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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017799

ABSTRACT

During July-August 2021, a COVID-19 outbreak involving 21 residents (all fully vaccinated) and 10 staff (9 fully vaccinated) occurred in a Connecticut nursing home. The outbreak was likely initiated by a fully vaccinated staff member and propagated by fully vaccinated persons. Prior COVID-19 was protective among vaccinated residents.

2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-18, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016422

ABSTRACT

One of six nursing home residents and staff with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥90 days after initial infection had specimen cycle thresholds (Ct) <30. Individuals with specimen Ct<30 were more likely to report symptoms but were not different from individuals with high Ct value specimens by other clinical and testing data.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Residents of nursing homes experience disproportionate morbidity and mortality related to COVID-19 and were prioritized for vaccine introduction. We evaluated COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections among nursing home residents. METHODS: We used a retrospective cohort of 4,315 nursing home residents during December 14, 2020 - November 9, 2021. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios comparing residents with a completed vaccination series to unvaccinated among those with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (identified using positive SARS-CoV-2 tests and/or diagnosis codes), by vaccine product, and by period (before and during Delta variant predominance). VE was estimated as one minus the hazard ratio times 100%. RESULTS: Overall adjusted VE for the completed vaccination series was 58% (95%CI: 44%, 69%) among residents without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. During the pre-Delta period, the VE within 150 days of receipt of the second dose of Pfizer-BioNTech (67%, 95%CI: 40%, 82%) and Moderna (75%, 95%CI: 32%, 91%) was similar. During the Delta period, VE measured >150 days after the second dose was 33% (95%CI: -2%, 56%) for Pfizer-BioNTech and 77% (95%CI: 48%, 91%) for Moderna. Rates of infection were 78% lower (95%CI: 67%, 85%) among residents with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and completed vaccination series compared to unvaccinated residents without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccines were effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections among nursing home residents and history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection provided additional protection. Maintaining high coverage of recommended doses of COVID-19 vaccines remains a critical tool for preventing infections in nursing homes.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922210

ABSTRACT

We described bacterial/fungal co-infections and antibiotic resistant infections among inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 and compared findings with inpatients diagnosed with influenza-like-illness. Less than 10% of COVID-19 inpatients had bacterial/fungal co-infection. Longer lengths of stay, critical care stay, and mechanical ventilation contribute to increased incidence of hospital-onset infections among COVID-19 inpatients.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908780

ABSTRACT

In April 2021, we assessed mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the context of a COVID-19 outbreak in a skilled nursing facility. Among 28 cases, genomic sequencing was performed on four specimens on four different patients, and all were classified by sequence analysis as the Beta (B.1.351) variant. Adjusted VE among residents was 65% (95% Confidence Interval: 25-84%). These findings underscore the importance of vaccination for prevention of COVID-19 in skilled nursing facilities.

6.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-8, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused substantial changes to healthcare delivery and antibiotic prescribing beginning in March 2020. To assess pandemic impact on Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) rates, we described patients and trends in facility-level incidence, testing rates, and percent positivity during 2019-2020 in a large cohort of US hospitals. METHODS: We estimated and compared rates of community-onset CDI (CO-CDI) per 10,000 discharges, hospital-onset CDI (HO-CDI) per 10,000 patient days, and C. difficile testing rates per 10,000 discharges in 2019 and 2020. We calculated percent positivity as the number of inpatients diagnosed with CDI over the total number of discharges with a test for C. difficile. We used an interrupted time series (ITS) design with negative binomial and logistic regression models to describe level and trend changes in rates and percent positivity before and after March 2020. RESULTS: In pairwise comparisons, overall CO-CDI rates decreased from 20.0 to 15.8 between 2019 and 2020 (P < .0001). HO-CDI rates did not change. Using ITS, we detected decreasing monthly trends in CO-CDI (-1% per month, P = .0036) and HO-CDI incidence (-1% per month, P < .0001) during the baseline period, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic declaration. We detected no change in monthly trends for CO-CDI or HO-CDI incidence or percent positivity after March 2020 compared with the baseline period. CONCLUSIONS: While there was a slight downward trajectory in CDI trends prior to March 2020, no significant change in CDI trends occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic despite changes in infection control practices, antibiotic use, and healthcare delivery.

