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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911149

ABSTRACT

At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in the use of antibiotics for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infection (CA-ARI) in patients admitted for suspected or confirmed COVID-19, raising concerns for misuse. These antibiotics are not under the usual purview of the antimicrobial stewardship unit (ASU). Serum procalcitonin, a biomarker to distinguish viral from bacterial infections, can be used to guide antibiotic recommendations in suspected lower respiratory tract infection. We modified our stewardship approach, and used a procalcitonin-guided strategy to identify "high yield" interventions for audits in patients admitted with CA-ARI. With this approach, there was an increase in the proportion of patients with antibiotics discontinued within 4 days (16.5% vs. 34.9%, p < 0.001), and the overall duration of antibiotic therapy was significantly shorter [7 (6-8) vs. 6 (3-8) days, p < 0.001]. There was a significant decrease in patients with intravenous-to-oral switch of antibiotics to "complete the course" (45.3% vs. 34.4%, p < 0.05). Of the patients who had antibiotics discontinued, none were restarted on antibiotics within 48 h, and there was no-30-day readmission or 30-day mortality attributed to respiratory infection. This study illustrates the importance of the antimicrobial stewardship during the pandemic and the need for ASU to remain attuned to prescriber's practices, and adapt accordingly to address antibiotic misuse to curb antimicrobial resistance.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 738541, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847180

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted HIV prevention strategies globally. However, changes in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence and HIV-related behaviors, and their associations with medication adherence among men who have sex with men (MSM) PrEP users remain unclear since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A Retrospective Cohort Study of HIV-negative MSM PrEP users was conducted in four Chinese metropolises from December 2018 to March 2020, assessing the changes in PrEP adherence and HIV-related behaviors before and during the COVID-19. The primary outcome was poor PrEP adherence determined from self-reported missing at least one PrEP dose in the previous month. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors correlated with poor adherence during COVID-19. Results: We enrolled 791 eligible participants (418 [52.8%] in daily PrEP and 373 [47.2%] in event-driven PrEP). Compared with the data conducted before the COVID-19, the proportion of PrEP users decreased from 97.9 to 64.3%, and the proportion of poor PrEP adherence increased from 23.6 to 50.1% during the COVID-19 [odds ratio (OR) 3.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.62-4.02]. While the percentage of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with regular partners (11.8 vs. 25.7%) and with casual partners (4.4 vs. 9.0%) both significantly increased. The proportion of those who were tested for HIV decreased from 50.1 to 25.9%. Factors correlated with poor PrEP adherence during the COVID-19 included not being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.38 [95% CI: 1.00, 1.91]), using condoms consistently with regular partners (vs. never, aOR = 2.19 [95% CI: 1.16, 4.13]), and being married or cohabitating with a woman (vs. not married, aOR = 3.08 [95% CI: 1.60, 5.95]). Conclusions: Increased poor PrEP adherence and CAI along with the decrease in HIV testing can lead to an increase in HIV acquisition and drug resistance to PrEP. Targeted interventions are needed to improve PrEP adherence and HIV prevention strategies.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323612

ABSTRACT

The analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is of great importance to deeply understand the dynamics of this coronavirus spread. Based on the complexity of it, a modified susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) model is applied to analyze the time dependence of active and hospitalized cases in China. The time evolution of the virus spread in different provinces was adequately modeled. Changeable parameters among them have been obtained and turned to be not naively independent with each other. The non-extensive parameter was found to be strongly connected with the freedom of systems. Taken into the prevention and treatment of disease, more measures by the government lead to higher values of it.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310885

ABSTRACT

Background: &nbsp;The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted HIV prevention strategies globally. However, changes in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence and HIV-related behaviors, and their associations with medication adherence among MSM PrEP users remains unclear since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.&nbsp;Methods:&nbsp;A longitudinal observational study of HIV-negative MSM PrEP users was conducted in four Chinese metropolises from February to March 2020, assessing the changes in PrEP adherence and HIV-related behaviours before and during the COVID-19. The primary outcome was poor PrEP adherence determined from self-reported missing at least one PrEP dose in the previous month. We used mulitivariable logistic regression to determine factors correlated with poor adherence during the COVID-19. Findings:&nbsp;We enrolled 791 eligible participants (418 [52·8%] in daily PrEP, 373 [47·2%] in event-driven PrEP). Compared with the data conducted before the COVID-19, the proportion of PrEP users decreased from 97·9% to 64·3%, and the proportion of poor PrEP adherence increased from 23.6% to 50·1% during the COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 3·24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·61–4·02). While the percentage of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with regular partners (11·8% vs 25·7%) and with casual partners (4·4% vs 9·0%) both significantly increased. The proportion of those who were tested for HIV decreased from 50·1% to 25·9%. Factors correlated with poor PrEP adherence during the COVID-19 included not being tested for HIV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1·38 [95% CI: 1·00, 1·91]), using condoms consistently with regular partners (vs. never, aOR=2·19 [95% CI: 1·16, 4·13]) and being married or cohabitating with a woman (vs. not married, aOR=3·08 [95% CI: 1·60, 5·95]). Interpretation: &nbsp;Increased poor PrEP adherence and CAI along with the decrease in HIV testing can lead to increases in HIV acquisition and of drug resistance to PrEP. Targeted interventions are needed to improve PrEP adherence and HIV prevention strategies. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-IIN-17013762). Funding Statement: The Mega-Projects of national science research for the13th Five-Year Plan (2017ZX10201101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81872674), and the National Science and Technology Major Project (2018ZX10101001-001-003). Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests. Ethics Approval Statement: This study was reviewed and approved by the Medical Science Research Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University ([2018]2015-139-5).

