Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
EClinicalMedicine ; 51: 101569, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956125

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccination has helped to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Ten traditional and novel vaccines have been listed by the World Health Organization for emergency use. Additional alternative approaches may better address ongoing vaccination globally, where there remains an inequity in vaccine distribution. GBP510 is a recombinant protein vaccine, which consists of self-assembling, two-component nanoparticles, displaying the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in a highly immunogenic array. Methods: This randomised, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded phase 1/2 study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of GBP510 (2-doses at a 28-day interval) adjuvanted with or without AS03 in adults aged 19-85 years at 14 hospital sites in Korea. This study was consisted of two stages (stage I, healthy adults aged 19-55 years; stage II, 240 healthy adults aged 19-85 years). Healthy participants who did not previously receive any vaccine within 4 weeks (2 weeks for flu vaccine) prior to the study, no history of COVID-19 vaccination/medication, and were naïve to SARS-CoV-2 infection at screening were eligible for the study enrollment. Participants were block-randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive 2 doses of 10 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (group 1), 10 µg unadjuvanted GBP510 (group 2) or placebo intramuscularly in stage I, while they were block-randomized in a 2:2:1:1 ratio to receive 10 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (group 1), 25 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (group 3), 25 µg unadjuvanted GBP510 (group 4) or placebo in stage II. The primary safety outcomes were solicited and unsolicited adverse events, while primary immunogenicity outcomes included anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies; neutralizing antibody responses; and T-cell immune responses. Safety assessment included all participants who received at least 1 dose of study intervention (safety set). Immunogenicity assessment included all participants who completed the vaccination schedule and had valid immunogenicity assessment results without any major protocol deviations (per-protocol set). This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04750343). Findings: Of 328 participants who were enrolled between February 1 and May 28, 2021, 327 participants received at least 1 dose of vaccine. Each received either 10 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (Group 1, n = 101), 10 µg unadjuvanted GBP510 (Group 2, n = 10), 25 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (Group 3, n = 104), 25 µg unadjuvanted GBP510 (Group 4, n = 51), or placebo (n = 61). Higher reactogenicity was observed in the GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 groups compared to the non-adjuvanted and placebo groups. The most frequently reported solicited local adverse event (AE) was injection site pain after any vaccination: (88·1% in group 1; 50·0% in group 2; 92·3% in group 3; 66·7% in group 4). Fatigue and myalgia were two most frequently reported systemic AEs and more frequently reported in GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 recipients (79·2% and 78·2% in group 1; 75·0% and 79·8% in group 3, respectively) than in the unadjuvanted vaccine recipients (40·0% and of 40·0% in group 2; 60·8% and 47·1% in group 4) after any vaccination. Reactogenicity was higher post-dose 2 compared to post-dose 1, particularly for systemic AEs. The geometric mean concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD IgG antibody reached 2163·6/2599·2 BAU/mL in GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 recipients (10 µg/25 µg) by 14 days after the second dose. Two-dose vaccination of 10 µg or 25 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 induced high titres of neutralizing antibody via pseudovirus (1369·0/1431·5 IU/mL) and wild-type virus (949·8/861·0 IU/mL) assay. Interpretation: GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 was well tolerated and highly immunogenic. These results support further development of the vaccine candidate, which is currently being evaluated in Phase 3. Funding: This work was supported, in whole or in part, by funding from CEPI and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Investment ID OPP1148601. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation supported this project for the generation of IND-enabling data and CEPI supported this clinical study.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(14)2022 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the rate of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity and its clinical significance in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: This study included 178 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who were enrolled in a cohort at a single centre. Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA and proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA levels in stored blood sera were measured using immunoassay kits. Mortality, mechanical ventilator care, and severe infection were assessed as three poor outcomes. The 2022 American College of Rheumatology and the European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology (ACR/EULAR) classification criteria for the three subtypes of AAV were applied only to patients who had MPO-ANCA or PR3-ANCA among study subjects. RESULTS: The detection rate of ANCA positivity was 18.5%. MPO-ANCA and PR3-ANCA were found in 22 (12.4%) and 14 (7.9%) patients, respectively. However, neither MPO-ANCA nor PR3-ANCA affected the three poor outcomes. According to the new criteria, 12 (6.7%) and 21 (11.8%) patients were classified as having granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection may increase the rate of ANCA positivity. Although it might not affect poor outcomes, it might contribute to the classification of GPA and MPA despite uncertain clinical significance.