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(18): 633-637, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836055

ABSTRACT

Nursing home residents have experienced disproportionally high levels of COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality and were prioritized for early COVID-19 vaccination (1). Following reported declines in vaccine-induced immunity after primary series vaccination, defined as receipt of 2 primary doses of an mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) or 1 primary dose of Ad26.COV2 (Johnson & Johnson [Janssen]) vaccine (2), CDC recommended that all persons aged ≥12 years receive a COVID-19 booster vaccine dose.* Moderately to severely immunocompromised persons, a group that includes many nursing home residents, are also recommended to receive an additional primary COVID-19 vaccine dose.† Data on vaccine effectiveness (VE) of an additional primary or booster dose against infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) among nursing home residents are limited, especially against the highly transmissible B.1.1.529 and BA.2 (Omicron) variants. Weekly COVID-19 surveillance and vaccination coverage data among nursing home residents, reported by skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) to CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)§ during February 14-March 27, 2022, when the Omicron variant accounted for >99% of sequenced isolates, were analyzed to estimate relative VE against infection for any COVID-19 additional primary or booster dose compared with primary series vaccination. After adjusting for calendar week and variability across SNFs, relative VE of a COVID-19 additional primary or booster dose was 46.9% (95% CI = 44.8%-48.9%). These findings indicate that among nursing home residents, COVID-19 additional primary or booster doses provide greater protection against Omicron variant infection than does primary series vaccination alone. All immunocompromised nursing home residents should receive an additional primary dose, and all nursing home residents should receive a booster dose, when eligible, to protect against COVID-19. Efforts to keep nursing home residents up to date with vaccination should be implemented in conjunction with other COVID-19 prevention strategies, including testing and vaccination of nursing home staff members and visitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Nursing Homes , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
Vaccine ; 40(23): 3165-3173, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796040

ABSTRACT

As of 2 September 2021, United States nursing homes have reported >675,000 COVID-19 cases and >134,000 deaths according to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). More than 205,000,000 persons in the United States had received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine (62% of total population) as of 2 September 2021. We investigate the role of vaccination in controlling future COVID-19 outbreaks. We developed a stochastic, compartmental model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a 100-bed nursing home with a staff of 99 healthcare personnel (HCP) in a community of 20,000 people. We parameterized admission and discharge of residents in the model with CMS data, for a within-facility basic reproduction number (R0) of 3.5 and a community R0 of 2.5. The model also included: importation of COVID-19 from the community, isolation of SARS-CoV-2 positive residents, facility-wide adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE) use by HCP, and testing. We systematically varied coverage of mRNA vaccine among residents, HCP, and the community. Simulations were run for 6 months after the second dose in the facility, with results summarized over 1,000 simulations. Expected resident cases decreased as community vaccination increased, with large reductions at high HCP coverage. The probability of a COVID-19 outbreak was lower as well: at HCP vaccination coverage of 60%, probability of an outbreak was below 20% for community coverage of 50% or above. At high coverage, stopping asymptomatic screening and facility-wide testing yielded similar results. Results suggest that high coverage among HCP and in the community can prevent infections in residents. When vaccination is high in nursing homes, but not in their surrounding communities, asymptomatic and facility-wide testing remains necessary to prevent the spread of COVID-19. High adherence to PPE may increase the likelihood of containing future COVID-19 outbreaks if they occur.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Medicare , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 597-603, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents and staff were included in the first phase of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination in the United States. Because the primary trial endpoint was vaccine efficacy (VE) against symptomatic disease, there are limited data on the extent to which vaccines protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the ability to infect others (infectiousness). Assumptions about VE against infection and infectiousness have implications for changes to infection prevention guidance for vaccinated populations, including testing strategies. METHODS: We use a stochastic agent-based Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious (Asymptomatic/Symptomatic)-Recovered model of a nursing home to simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We model 3 scenarios, varying VE against infection, infectiousness, and symptoms, to understand the expected impact of vaccination in nursing homes, increasing staff vaccination coverage, and different screening testing strategies under each scenario. RESULTS: Increasing vaccination coverage in staff decreases total symptomatic cases in the nursing home (among staff and residents combined) in each VE scenario. In scenarios with 50% and 90% VE against infection and infectiousness, increasing staff coverage reduces symptomatic cases among residents. If vaccination only protects against symptoms, and asymptomatic cases remain infectious, increased staff coverage increases symptomatic cases among residents. However, this is outweighed by the reduction in symptomatic cases among staff. Higher frequency testing-more than once weekly-is needed to reduce total symptomatic cases if the vaccine has lower efficacy against infection and infectiousness, or only protects against symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Encouraging staff vaccination is not only important for protecting staff, but might also reduce symptomatic cases in residents if a vaccine confers at least some protection against infection or infectiousness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Skilled Nursing Facilities , United States , Vaccination
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 525-528, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684540