5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S139-S140, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602193

ABSTRACT

Background In early months of COVID-19 pandemic, SGH recorded a year-on-year increase in antibiotic (ABx) use for community acquired acute respiratory infection (CA ARI) from Feb-Apr 2019 (48.7 defined daily doses (DDD)/100 bed-days) to 2020 (50.8 DDD/100 bed-days). To address concerns of misuse, the antibiotic stewardship unit (ASU) expanded prospective audit feedback (PAF) to CA ARI patients admitted to ARI wards, with low procalcitonin (PCT). PAF was conducted on day 2-3 of ABx, on weekdays. Doctors received feedback to stop/modify when ABx was deemed inappropriate. Here, we describe the impact of ASU’s adaptive approach to curb rising ABx use in patients admitted for ARI during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A Pre- & Post-intervention study was conducted. All patients started on ABx (ceftriaxone/co-amoxiclav/piptazo/carbapenems/levofloxacin) for CA ARI & PCT < 0.5µg/L were analysed. Those who died ≤48h of admission;admitted to intensive care;required ABx escalation;>1 infective sites;complex lung infection were excluded. Primary objective was to compare the proportion of ABx stopped ≤4 days (time to final infection diagnosis) Pre (22/3-18/4/20) & Post (21/4-13/7/20). Results 184 (Pre) & 528 (Post) ABx courses were analysed. ASU audited 51 (Pre) & 380 (Post) courses with the rest discontinued/discharged before review. Patients were largely similar in both periods;a third had low likelihood of bacterial infection (C reactive protein < 30mg/L). In Post, 73 feedback was given to stop ABx (often because symptoms suggested viral/fluid overload) & 18 to switch to oral ABx. 82 (90%) feedback was accepted. No ABx was restarted ≤48h or deaths ≤30 days due to ARI. 1 patient had C. difficile diarrhoea a day after ABx cessation as per ASU feedback. Proportion of all ABx stopped ≤4 days was higher in Post than Pre [27/184 (15%) vs 152/528 (29%), p< 0.01]. Median duration of therapy of IV ABx was reduced (6.5 vs 3 days, p< 0.01), with corresponding shorter median length of stay (10.5 vs 6 days, p< 0.01). Conclusion PAF directly and indirectly reduced ABx duration in patients treated for CA ARI as prescribers become more conscious about stopping ABx when investigations show low likelihood of bacterial infection. ASU must remain agile during pandemics to detect emerging problems and adapt processes to counter early. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

6.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534188

ABSTRACT

Digital microfluidic (DMF) has been a unique tool for manipulating micro-droplets with high flexibility and accuracy. To extend the application of DMF for automatic and in-site detection, it is promising to introduce colorimetric sensing based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which have advantages including high sensitivity, label-free, biocompatibility, and easy surface modification. However, there is still a lack of studies for investigating the movement and stability of AuNPs for in-site detection on the electrowetting-based digital microfluidics. Herein, to demonstrate the ability of DMF for colorimetric sensing with AuNPs, we investigated the electrowetting property of the AuNPs droplets on the hydrophobic interface of the DMF chip and examined the stability of the AuNPs on DMF as well as the influence of evaporation to the colorimetric sensing. As a result, we found that the electrowetting of AuNPs fits to a modified Young-Lippmann equation, which suggests that a higher voltage is required to actuate AuNPs droplets compared with actuating water droplets. Moreover, the stability of AuNPs was maintained during the processing of electrowetting. We also proved that the evaporation of droplets has a limited influence on the detections that last several minutes. Finally, a model experiment for the detection of Hg2+ was carried out with similar results to the detections in bulk solution. The proposed method can be further extended to a wide range of AuNPs-based detection for label-free, automatic, and low-cost detection of small molecules, biomarkers, and metal ions.

