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1.
Energy Strategy Reviews ; 45, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2241813

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes the efficiency of the crude palm oil (CPO) futures market by conducting a variance ratio test and comparing it to the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) futures market. We discover that the weak-form efficient market hypothesis holds for both the CPO and WTI futures markets despite the significant difference in their liquidity. Using a scaling exponent, we investigate speculative trading activities and find that trading CPO futures in expectation of significant returns does not strongly involve a high level of risk unlike WTI futures. Our findings regarding market efficiency of the two futures markets are supported by the significant integration of the two with similar level of information flow from each market to the other. To explore the role of speculation in their market integration, we introduce a natural experimental setting using the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which caused a sudden decrease in the demand for fuel. The bidirectional information flow between the two markets is intensified after the COVID-19 pandemic due to lower level of speculation. The findings suggest that (i) stakeholders in the CPO market need to pay attention to the crude oil markets to anticipate its price changes, (ii) investors can use WTI futures as a hedging tool against CPO futures as long as there is mutual information flow, and (iii) regulators should carefully implement new CPO futures market policy, as either asymmetric changes in speculation or unbalanced regulation with the WTI futures market can create market distortion and regulatory arbitrage. © 2022 The Authors

2.
Archives of Design Research ; 35(3):113-127, 2022.
Article in En ko | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030380

ABSTRACT

Background Due to COVID-19, digital alienation in kiosks is intensifying. While many studies are conducted to address this issue, they mainly focus on improving the user interface design, rarely considering psychological aspects of the elderly. We aim to investigate how to help the elderly better accept kiosk technology by understanding their psychological characteristics. Methods We started with an understanding of the kiosk industry and the psychological problems experienced by the elderly. Then, we identified from the literature several factors affecting technology acceptance and integrate them into the user experience (UX) design process. Through observations and interviews with the elderly, psychological problems experienced by the elderly were identified and analyzed. Additional interviews with educators were conducted to further understand the factors and educational methods that affect the elderly’s acceptance of kiosks, which were followed by an on-site observation of kiosk education. Results Most of the elderly remained in the expected and introduction stages due to unfamiliar kiosk culture, social pressure, and low self-efficacy. These barriers can be overcome by providing supporters, motivating the elderly, improving store environment and line-up experience, and accumulating success experiences. We also found that repetitive use should be induced and socially supported so that the elderly can accept, habituate, and integrate technology. Conclusions We propose a new way to improve the kiosk UX that focuses on the technology acceptance psychology of the elderly against previous studies that focus on improving the user interface. We expect that our study results can serve as a basis for future studies on systemic design solutions for improved Kiosk UX. © This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted educational and non-commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

3.
Innovation in Aging ; 5:1044-1045, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2011654
4.
2022 12th International Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics, ICAPM 2022 ; 2287, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960903

ABSTRACT

This study finds asymmetric information flow from the crude palm oil (CPO) futures to the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil futures market despite the CPO futures market's low liquidity and small market capitalization. Our finding is robust regardless of the 2019 Coronavirus outbreak and the asymmetric information flow becomes even unilateral considering the exchange rate risk on the Malaysian Ringgit. Finally, we explain the asymmetric information flow from the CPO futures to WTI futures market given that the impact of speculation on market efficiency crowds out that of liquidity. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

5.
Journal of the Korean Society of Surveying, Geodesy, Photogrammetry and Cartography ; 39(6):609-618, 2021.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1744636

ABSTRACT

The spread and damage of COVID-19 are putting significant pressure on the world, including Korea. Most countries place restrictions on movement and gathering to minimize contact between citizens and these policies have brought new changes to social patterns. This study generated traffic volume data on the scale of a road network using taxi movement data collected in the early stages of the COVID-19 third pandemic to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on movement patterns. After that, correlation analysis was performed with the data of confirmed cases in Daegu Metropolitan City and Local Moran's I was applied to analyze the effect of spatial characteristics. As a result, in terms of the overall road network, the number of confirmed cases showed a negative correlation with taxi driving and at least -0.615. It was confirmed that citizens' movement anxiety was reflected as the number of confirmed cases increased. The commercial and industrial areas in the center of the city confirmed the cold spot with a negative correlation and low-low local Mona's I. However, the road network around medical institutions such as hospitals and spaces with spatial characteristics such as residential complexes was high-high. In the future, this analysis could be used for preventive measures for policymakers due to COVID-19. © 2021 Korean Society of Surveying. All rights reserved.