ABSTRACT

Replication-competent virus has not been detected in individuals with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) more than 10 days after symptom onset. It is unknown whether these findings apply to nursing home residents. Of 273 specimens collected from nursing home residents >10 days from the initial positive test, none were culture positive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Nursing Homes , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription
11.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S298-S299, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602640

ABSTRACT

Background Background. Understanding the viral load and potential infectivity of individuals in nursing homes (NH) with repeat positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥ 90 days after initial infection has important implications for safety related to transmission in this high-risk setting. Methods Methods. We collected epidemiologic data by reviewing records of a convenience sample of NH residents and staff with respiratory specimens who had positive SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR test results from July 2020 through March 2021 and had a SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed ≥ 90 days prior. No fully vaccinated individuals were included. Each contributed one repeat positive specimen ≥ 90 days after initial, which was sent to CDC and retested using rRT-PCR. Specimens were assessed for replication-competent virus in cell culture if Cycle threshold (Ct) < 34 and sequenced if Ct < 30. Using Ct values as a proxy for viral RNA load, specimens were categorized as high (Ct < 30) or low (if Ct ≥ 30 or rRT-PCR negative at retesting). Continuous variables were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Proportions were compared using Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests. Results Results. Of 64 unvaccinated individuals with specimens from 61 unique NHs, 14 (22%) were sent for culture and sequencing. Ten of 64 (16%) had a high viral RNA load, of which four (6%) were culture positive and none were known variants of interest or concern (Figure 1). Median days to repeat positive test result were 122 (Interquartile range (IQR): 103–229) and 201 (IQR: 139–254), respectively, for high versus low viral load specimens (p=0.13). More individuals with high viral loads (5/10, 50%) reported COVID-19 symptoms than with a low viral load (1/27, 4%, p=0.003). Most individuals (46/58, 79%) were tested following known or suspected exposures, with no significant differences between high and low viral load (p=0.18). Conclusion In this study, nearly 1 in 6 NH residents and staff with repeat positive tests after 90 days demonstrated high viral RNA loads and viable virus, indicating possible infectivity. While individuals with high RNA viral load may be more likely to be symptomatic, distinguishing asymptomatic individuals who have high viral loads may be difficult with timing since initial infection, other test results, or exposure history alone. Disclosures John A. Jernigan, MD, MS, Nothing to disclose.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566008

ABSTRACT

During July-August 2021, a COVID-19 outbreak involving 21 residents (all fully vaccinated) and 10 staff (9 fully vaccinated) occurred in a Connecticut nursing home. The outbreak was likely initiated by a fully vaccinated staff member and propagated by fully vaccinated persons. Prior COVID-19 was protective among vaccinated residents.

14.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S319-S319, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564822