3.
Infect Chemother ; 54(2): 353-359, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924368

ABSTRACT

Despite the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination roll-out, variant-related outbreaks have occurred repeatedly in Korea. Although public hospitals played a major role in COVID-19 patients' care, difficulty incorporating evolving COVID-19 treatment guidelines called for a clinical pathway (CP). Eighteen public hospitals volunteered, and a professional review board was created. CPs were formulated containing inclusion/exclusion criteria, application flow charts, and standardized order sets. After CP roll-out, key parameters improved, such as increased patient/staff five-point satisfaction scores (0.41/0.57) and decreased hospital stays (1.78 days)/medical expenses (17.5%). The CPs were updated consistently after roll-out as new therapeutics drugs were introduced and quarantine policies changed.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332637

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Background Vaccination has helped to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Ten traditional and novel vaccines have been listed by the World Health Organization for emergency use. Additional alternative approaches may better address ongoing vaccination globally, where there remains an inequity in vaccine distribution. GBP510 is a recombinant protein vaccine, which consists of self-assembling, two-component nanoparticles displaying the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in a highly immunogenic array. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, phase 1/2 trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of GBP510 (2-doses at a 28-day interval) adjuvanted with or without AS03 in adults aged 19–85 years. The main outcomes included solicited and unsolicited adverse events;anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody responses;T-cell immune responses. Findings Of 328 participants who underwent randomization, 327 participants received at least 1 dose of vaccine. Each received either 10 μg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (n = 101), 10 μg unadjuvanted GBP510 (n = 10), 25 μg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (n = 104), 25 μg unadjuvanted GBP510 (n = 51), or placebo (n = 61). Most solicited adverse events were mild-to-moderate in severity and transient. Higher reactogenicity was observed in the GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 groups compared to the non-adjuvanted and placebo groups. Reactogenicity was higher post-dose 2 compared to post-dose 1, particularly for systemic adverse events. The geometric mean concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD IgG antibody reached 2163.6/2599.2 BAU/mL in GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 recipients (10 μg/25 μg) by 14 days after the second dose. Two-dose vaccination with 10 μg or 25 μg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 induced high titers of neutralizing antibody via pseudovirus (1369.0/1431.5 IU/mL) and wild-type virus (949.8/861.0 IU/mL) assays. Interpretation GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 was well tolerated and highly immunogenic. These results support further development of the vaccine candidate, which is currently being evaluated in Phase 3. Funding Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations RESEARCH IN CONTEXT Evidence before this study We searched PubMed for research articles published by December 31, 2021, using the terms “COVID-19” or “SARS-CoV-2,” “vaccine,” and “clinical trial.” In previously reported randomized clinical trials, we found that mRNA vaccines were more immunogenic than adenovirus-vectored vaccines. Solicited adverse events were more frequent and more severe in intensity after the first dose compared to the second dose for adenovirus-vectored vaccines, whereas they increased after the second dose of mRNA or recombinant spike-protein nanoparticle vaccines. Added value of this study This is the first human study evaluating the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 protein nanoparticle with and without adjuvant AS03, designed to elicit functional cross-protective responses via receptor-binding domain (RBD). Both 10 and 25 μg of GBP510 with AS03 formulations were well tolerated with an acceptable safety profile. Potent humoral immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 RBD were induced and peaked by day 42 (14 days after the second dose). In addition, GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 elicited a noticeable Th1 response, with production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. IL-4 was inconsistent and IL-5 nearly inexistent response across all groups. Implications of the available evidence The results from this phase 1/2 trial indicate that GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 has an acceptable safety profile with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Two-dose immunization with GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 induced potent humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Yonsei Med J ; 63(3): 292-295, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708956