6.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):23, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1583885

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to identify key factors that affected US respondents' dining behavior at restaurants during the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach Due to the lack of a prior framework or model to test customers' perceptions of dining-out behavior during this unprecedented time, this study used a mixed-methods approach, conducting two focus group discussions to generate potential restaurant attributes, followed by a US-based survey using an online panel. Using structural equation modeling, this study tested eight developed propositions. Findings The findings of this study indicated that the three key factors (i.e. restaurant dining environment, communication and hygiene and contactless features) made customers feel comfortable dining in the restaurant during the pandemic. Out of these three factors, only the restaurant dining environment and communication and hygiene were essential predictors for customers' perceived trust toward the restaurant, leading to their willingness to pay more. This study used two moderators, customers' perceived risk and support for restaurants to examine how they affected customers' perceived trust and willingness to pay, respectively. Practical implications This study provides both theoretical and practical implications to the current body of knowledge in customers' dining-out behavior and the development of operational strategies for restaurants to accommodate customers' changing dining-out behavior due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To develop a holistic conceptual framework, this study incorporates two COVID-19-focused measurement items, perceived risk and support of the restaurant, to identify their moderating roles in the relationships among the five proposed measurement items. This study provides restaurant operators with insights into the altered dining-out behavior of their customers due to the COVID-19 pandemic and prepares them for the post pandemic environment. Originality/value During the unprecedented pandemic situation, few customers are willing to dine in restaurants. As local and national governments lifted the mandated COVID-19 protocols, restaurants opened their business slowly to cater to customers in compliance with the centers for disease control's health and safety regulations. It is of utmost importance for restaurant operators to accommodate their customers' needs when they dine in the middle of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a paucity of research that has examined customers' comfort level when dining in restaurants and customers' preferred dining environment during the pandemic.

7.
Molecular Therapy ; 28(4):416-417, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1379239

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronaviruses (CoV) caused 3 global outbreaks over the past 2 decades: SARS-CoV (2002), MERS-CoV (2012), and 2019-nCoV in Wuhan, China. Each caused pneumonia with mortality of 10%, 35% and 2%, respectively (2019-nCoV estimated). GLS-5300 DNA vaccine targeting MERS-CoV Spike (S) was first to enter clinical trial, was safe and immunogenic (Lancet ID;2019). In Phase I, a 3 dose series at Day0, 4 and 12 weeks of GLS-5300 at either 0.67, 2 or 6mg was given IM followed by electroporation (EP, IM+EP) with CELLECTRA-5P device. GLS-5300 induced antibodies (Abs) in 94%, Tcell response in 76%, and neutralizing Abs in 50% of participants. No dose response was observed. GLS-5300 response was similar to those recovered from natural MERS-CoV infection. The absence of dose response and prior experience showing benefits of ID+EP vs IM+EP (JID;2019) led us to design this trial of lower ID dosing with an arm for a 2-dose regimen. We report results from MERS-002, the ongoing Phase I/IIa study of GLS-5300. Methods: MERS-002 is an open label, dose ranging, phase I/IIa study of GLS-5300. Participants were enrolled at 2 Korean sites into 3 groups receiving GLS-5300 ID+EP with the CELLECTRA-3P device: Group 1 received three 0.3mg doses at Day0 and weeks 4 and 12;Group 2 received three 0.6mg doses at Day0 and weeks 4 and 12;Group 3 received two 0.6mg doses at Day0 and week 8. Safety and tolerability of GLS-5300 was evaluated at each visit. Samples were collected at baseline, before each dose, and at both 2 and 4 weeks post dose 2 and post dose 3. Study data through 4 weeks after the primary series for a subset of immunoassays were included here. Findings: GLS-5300 given ID+EP was well-tolerated with no vaccine-associated SAEs. Preliminary results were available for: full length S (flS) ELISA, EMC2012-Vero neutralization (MERS-neut) and MERS-CoV S IFNg ELISPOT. GLS-5300 at 0.6mg induced MERS-CoV-specific Abs by flS ELISA and MERS-neut in 74% and 48%, respectively, after 1 dose. After the 2 or 3 dose vaccine series at 0.6mg per dose, flS ELISA response was seen in 100% and 92% of participants, respectively. MERS-neut response was 92% in both 2 and 3 dose 0.6mg groups. Antibody responses and rates were higher during and after primary series in 0.6mg group regardless of regimen than 0.3mg per dose. GLS-5300 induced Tcell responses via MERS-CoV IFNg ELISPOT in 60% and 84% receiving 0.6mg after the 2 or 3 dose series, respectively. Compared to 0.67mg of GLS-5300 given IM+EP in the first trial, 0.6mg of GLS-5300 given ID+EP in MERS-002, binding Abs appeared sooner and neutralizing Abs were observed in a higher fraction of participants (92% vs 50%) while Tcell reactivity was similar between vaccination schema. Conclusions: GLS-5300 was well tolerated with no vaccine-associated SAEs. Like prior studies, DNA vaccines given by ID+EP had fewer injection-related AEs relative to IM+EP. In MERS-002, 0.6mg of GLS-5300 in a 2-dose regimen spanning 8 weeks had similar reactivity and rate to the longer 3-dose regimen. GLS-5300 was safe and immunogenic when given IM+EP and, similarly, when given ID+EP in both 2- and 3-dose regimens in this ongoing MERS-002 Phase I/IIa trial. A Phase II clinical evaluation of the use of GLS-5300 to prevent MERS-CoV infection in endemic regions is planned.

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