ABSTRACT

Background As of May 2, 2021, U.S. nursing homes (NHs) have reported >651,000 COVID-19 cases and >132,000 deaths to CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network. Since U.S. COVID-19 vaccination coverage is increasing, we investigate the role of vaccination in controlling future COVID-19 outbreaks. Methods We developed a stochastic, compartmental model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a theoretical 100-bed NH with a staff of 99 healthcare personnel (HCP) in a community of 20,000 people. We modeled admission and discharge of residents (parameterized with Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services data), assuming the following: temporary replacement of HCP when tested positive;daily visits to NH residents;isolation of COVID-19 positive residents;personal protective equipment (PPE) use by HCP;and symptom-based testing of residents and staff plus weekly asymptomatic testing of HCP and facility-wide outbreak testing once a COVID-19 case is identified. We systematically varied coverage of an mRNA vaccine among residents and HCP, and in the community. Simulations also varied PPE adherence, defined as the percentage of time in the facility that HCP properly used recommended PPE (25%, 50% or 75% of the time). Infection was initialized in the community with 40 infectious cases, and initial infection in the NH was allowed after 14 days of vaccine dose 1. Simulations were run for 6 months after dose 2 in the NH. Results were summarized over 1000 simulations. Results At 60% community coverage, expected cumulative symptomatic resident cases over 6 months were ≤5, due to low importation of COVID-19 infection from the community, with further reduction at higher coverage among HCP (Figure 1). Uncertainty bounds narrowed as NH resident coverage or PPE adherence increased. Results were similar if testing of staff and residents stopped. Probability of an outbreak within 4 weeks of dose 2 remained below 5% with high community coverage (Figure 2). Figure 1. Drop in symptomatic cases in nursing home (NH) residents with rise in COVID-19 vaccine coverage in the community, increase in personal protective equipment (PPE) adherence, or increase in coverage among NH residents. In each panel, we plotted the mean number of cumulative symptomatic cases of COVID-19 in NH residents after 6 months since vaccine dose 2 (given 28 days after dose 1) and their 90% confidence interval (CI) for three healthcare personnel (HCP) coverage scenarios: 40%, 60%, or 80%. Coverage in HCP was independently modeled of community coverage. The top row is for NH resident coverage of 65%, the middle for 75%, and the bottom row for 85%. The columns (left to right) are for facility-level PPE adherence of 25% (low adherence), 50% (intermediate adherence), and 75% (high adherence). Weekly asymptomatic testing of HCP and twice-weekly outbreak testing in the facility were modeled with an assumed point-of-care test sensitivity of 80% (symptomatic persons) and 60% (asymptomatic persons) and with specificity of 100% and test turnaround time of 15 minutes. Figure 2. Probability of a COVID-19 outbreak in a nursing home (NH) decreased with increase in vaccine coverage in the community or in healthcare personnel (HCP). An outbreak is defined as an occurrence of 2 or more cases within 4 weeks of dose 2. Probability of no outbreak was calculated by counting how many simulations out of a total of 1000 simulations had ≤1 symptomatic case in NH residents or HCP within 4 weeks after dose 2 was administered in the nursing home. The first vaccine dose in residents and HCP was assumed to be given on day 1, and the second dose 28 days later. A probability value and its 90%-confidence interval (CI) at a given community and HCP coverage was calculated by pooling model outputs for 9 sets (3 PPE adherence values X 3 resident coverage levels) of model simulations. Simulations were performed assuming no asymptomatic testing or facility-wide outbreak testing. Conclusion Results suggest that increasing community vaccination coverage leads to fewer infecti ns in NH residents. Testing asymptomatic residents and staff may have limited value when vaccination coverage is high. High adherence to recommended PPE may increase the likelihood that future COVID-19 outbreaks can be contained. Disclosures John A. Jernigan, MD, MS, Nothing to disclose

15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(32): 1089-1094, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389851

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can spread rapidly in nursing homes once it is introduced (1,2). To prevent outbreaks, more data are needed to identify sources of introduction and means of transmission within nursing homes. Nursing home residents who receive hemodialysis (dialysis) might be at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infections because of their frequent exposures outside the nursing home to both community dialysis patients and staff members at dialysis centers (3). Investigation of a COVID-19 outbreak in a Maryland nursing home (facility A) identified a higher prevalence of infection among residents undergoing dialysis (47%; 15 of 32) than among those not receiving dialysis (16%; 22 of 138) (p<0.001). Among residents with COVID-19, the 30-day hospitalization rate among those receiving dialysis (53%) was higher than that among residents not receiving dialysis (18%) (p = 0.03); the proportion of dialysis patients who died was 40% compared with those who did not receive dialysis (27%) (p = 0.42).Careful consideration of infection control practices throughout the dialysis process (e.g., transportation, time spent in waiting areas, spacing of machines, and cohorting), clear communication between nursing homes and dialysis centers, and coordination of testing practices between these sites are critical to preventing COVID-19 outbreaks in this medically vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Dialysis/adverse effects , Disease Outbreaks , Nursing Homes , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Aged , COVID-19 , Humans , Maryland/epidemiology , Pandemics
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(34): 1163-1166, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374685

ABSTRACT

Nursing home and long-term care facility residents live in congregate settings and are often elderly and frail, putting them at high risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and severe COVID-19-associated outcomes; therefore, this population was prioritized for early vaccination in the United States (1). Following rapid distribution and administration of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) under an Emergency Use Authorization by the Food and Drug Administration (2), observational studies among nursing home residents demonstrated vaccine effectiveness (VE) ranging from 53% to 92% against SARS-CoV-2 infection (3-6). However, concerns about the potential for waning vaccine-induced immunity and the recent emergence of the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant† highlight the need to continue to monitor VE (7). Weekly data reported by the Centers for Medicaid & Medicare (CMS)-certified skilled nursing facilities or nursing homes to CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)§ were analyzed to evaluate effectiveness of full vaccination (2 doses received ≥14 days earlier) with any of the two currently authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines during the period soon after vaccine introduction and before the Delta variant was circulating (pre-Delta [March 1-May 9, 2021]), and when the Delta variant predominated¶ (Delta [June 21-August 1, 2021]). Using 17,407 weekly reports from 3,862 facilities from the pre-Delta period, adjusted effectiveness against infection for any mRNA vaccine was 74.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 70.0%-78.8%). Analysis using 33,160 weekly reports from 11,581 facilities during an intermediate period (May 10-June 20) found that the adjusted effectiveness was 67.5% (95% CI = 60.1%-73.5%). Analysis using 85,593 weekly reports from 14,917 facilities during the Delta period found that the adjusted effectiveness was 53.1% (95% CI = 49.1%-56.7%). Effectiveness estimates were similar for Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines. These findings indicate that mRNA vaccines provide protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection among nursing home residents; however, VE was lower after the Delta variant became the predominant circulating strain in the United States. This analysis assessed VE against any infection, without being able to distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic presentations. Additional evaluations are needed to understand protection against severe disease in nursing home residents over time. Because nursing home residents might remain at some risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection despite vaccination, multiple COVID-19 prevention strategies, including infection control, testing, and vaccination of nursing home staff members, residents, and visitors, are critical. An additional dose of COVID-19 vaccine might be considered for nursing home and long-term care facility residents to optimize a protective immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
17.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(10): 2009-2015, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if facility-level vaccination after an initial vaccination clinic was independently associated with COVID-19 incidence adjusted for other factors in January 2021 among nursing home residents. DESIGN: Ecological analysis of data from the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and from the CDC's Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: CMS-certified nursing homes participating in both NHSN and the Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program. METHODS: A multivariable, random intercepts, negative binomial model was applied to contrast COVID-19 incidence rates among residents living in facilities with an initial vaccination clinic during the week ending January 3, 2021 (n = 2843), vs those living in facilities with no vaccination clinic reported up to and including the week ending January 10, 2021 (n = 3216). Model covariates included bed size, resident SARS-CoV-2 testing, staff with COVID-19, cumulative COVID-19 among residents, residents admitted with COVID-19, community county incidence, and county social vulnerability index (SVI). RESULTS: In December 2020 and January 2021, incidence of COVID-19 among nursing home residents declined to the lowest point since reporting began in May, diverged from the pattern in community cases, and began dropping before vaccination occurred. Comparing week 3 following an initial vaccination clinic vs week 2, the adjusted reduction in COVID-19 rate in vaccinated facilities was 27% greater than the reduction in facilities where vaccination clinics had not yet occurred (95% confidence interval: 14%-38%, P < .05). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Vaccination of residents contributed to the decline in COVID-19 incidence in nursing homes; however, other factors also contributed. The decline in COVID-19 was evident prior to widespread vaccination, highlighting the benefit of a multifaced approach to prevention including continued use of recommended screening, testing, and infection prevention practices as well as vaccination to keep residents in nursing homes safe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Incidence , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
18.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16711, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350531

ABSTRACT

Background and aims The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant changes in healthcare delivery. In response to these changes, patients have increasingly reduced healthcare utilization in several ways, such as medication compliance, cancer screenings, and routine wellness appointments. This study aims to quantify patient adherence rates to routine and symptom indicated colonoscopies during the COVID-19 and to assess patient medication compliance and utilization of healthcare facilities. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed at a single-center internal medicine clinic from January 2021 to April 2021. A 28-item survey was administered to patients to evaluate for adherence rates to routine and symptom indicated colonoscopies. Patients were also evaluated for rates of healthcare facility usage and medication compliance. Results Among 103 participants, 30.8% of patients who were due for routine colonoscopy either missed, refused, or rescheduled, while 16.7% of patients did so for symptom indicated colonoscopies. Nearly all respondents (94.2%) reported no change to medication compliance when compared to pre-COVID. A significant portion (36.9%) of patients reported missing a healthcare appointment at some point during the pandemic, and of the respondents who felt sick enough to visit the emergency department, 23.1% decided not to go. Conclusions During the COVID-19 pandemic, patients are deferring colorectal cancer surveillance, reducing the usage of acute care facilities, and missing routine healthcare appointments. It is important for providers to address the risks and benefits of delaying colorectal cancer screenings as well as identify physical and psychosocial barriers to patient utilization of both acute and chronic healthcare facilities. As COVID-19 restrictions inevitably continue to ease, medical providers should be aware of these potential lapses in cancer screenings and healthcare visits and be vigilant in catching patients up on their preventative health screenings.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e792-e798, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying asymptomatic individuals early through serial testing is recommended to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in nursing homes, both in response to an outbreak ("outbreak testing" of residents and healthcare personnel) and in facilities without outbreaks ("nonoutbreak testing" of healthcare personnel). The effectiveness of outbreak testing and isolation with or without nonoutbreak testing was evaluated. METHODS: Using published SARS-CoV-2 transmission parameters, the fraction of SARS-CoV-2 transmissions prevented through serial testing (weekly, every 3 days, or daily) and isolation of asymptomatic persons compared with symptom-based testing and isolation was evaluated through mathematical modeling using a Reed-Frost model to estimate the percentage of cases prevented (ie, "effectiveness") through either outbreak testing alone or outbreak plus nonoutbreak testing. The potential effect of simultaneous decreases (by 10%) in the effectiveness of isolating infected individuals when instituting testing strategies was also evaluated. RESULTS: Modeling suggests that outbreak testing could prevent 54% (weekly testing with 48-hour test turnaround) to 92% (daily testing with immediate results and 50% relative sensitivity) of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Adding nonoutbreak testing could prevent up to an additional 8% of SARS-CoV-2 infections (depending on test frequency and turnaround time). However, added benefits of nonoutbreak testing were mostly negated if accompanied by decreases in infection control practice. CONCLUSIONS: When combined with high-quality infection control practices, outbreak testing could be an effective approach to preventing COVID-19 in nursing homes, particularly if optimized through increased test frequency and use of tests with rapid turnaround.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
20.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(7): 945-951, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To address high COVID-19 burden in U.S. nursing homes, rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests have been widely distributed in those facilities. However, performance data are lacking, especially in asymptomatic people. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing when used for facility-wide testing during a nursing home outbreak. DESIGN: A prospective evaluation involving 3 facility-wide rounds of testing where paired respiratory specimens were collected to evaluate the performance of the BinaxNOW antigen test compared with virus culture and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Early and late infection were defined using changes in RT-PCR cycle threshold values and prior test results. SETTING: A nursing home with an ongoing SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. PARTICIPANTS: 532 paired specimens collected from 234 available residents and staff. MEASUREMENTS: Percentage of positive agreement (PPA) and percentage of negative agreement (PNA) for BinaxNOW compared with RT-PCR and virus culture. RESULTS: BinaxNOW PPA with virus culture, used for detection of replication-competent virus, was 95%. However, the overall PPA of antigen testing with RT-PCR was 69%, and PNA was 98%. When only the first positive test result was analyzed for each participant, PPA of antigen testing with RT-PCR was 82% among 45 symptomatic people and 52% among 343 asymptomatic people. Compared with RT-PCR and virus culture, the BinaxNOW test performed well in early infection (86% and 95%, respectively) and poorly in late infection (51% and no recovered virus, respectively). LIMITATION: Accurate symptom ascertainment was challenging in nursing home residents; test performance may not be representative of testing done by nonlaboratory staff. CONCLUSION: Despite lower positive agreement compared with RT-PCR, antigen test positivity had higher agreement with shedding of replication-competent virus. These results suggest that antigen testing could be a useful tool to rapidly identify contagious people at risk for transmitting SARS-CoV-2 during nascent outbreaks and help reduce COVID-19 burden in nursing homes. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
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