ABSTRACT

Residential treatment centers (RTCs) are successful in isolating and closely monitoring adults confirmed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but there are concerns for children who need care. This study was conducted as a retrospective analysis of the surveillance of guardians who entered an RTC with infected pediatric patients to identify the secondary attack rate of COVID-19 to close contacts in a single RTC and to provide directions for developing guidelines for caregivers who co-isolate with infected children. When caregivers were admitted to this RTC, aside from negative confirmation before discharge, tests were additionally performed one or two times. There were 57 index children and adolescent patients who entered the RTC with their parents as caregivers. The secondary attack rate by pediatric patients to close contacts outside their households was 25% (95% confidence interval, 10.0 to 40.0) (8 out of 32 contacts). The transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in children was close to zero at 6 days after the confirmation tests. It is reasonable to test the close contacts of pediatric patients after 7 days of isolation to identify infections among caregivers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Incidence , Residential Treatment , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312876

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and corticosteroids have been considered as possible therapeutic agents. However, there is limited literature on the appropriate timing of corticosteroid administration to obtain the best possible patient outcomes.MethodsA retrospective multicenter study was designed to explore the effects of early corticosteroid use on clinical outcomes in 7 tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Twenty-two patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled, and they were all treated with corticosteroids. ResultsOf the 22 patients who received corticosteroids, 12 patients (55%) were treated within 10 days from diagnosis. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics. The initial PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio was 168.75. The overall case fatality rate was 25%. The mean time from diagnosis to steroid use was 4.08 days and the treatment duration was 14 days in the early use group, and 12.80 days and 18.50 days in the late use group, respectively. The PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio, C-reactive protein level, and cycle threshold value improved over time in both groups. In the early use group, the time from onset of symptoms to discharge (32.4 days vs 60.0 days, P = 0.030), time from diagnosis to discharge (27.8 days vs 57.4 days, P = 0.024), and hospital stay (26.0 days vs 53.9 days, P = 0.033) were shortened.ConclusionsAmong patients with severe COVID-19, the early use of corticosteroids resulted in a significant improvement in the time to favorable clinical outcomes.

8.
Infect Chemother ; 53(2): 395-403, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526888

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies targeted at the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein have been developed and now under evaluation in clinical trials. The US Food and Drug Administration currently issued emergency use authorizations for neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in non-hospitalized patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are at high risk for progressing to severe disease and/or hospitalization. In terms of this situation, there is an urgent need to investigate the clinical aspects and to develop strategies to deploy them effectively in clinical practice. Here we provide guidance for the use of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of COVID-19 based on the latest evidence.

9.
Infect Chemother ; 53(1): 166-219, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365727

ABSTRACT

Despite the global effort to mitigate the spread, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic that took more than 2 million lives. There are numerous ongoing clinical studies aiming to find treatment options and many are being published daily. Some effective treatment options, albeit of variable efficacy, have been discovered. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an evidence-based methodology, to continuously check for new evidence, and to update recommendations accordingly. Here we provide guidelines on pharmaceutical treatment for COVID-19 based on the latest evidence.

11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 506, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and corticosteroids have been considered as possible therapeutic agents for this disease. However, there is limited literature on the appropriate timing of corticosteroid administration to obtain the best possible patient outcomes. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients with severe COVID-19 who received corticosteroid treatment from March 2 to June 30, 2020 in seven tertiary hospitals in South Korea. We analyzed the patient demographics, characteristics, and clinical outcomes according to the timing of steroid use. Twenty-two patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled, and they were all treated with corticosteroids. RESULTS: Of the 22 patients who received corticosteroids, 12 patients (55%) were treated within 10 days from diagnosis. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics. The initial PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 168.75. The overall case fatality rate was 25%. The mean time from diagnosis to steroid use was 4.08 days and the treatment duration was 14 days in the early use group, while those in the late use group were 12.80 days and 18.50 days, respectively. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio, C-reactive protein level, and cycle threshold value improved over time in both groups. In the early use group, the time from onset of symptoms to discharge (32.4 days vs. 60.0 days, P = 0.030), time from diagnosis to discharge (27.8 days vs. 57.4 days, P = 0.024), and hospital stay (26.0 days vs. 53.9 days, P = 0.033) were shortened. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe COVID-19, early use of corticosteroids showed favorable clinical outcomes which were related to a reduction in the length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Retrospective Studies
13.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242130, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940737