8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 56, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As one of the non-pharmacological interventions to control the transmission of COVID-19, determining the quarantine duration is mainly based on the accurate estimates of the incubation period. However, patients with coarse information of the exposure date, as well as infections other than the symptomatic, were not taken into account in previously published studies. Thus, by using the statistical method dealing with the interval-censored data, we assessed the quarantine duration for both common and uncommon infections. The latter type includes the presymptomatic, the asymptomatic and the recurrent test positive patients. METHODS: As of 10 December 2020, information on cases have been collected from the English and Chinese databases, including Pubmed, Google scholar, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) and Wanfang. Official websites and medias were also searched as data sources. All data were transformed into doubly interval-censored and the accelerated failure time model was applied. By estimating the incubation period and the time-to-event distribution of worldwide COVID-19 patients, we obtain the large percentiles for determining and suggesting the quarantine policies. For symptomatic and presymptomatic COVID-19 patients, the incubation time is the duration from exposure to symptom onset. For the asymptomatic, we substitute the date of first positive result of nucleic acid testing for that of symptom onset. Furthermore, the time from hospital discharge or getting negative test result to the positive recurrence has been calculated for recurrent positive patients. RESULTS: A total of 1920 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. Among all uncommon infections, 34.1% (n = 55) of them developed symptoms or were identified beyond fourteen days. Based on all collected cases, the 95th and 99th percentiles were estimated to be 16.2 days (95% CI 15.5-17.0) and 22.9 days (21.7‒24.3) respectively. Besides, we got similar estimates based on merely symptomatic and presymptomatic infections as 15.1 days (14.4‒15.7) and 21.1 days (20.0‒22.2). CONCLUSIONS: There are a certain number of infected people who require longer quarantine duration. Our findings well support the current practice of the extended active monitoring. To further prevent possible transmissions induced and facilitated by such infectious outliers after the 14-days quarantine, properly prolonging the quarantine duration could be prudent for high-risk scenarios and in regions with insufficient test resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1304-1313, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196501

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a significant and urgent threat to global health. This review provided strong support for central nervous system (CNS) infection with SARS-CoV-2 and shed light on the neurological mechanism underlying the lethality of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the published data, only 1.28% COVID-19 patients who underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tests were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in CSF. However, this does not mean the absence of CNS infection in most COVID-19 patients because postmortem studies revealed that some patients with CNS infection showed negative results in CSF tests for SARS-CoV-2. Among 20 neuropathological studies reported so far, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the brain of 58 cases in nine studies, and three studies have provided sufficient details on the CNS infection in COVID-19 patients. Almost all in vitro and in vivo experiments support the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2. In infected animals, SARS-CoV-2 was found within neurons in different brain areas with a wide spectrum of neuropathology, consistent with the reported clinical symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Several lines of evidence indicate that SARS-CoV-2 used the hematopoietic route to enter the CNS. But more evidence supports the trans-neuronal hypothesis. SARS-CoV-2 has been found to invade the brain via the olfactory, gustatory, and trigeminal pathways, especially at the early stage of infection. Severe COVID-19 patients with neurological deficits are at a higher risk of mortality, and only the infected animals showing neurological symptoms became dead, suggesting that neurological involvement may be one cause of death.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/virology , Neurons/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/mortality , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/physiopathology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Humans , Neural Pathways , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(3): 4713-4730, 2021 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084188

ABSTRACT

The peculiar features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), are challenging the current biological knowledge. Early in Feb, 2020, we suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may possess neuroinvasive potential similar to that of many other coronaviruses. Since then, a variety of neurological manifestations have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was supported in some patients with neuroimaging and/or cerebrospinal fluid tests. To date, at least 27 autopsy studies on the brains of COVID-19 patients can be retrieved through PubMed/MEDLINE, among which neuropathological alterations were observed in the brainstem in 78 of 134 examined patients, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and viral proteins were detected in the brainstem in 16/49 (32.7%) and 18/71 (25.3%) cases, respectively. To shed some light on the peculiar respiratory manifestations of COVID-19 patients, this review assessed the existing evidence about the neurogenic mechanism underlying the respiratory failure induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acknowledging the neurological involvement has important guiding significance for the prevention, treatment, and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neuroimaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-357426

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic that has affected almost every aspect of human life. The development of an effective COVID-19 vaccine could limit the morbidity and mortality caused by infection, and may enable the relaxation of social distancing measures. Age is one of the most significant risk factors for poor health outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection, therefore it is desirable that any new vaccine candidates should elicit a robust immune response in older adults. Here, we test the immunogenicity of the adenoviral vectored vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD-1222) in aged mice. We find that a single dose of this vaccine induces cellular and humoral immunity in aged mice, but at a reduced magnitude than in younger adult mice. Furthermore, we report that a second dose enhances the immune response to this vaccine in aged mice, indicating that a primeboost strategy may be a rational approach to enhance immunogenicity in older persons.

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