D and (2) compare characteristics of enrollees against normative data. METHODS: Participants were recruited between November 2019 and August 2020. In method #1, Facebook and Instagram news feed advertisements ran for five 1-to-8-day windows targeting adults (18 to 64 years old) in the greater New Haven and Hartford, Connecticut, areas with one or more diabetes-related profile interest. If interested, participants completed a webform so that the research team could contact them for eligibility screening. In method #2, patients 18 to 24 years old with T1D were approached in person at clinical visits in November and December 2019. Those who were interested immediately completed eligibility screening. Older patients could not be approached due to clinic restrictions. In method #3, snowball sampling was conducted by physically active individuals with T1D contacting their peers on Facebook and via email for 48 days, with details to contact the research staff to express interest and complete eligibility screening. Other methods referred participants to the study similarly to snowball sampling. RESULTS: In method #1, advertisements were displayed to 11,738 unique viewers and attracted 274 clickers (2.33%); 20 participants from this group (7.3%) volunteered, of whom 8 (40%) were eligible. Costs averaged US $1.20 per click and US $95.88 per eligible volunteer. Men had lower click rates than women (1.71% vs 3.17%; P<.001), but their responsiveness and eligibility rates did not differ. In method #2, we approached 40 patients; 32 of these patients (80%) inquired about the study, of whom 20 (63%) volunteered, and 2 of these volunteers (10%) were eligible. Costs including personnel for in-person approaches averaged US $21.01 per inquirer and US $479.79 per eligible volunteer. In method #3, snowball sampling generated 13 inquirers; 12 of these inquirers (92%) volunteered, of whom 8 (67%) were eligible. Incremental costs to attract inquirers were negligible, and total costs averaged US $20.59 per eligible volunteer. Other methods yielded 7 inquirers; 5 of these inquirers (71%) volunteered, of whom 2 (40%) were eligible. Incremental costs to attract inquirers were negligible, and total costs averaged US $34.94 per eligible volunteer. Demographic overrepresentations emerged in the overall cohort (ie, optimal glycemic control, obesity, and low exercise), among those recruited by news feed advertisements (ie, obesity and older age), and among those recruited by snowball sampling (ie, optimal glycemic control and low exercise). CONCLUSIONS: Web-based advertising and recruitment strategies are a promising means to attract adults with T1D to clinical trials and exercise interventions, with costs comparing favorably to prior trials despite targeting an uncommon condition (ie, T1D) and commitment to an intervention. These strategies should be tailored in future studies to increase access to higher-risk participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04204733; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04204733.

3.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108857, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433069

ABSTRACT

Aging can alter immunity affecting host defense. COVID-19 has the most devastating clinical outcomes in older adults, raising the implication of immune aging in determining its severity and mortality. We investigated biological predictors for clinical outcomes in a dataset of 13,642 ambulatory and hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients, including younger (age < 65, n = 566) and older (age ≥ 65, n = 717) subjects, with in-depth analyses of inflammatory molecules, cytokines and comorbidities. Disease severity and mortality in younger and older adults were associated with discrete immune mechanisms, including predominant T cell activation in younger adults, as measured by increased soluble IL-2 receptor alpha, and increased IL-10 in older adults although both groups also had shared inflammatory processes, including acute phase reactants, contributing to clinical outcomes. These observations suggest that progression to severe disease and death in COVID-19 may proceed by different immunologic mechanisms in younger versus older subjects and introduce the possibility of age-based immune directed therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Age Factors , Aged , Aging/metabolism , Aging/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
4.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(3): e28309, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our clinical trial of a mobile exercise intervention for adults 18 to 65 years old with type 1 diabetes (T1D) occurred during COVID-19 social distancing restrictions, prompting us to test web-based recruitment methods previously underexplored for this demographic. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives for this study were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness and cost of using social media news feed advertisements, a clinic-based approach method, and web-based snowball sampling to reach inadequately active adults with T1D and (2) compare characteristics of enrollees against normative data. METHODS: Participants were recruited between November 2019 and August 2020. In method #1, Facebook and Instagram news feed advertisements ran for five 1-to-8-day windows targeting adults (18 to 64 years old) in the greater New Haven and Hartford, Connecticut, areas with one or more diabetes-related profile interest. If interested, participants completed a webform so that the research team could contact them for eligibility screening. In method #2, patients 18 to 24 years old with T1D were approached in person at clinical visits in November and December 2019. Those who were interested immediately completed eligibility screening. Older patients could not be approached due to clinic restrictions. In method #3, snowball sampling was conducted by physically active individuals with T1D contacting their peers on Facebook and via email for 48 days, with details to contact the research staff to express interest and complete eligibility screening. Other methods referred participants to the study similarly to snowball sampling. RESULTS: In method #1, advertisements were displayed to 11,738 unique viewers and attracted 274 clickers (2.33%); 20 participants from this group (7.3%) volunteered, of whom 8 (40%) were eligible. Costs averaged US $1.20 per click and US $95.88 per eligible volunteer. Men had lower click rates than women (1.71% vs 3.17%; P<.001), but their responsiveness and eligibility rates did not differ. In method #2, we approached 40 patients; 32 of these patients (80%) inquired about the study, of whom 20 (63%) volunteered, and 2 of these volunteers (10%) were eligible. Costs including personnel for in-person approaches averaged US $21.01 per inquirer and US $479.79 per eligible volunteer. In method #3, snowball sampling generated 13 inquirers; 12 of these inquirers (92%) volunteered, of whom 8 (67%) were eligible. Incremental costs to attract inquirers were negligible, and total costs averaged US $20.59 per eligible volunteer. Other methods yielded 7 inquirers; 5 of these inquirers (71%) volunteered, of whom 2 (40%) were eligible. Incremental costs to attract inquirers were negligible, and total costs averaged US $34.94 per eligible volunteer. Demographic overrepresentations emerged in the overall cohort (ie, optimal glycemic control, obesity, and low exercise), among those recruited by news feed advertisements (ie, obesity and older age), and among those recruited by snowball sampling (ie, optimal glycemic control and low exercise). CONCLUSIONS: Web-based advertising and recruitment strategies are a promising means to attract adults with T1D to clinical trials and exercise interventions, with costs comparing favorably to prior trials despite targeting an uncommon condition (ie, T1D) and commitment to an intervention. These strategies should be tailored in future studies to increase access to higher-risk participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04204733; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04204733.

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