ABSTRACT

Comparing to data in patients with severe coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19), there are few studies on the prevalence anxiety and/or depression in patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19. We investigated the clinical characteristics and the prevalence of anxiety and/or depression among asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with COVID-19 and monitored their mental health using an online assessment. An online survey for monitoring and assessing the mental health of patients with COVID-19 using a mobile phone was conducted. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to measure anxiety and/or depression levels. Of the 234 patients, 66 patients were asymptomatic (28.2%), while the remaining 168 patients were mildly symptomatic. The prevalence of anosmia (p = 0.001) and ageusia (p = 0.008) significantly decreased with the increasing age. In addition, 19.8% and 14.0% patients had anxiety and/or depression in the first survey, and one week after the first survey, respectively. Compared to patients without anxiety and/or depression, those with anxiety and/or depression had a longer quarantine duration. We found that anomia and ageusia were relatively common in the young age group. Furthermore, one-fifth asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with COVID-19 had anxiety and/or depression.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Internet-Based Intervention , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Quarantine/psychology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Infect Chemother ; 52(2): 281-304, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918283

ABSTRACT

Since the first case was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China on December 12, 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread widely to other countries since January 2020. As of April 16, 2020, 10635 confirmed cases have been reported, with 230 deaths in Korea. COVID-19 patients may be asymptomatic or show various clinical manifestations, including acute symptoms such as fever, fatigue, sore throat; pneumonia presenting as acute respiratory distress syndrome; and multiple organ failure. As COVID-19 has such varied clinical manifestations and case fatality rates, no standard antiviral therapy regimen has been established other than supportive therapy. In the present guideline, we aim to introduce potentially helpful antiviral and other drug therapies based on in vivo and in vitro research and clinical experiences from many countries.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241169, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892386

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (named SARS-CoV-2) can spread widely in confined settings including hospitals, cruise ships, prisons, and places of worship. In particular, a healthcare-associated outbreak could become the epicenter of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different intervention strategies on the hospital outbreak within a tertiary hospital. A mathematical model was developed for the COVID-19 transmission within a 2500-bed tertiary hospital of South Korea. The SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered) model with a compartment of doctor, nurse, patient, and caregiver was constructed. The effects of different intervention strategies such as front door screening, quarantine unit for newly admitted patients, early testing of suspected infected people, and personal protective equipment for both medical staff and visitors were evaluated. The model suggested that the early testing (within eight hours) of infected cases and monitoring the quarantine ward for newly hospitalized patients are effective measures for decreasing the incidence of COVID-19 within a hospital (81.3% and 70% decrease of number of incident cases, respectively, during 60 days). Front door screening for detecting suspected cases had only 42% effectiveness. Screening for prohibiting the admission of COVID-19 patients was more effective than the measures for patients before emergency room or outpatient clinic. This model suggests that under the assumed conditions, some effective measures have a great influence on the incidence of COVID-19 within a hospital. The implementation of the preventive measures could reduce the size of a hospital outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Caregivers , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Early Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Departments , Humans , Incidence , Mass Screening , Medical Staff, Hospital , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients , Patients' Rooms , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Symptom Assessment , Visitors to Patients
16.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a major global public health issue. SARS-CoV-2 infection is confirmed by the detection of viral RNA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Prolonged viral shedding has been reported in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the presence of viral RNA does not always correlate with infectivity. Therefore, the present study aimed to confirm the presence of viable virus in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients in the later phase of the disease, more than two weeks after diagnosis. METHOD: Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients who had been diagnosed with the disease at least two weeks previously and admitted to a community treatment center (CTC) from 15 March to 10 April 2020 were enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal and salivary swab specimens were collected from each patient. Using these specimens, RT-PCR assay and viral culture were performed. RESULT: In total, 48 patients were enrolled in this study. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patient groups. RT-PCR assay and viral culture of SARS-CoV-2 were performed using nasopharyngeal and salivary swabs. The results of RT-PCR performed using salivary swab specimens, in terms of cycle threshold (Ct) values, were similar to those of RT-PCR using nasopharyngeal swab specimens. In addition, no viable virus could be cultured from swab specimens collected from the late-phase COVID-19 patients with prolonged viral RNA shedding. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study suggests that even if viral shedding is sustained in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with later phase of COVID-19, it can be expected that the transmission risk of the virus is low. In addition, saliva can be used as a reliable specimen for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 279-285, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739076

