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MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(49): 1700-1705, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614365

ABSTRACT

The mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech) provide strong protection against severe COVID-19, including hospitalization, for at least several months after receipt of the second dose (1,2). However, studies examining immune responses and differences in protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization in real-world settings, including by vaccine product, are limited. To understand how vaccine effectiveness (VE) might change with time, CDC and collaborators assessed the comparative effectiveness of Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization at two periods (14-119 days and ≥120 days) after receipt of the second vaccine dose among 1,896 U.S. veterans at five Veterans Affairs medical centers (VAMCs) during February 1-September 30, 2021. Among 234 U.S. veterans fully vaccinated with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and without evidence of current or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, serum antibody levels (anti-spike immunoglobulin G [IgG] and anti-receptor binding domain [RBD] IgG) to SARS-CoV-2 were also compared. Adjusted VE 14-119 days following second Moderna vaccine dose was 89.6% (95% CI = 80.1%-94.5%) and after the second Pfizer-BioNTech dose was 86.0% (95% CI = 77.6%-91.3%); at ≥120 days VE was 86.1% (95% CI = 77.7%-91.3%) for Moderna and 75.1% (95% CI = 64.6%-82.4%) for Pfizer-BioNTech. Antibody levels were significantly higher among Moderna recipients than Pfizer-BioNTech recipients across all age groups and periods since vaccination; however, antibody levels among recipients of both products declined between 14-119 days and ≥120 days. These findings from a cohort of older, hospitalized veterans with high prevalences of underlying conditions suggest the importance of booster doses to help maintain long-term protection against severe COVID-19.†.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /statistics & numerical data , /administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Veterans Health Services
2.
Small Sci ; : 2100111, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568319

ABSTRACT

The recent global spread of COVID-19 stresses the importance of developing diagnostic testing that is rapid and does not require specialized laboratories. In this regard, nanomaterial thin-film-based immunosensors fabricated via solution processing are promising, potentially due to their mass manufacturability, on-site detection, and high sensitivity that enable direct detection of virus without the need for molecular amplification. However, thus far, thin-film-based biosensors have been fabricated without properly analyzing how the thin-film properties are correlated with the biosensor performance, limiting the understanding of property-performance relationships and the optimization process. Herein, the correlations between various thin-film properties and the sensitivity of carbon nanotube thin-film-based immunosensors are systematically analyzed, through which optimal sensitivity is attained. Sensitivities toward SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in buffer solution and in the lysed virus are 0.024 [fg/mL]-1 and 0.048 [copies/mL]-1, respectively, which are sufficient for diagnosing patients in the early stages of COVID-19. The technique, therefore, can potentially elucidate complex relationships between properties and performance of biosensors, thereby enabling systematic optimization to further advance the applicability of biosensors for accurate and rapid point-of-care (POC) diagnosis.

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