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate patterns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance in the natural course of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Consecutive patients with non-severe COVID-19 were included retrospectively. Asymptomatic patients with a normal body temperature and no evidence of pneumonia throughout the disease course were assigned to the asymptomatic group. The reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay was repeated every two to five days after the first follow-up RT-PCR assay. Negative conversion was defined as two consecutive negative RT-PCR assay results within a 24-h interval. Rebound of the cycle threshold (Ct) value was defined as negative from the single RT-PCR assay and positive from the following assay. RESULTS: Among a total of 396 patients identified (median age 42.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 25.0-55.0 years), 35.6% male), 68 (17.2%) were assigned to the asymptomatic group and 328 (82.8%) to the symptomatic group. The time until negative conversion was significantly shorter in the asymptomatic group than in the symptomatic group: median 14.5 days (IQR 11.0-21.0 days) and 18.0 days (IQR 15.0-22.0 days), respectively (p = 0.001). Rebound of Ct values was observed in 78 patients (19.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Time until negative conversion is shorter in asymptomatic COVID-19 than in symptomatic COVID-19. Rebound of Ct values is not uncommon.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
18.
Gut ; 70(1): 76-84, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been documented for pneumonia; however, there is no consensus regarding whether the use of PPIs might be harmful regarding the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this regard, we aimed to measure the potential associations of the current use of PPIs with the infection rates of COVID-19 among patients who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. DESIGN: Data were derived from a Korean nationwide cohort study with propensity score matching. We included 132 316 patients older than 18 years who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 January and 15 May 2020. Endpoints were SARS-CoV-2 positivity (primary) and severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 (secondary: admission to intensive care unit, administration of invasive ventilation or death). RESULTS: In the entire cohort, there were 111 911 non-users, 14 163 current PPI users and 6242 past PPI users. After propensity score matching, the SARS-CoV-2 test positivity rate was not associated with the current or past use of PPIs. Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, the current use of PPIs conferred a 79% greater risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19, while the relationship with the past use of PPIs remained insignificant. Current PPI use starting within the previous 30 days was associated with a 90% increased risk of severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Patients taking PPIs are at increased risk for severe clinical outcomes of COVID-19 but not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This suggests that physicians need to assess benefit-risk assessments in the management of acid-related diseases amid the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Stomach Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Proton Pump Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Proton Pump Inhibitors/adverse effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Stomach Diseases/drug therapy , Stomach Diseases/epidemiology
19.
Sci Immunol ; 5(49)2020 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639363

ABSTRACT

Although most SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals experience mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), some patients suffer from severe COVID-19, which is accompanied by acute respiratory distress syndrome and systemic inflammation. To identify factors driving severe progression of COVID-19, we performed single-cell RNA-seq using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors, patients with mild or severe COVID-19, and patients with severe influenza. Patients with COVID-19 exhibited hyper-inflammatory signatures across all types of cells among PBMCs, particularly up-regulation of the TNF/IL-1ß-driven inflammatory response as compared to severe influenza. In classical monocytes from patients with severe COVID-19, type I IFN response co-existed with the TNF/IL-1ß-driven inflammation, and this was not seen in patients with milder COVID-19. Interestingly, we documented type I IFN-driven inflammatory features in patients with severe influenza as well. Based on this, we propose that the type I IFN response plays a pivotal role in exacerbating inflammation in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/virology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(14): e149, 2020 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47979

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 not yet has established its treatment, but convalescent plasma has been expected to increase survival rates as in the case with other emerging viral infections. We describe two cases of COVID-19 treated with convalescent plasma infusion. Both patients presented severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome and showed a favorable outcome after the use of convalescent plasma in addition to systemic corticosteroid. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19 in Korea.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Pandemics , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL