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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063935

ABSTRACT

The importation of COVID-19 cases in China is due to the returning of Chinese citizens abroad, where the majority of cases stand. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of importing COVID-19 into the Sichuan Province of China and conduct a short-term risk prediction assessment and analysis. Data on COVID-19 cases in each country and Sichuan were collected, as well as visitors to Sichuan, population, area, and medical resources in each city in Sichuan province. According to different control strategies of entry aviation and quarantine control, we built models of epidemic transmission to estimate the risk for imported COVID-19 cases in 21 cities of Sichuan. Within 140 days of the policy change's implementation, the number of susceptible, infected, and recovered people in all cities followed the same pattern over time: (1) the number of susceptible people declined slowly at first, then accelerated to reach a stable value; (2) the number of infections gradually increased to a peak, then decreased; and (3) the number of recovered patients gradually increased to a stable value. Under the four different scenarios, there were no significant differences between the risk peaks because the social distance did not change. However, the peak time would be delayed due to the implementation of flight control and nucleic acid detection measures. The improvement of foreign epidemics (reduction of attenuation factors) all delayed the arrival of the peak risk value in Chengdu by about 20 days; however, the size of the peak value did not change significantly. The improvement of nucleic acid detection accuracy delayed the arrival of the peak risk value in Chengdu, but the size of the peak value did not change significantly. Therefore, flight control and the improvement of nucleic acid detection accuracy and overseas epidemic situations have positively affected the prevention and control of the epidemic in Sichuan.

2.
Systems research and behavioral science ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058688

ABSTRACT

This study systematically reviews applications of three simulation approaches, that is, system dynamics model (SDM), agent‐based model (ABM) and discrete event simulation (DES), and their hybrids in COVID‐19 research and identifies theoretical and application innovations in public health. Among the 372 eligible papers, 72 focused on COVID‐19 transmission dynamics, 204 evaluated both pharmaceutical and non‐pharmaceutical interventions, 29 focused on the prediction of the pandemic and 67 investigated the impacts of COVID‐19. ABM was used in 275 papers, followed by 54 SDM papers, 32 DES papers and 11 hybrid model papers. Evaluation and design of intervention scenarios are the most widely addressed area accounting for 55% of the four main categories, that is, the transmission of COVID‐19, prediction of the pandemic, evaluation and design of intervention scenarios and societal impact assessment. The complexities in impact evaluation and intervention design demand hybrid simulation models that can simultaneously capture micro and macro aspects of the socio‐economic systems involved.

3.
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034193

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to estimate the causal effects of Coronavirus disease 2019 susceptibility and hospitalization on cardiovascular disease death using two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. Methods We used statistics from a genome-wide association study. A total of 2,568,698 participants were assessed in this study, including 1,299,010 in Coronavirus disease 2019 susceptibility databases, 908,494 in Coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalization database, and 361,194 in a cardiovascular disease death database. We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis using the inverse variance weighted method. As sensitivity analysis techniques, Mendelian randomization-Egger regression, heterogeneity analyses, and Leave-one-out analysis were employed. Reverse Mendelian randomization analysis was used to detect reverse causality. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results Coronavirus disease 2019 susceptibility may be a causal factor for cardiovascular disease death (β = 2.188 × 10–3, P = 0.002), which involves five common single nucleotide polymorphisms. Similarly, Coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalization may also be a causal factor for cardiovascular disease death (β = 8.626 × 10–4, P = 0.010), which involves nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms. Furthermore, sensitivity and reverse Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that no heterogeneity, horizontal pleiotropy or reverse causality was found between Coronavirus disease 2019 and cardiovascular disease death. Conclusion Our bidirectional Mendelian randomization analysis showed a causal relationship between Coronavirus disease 2019 susceptibility and hospitalization associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease death.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 948036, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022911

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in mental health issues, mainly depression and anxiety, prompted by stressors such as the need to maintain social distance, adapting to quarantine, and lockdown policies. Resilience may be vital in protecting individuals from mental disorders. However, few studies have examined the longitudinal relationships between resilience and mental disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety) among adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between resilience, depression, and anxiety among Chinese adolescents before and during COVID-19 using a longitudinal cross-lagged model. Methods: A total of 7,958 Chinese adolescents completed a baseline survey in the month before COVID-19 and were followed up after the COVID-19 lockdown. Structural equation modeling analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between resilience, depression, and anxiety after controlling for three covariates (i.e., gender, age, and COVID-19 effect). Results: A higher level of resilience before COVID-19 significantly predicted decreased severity of depression and anxiety after the lockdown. Moreover, the mean level of resilience and prevalence of mental disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety) among Chinese adolescents decreased after the lockdown. These findings suggest resilience is a vital protective factor against depression and anxiety among adolescents. Furthermore, younger participants and those less affected by the pandemic could be more resilient. No significant link was found between gender and resilience in the second wave. Conclusions: Resilience is an essential protective factor for reducing mental disorders among Chinese adolescents exposed to COVID-19. Resilience-related interventions should be developed to efficiently promote mental health recovery among youth during pandemics.

5.
Fam Relat ; 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019254

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal cross-lagged association between family mutuality, depression, and anxiety among Chinese adolescents before and after the COVID-19 lockdown in 2020. Background: Limited attention has been paid to the longitudinal links between family mutuality, depression, and anxiety in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: We used self-administered questionnaires to collect data from three high schools and two middle schools in Chengdu City at two time points: Time 1 (T1), December 23, 2019-January 13, 2020; Time 2 (T2), June 16-July 8, 2020. The sample consisted of 7,958 participants who completed two wave surveys before and after the COVID-19 lockdown. We analyzed the data using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. Results: The longitudinal cross-lagged model showed family mutuality at T1 significantly predicted depression, anxiety, and family mutuality at T2. We observed a decreasing prevalence of depression and anxiety after the COVID-19 lockdown. Conclusion: Family mutuality plays an important role in mitigating long-term mental health disorders, such as depression and anxiety. More family-centered psychological interventions could be developed to alleviate mental health disorders during lockdowns. Implications: Improving family mutuality (e.g., mutual support, interaction, and caring among family members) could be beneficial for reducing mental health disorders among Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Syst Res Behav Sci ; 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003644

ABSTRACT

This study systematically reviews applications of three simulation approaches, that is, system dynamics model (SDM), agent-based model (ABM) and discrete event simulation (DES), and their hybrids in COVID-19 research and identifies theoretical and application innovations in public health. Among the 372 eligible papers, 72 focused on COVID-19 transmission dynamics, 204 evaluated both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, 29 focused on the prediction of the pandemic and 67 investigated the impacts of COVID-19. ABM was used in 275 papers, followed by 54 SDM papers, 32 DES papers and 11 hybrid model papers. Evaluation and design of intervention scenarios are the most widely addressed area accounting for 55% of the four main categories, that is, the transmission of COVID-19, prediction of the pandemic, evaluation and design of intervention scenarios and societal impact assessment. The complexities in impact evaluation and intervention design demand hybrid simulation models that can simultaneously capture micro and macro aspects of the socio-economic systems involved.

7.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989895

ABSTRACT

Background The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic remains rampant in many countries/regions. Improving the positive detection rate of COVID-19 infection is an important measure for control and prevention of this pandemic. This meta-analysis aims to systematically summarize the current characteristics of the auxiliary screening methods by serology for COVID-19 infection in real world. Methods Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, CNKI, and Wangfang databases were searched for relevant articles published prior to May 1st, 2022. Data on specificity, sensitivity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, area under curve (AUC), and diagnostic odds ratio (dOR) were calculated purposefully. Results Sixty-two studies were included with 35,775 participants in the meta-analysis. Among these studies, the pooled estimates for area under the summary receiver operator characteristic of IgG and IgM to predicting COVID-19 diagnosis were 0.974 and 0.928, respectively. The IgG dOR was 209.78 (95% CI: 106.12 to 414.67). The IgM dOR was 78.17 (95% CI: 36.76 to 166.25). Conclusion Our findings support serum-specific antibody detection may be the main auxiliary screening methods for COVID-19 infection in real world.

8.
Int J Epidemiol ; 51(3): e95-e107, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967889
9.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271231, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963025

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of COVID-19 in Ethiopia was attributed to joint effects of multiple factors such as low adherence to face mask-wearing, failure to comply with social distancing measures, many people attending religious worship activities and holiday events, extensive protests, country election rallies during the pandemic, and the war between the federal government and Tigray Region. This study built a system dynamics model to capture COVID-19 characteristics, major social events, stringencies of containment measures, and vaccination dynamics. This system dynamics model served as a framework for understanding the issues and gaps in the containment measures against COVID-19 in the past period (16 scenarios) and the spread dynamics of the infectious disease over the next year under a combination of different interventions (264 scenarios). In the counterfactual analysis, we found that keeping high mask-wearing adherence since the outbreak of COVID-19 in Ethiopia could have significantly reduced the infection under the condition of low vaccination level or unavailability of the vaccine supply. Reducing or canceling major social events could achieve a better outcome than imposing constraints on people's routine life activities. The trend analysis found that increasing mask-wearing adherence and enforcing more stringent social distancing were two major measures that can significantly reduce possible infections. Higher mask-wearing adherence had more significant impacts than enforcing social distancing measures in our settings. As the vaccination rate increases, reduced efficacy could cause more infections than shortened immunological periods. Offsetting effects of multiple interventions (strengthening one or more interventions while loosening others) could be applied when the levels or stringencies of one or more interventions need to be adjusted for catering to particular needs (e.g., less stringent social distancing measures to reboot the economy or cushion insufficient resources in some areas).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934344

ABSTRACT

Although two years have passed since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, various variants are still rampant across the globe. The Omicron variant, in particular, is rapidly gained dominance through its ability to spread. In this study, we elucidated the spatial distribution pattern of Omicron from a global perspective. We used the cumulative number of notified COVID-19 cases per country spanning four weeks up to February 10, 2022, and the proportion of the Omicron variant genomic sequences from the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID). The global spatial distribution of Omicron was investigated by analyzing Global & Local Moran's I and Getis- Ord General G. The spatial weight matrix was defined by combining K-Nearest neighbour and flight connectivity between countries. The results showed that the epidemic is relatively severe in Europe, countries with a high number of Omicron cases and incidence tended to be clustered spatially. In contrast, there are relatively fewer Omicron cases in Asia and Africa, with few hotspots identified. Furthermore, some noted spatial outliers, such as a lowvalue area surrounded by high-value areas, deserve special attention. This study has improved our awareness of the global distribution of Omicron. The findings can provide helpful information for deploying targeted epidemic preparedness for the subsequent COVID-19 variant and future epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf ; 112: 102855, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895129

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused almost 770,000 deaths in the United States by November 2021. The nighttime light (NTL), representing the intensity of human activities, may reflect the degree of human contacts and therefore the intensity of COVID-19 transmission. This study intended to assess the associations between NTL differences and COVID-19 incidence and mortality among U.S. counties. The COVID-19 data of U.S. counties as of 31 December 2020 were collected. The average NTL values for each county in 2019 and 2020 were derived from satellite data. A negative binomial mixed model was adopted to assess the relationships between NTL intensity and COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Compared to the counties with the lowest NTL level (0.14-0.37 nW/cm2/sr), those with the highest NTL level (1.78-59.61 nW/cm2/sr) were related with 15% higher mortality rates (mortality rate ratio:1.15, 95 %CI: 1.02-1.30, p-value: 0.02) and 23% higher incidence rates (incidence rate ratio:1.23, 95 %CI: 1.13-1.34, p-value < 0.0001). Our study suggested that more intensive NTL was related with higher incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19, and NTL had a stronger correlation with the COVID-19 incidence rate than mortality rate. Our findings have contributed solid epidemiological evidence to the existing COVID-19 knowledge pool, and would help policymakers develop interventions when faced with the potential risk of the following outbreaks.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 309: 193-200, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that depressive symptoms, emotional competence, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) may mediate the association between family functioning and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the mediation effects of depressive symptoms, emotional competence, and COVID-related PTSS on the relationship between family functioning and NSSI in adolescents. METHOD: A sample of 5854 adolescents was recruited from June 16 to July 8, 2020. The data for family functioning, depressive symptoms, emotional competence, COVID-related PTSS, and NSSI behavior of adolescents were collected via self-reported questionnaires. A structural equation model was constructed to examine the relationship, and a bootstrap analysis was conducted to evaluate the mediation effects. RESULTS: The reporting rate of adolescent NSSI was 30.2%. The poor family functioning was positively associated with adolescent NSSI (ß = 0.130, 95% CI = 0.093-0.182), which was mediated by depression with effect size of 0.231 (95% CI = 0.201-0.257). The pathway coefficients between emotional competence and NSSI, and depression, COVID-related PTSS and NSSI, though statistically significant were unlikely to be clinically meaning with values of 0.057 and 0.015. There was no mediating effect by COVID-related PTSS. The pathways initially constructed between family functioning and COVID-related PTSS, emotional capacity and COVID-related PTSS were not been verified. LIMITATIONS: It was unclear whether this mediational effect would be supported in a longitudinal design. The application and extension of this model toward other regions and countries, and different ages need to be further explored. CONCLUSION: The interventions of adolescent NSSI should focus on both the family level and individual levels. Improving family environment, screening depressive symptoms, enhancing emotional competence and lessening COVID-related PTSS may reduce NSSI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Emotions , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology
14.
Annual Review of Psychology ; 73:575-598, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1738482

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses wide-ranging impacts on the physical and mental health of people around the world, increasing attention from both researchers and practitioners on the topic of resilience. In this article, we review previous research on resilience from the past several decades, focusing on how to cultivate resilience during emerging situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic at the individual, organizational, community, and national levels from a socioecological perspective. Although previous research has greatly enriched our understanding of the conceptualization, predicting factors, processes, and consequences of resilience from a variety of disciplines and levels, future research is needed to gain a deeper and comprehensive understanding of resilience, including developing an integrative and interdisciplinary framework for cultivating resilience, developing an understanding of resilience from a life span perspective, and developing scalable and cost-effective interventions for enhancing resilience and improving pandemic preparedness. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324519

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) at the hardest-hit city of Wuhan, the fast-moving spread has killed over three hundred people and infected more than ten thousands in China1. There are more than one hundred cases outside of China, affecting a dozen of countries globally2. The genome sequence of 2019-nCoV has been reported and fast diagnostic kits, effective treatment as well as preventive vaccines are rapidly being developed3. Initial fast-growing confirmed cases triggered lock-down of Wuhan as well as nearby cities in Hubei Province. Mathematical models have been proposed by scientists around the world to project the numbers of infected cases in the coming days 4,5. However, major factors such as transportation and cultural customs have not been weighed enough. Our model is not set out for precise prediction of the number of infected cases, rather, it is meant for a glance of the dynamics under a public epidemic emergency situation and of different contributing factors. We hope that our model and simulation would provide more insights and perspective information to public health authorities around the globe for better informed prevention and containment solution.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321378

ABSTRACT

It is important to forecast the risk of COVID-19 symptom onset and thereby evaluate how effectively the city lockdown measure could reduce this risk. This study is a first comprehensive, high-resolution investigation of spatiotemporal heterogeneities in the effect of the Wuhan lockdown on the risk of COVID-19 symptom onset in all 347 Chinese cities. An extended Weight Kernel Density Estimation model was developed to predict the COVID-19 onset risk under two scenarios (i.e., with and without Wuhan lockdown). The Wuhan lockdown, compared with the scenario without lockdown implementation, delayed the arrival of the COVID-19 onset risk peak for 1-2 days in general and lowered risk peak values among all cities. The decrease of the onset risk attributed to the lockdown was more than 8% in over 40% of Chinese cities, and up to 21.3% in some cities. Lockdown was the most effective in areas with medium risk before lockdown.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312630

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, COVID-19 has been confirmed in more than18.8 million patients and leads to 0.70 million deaths worldwide. The mortality and disease severity predictors of COVID-19 have been investigated in many studies. However, they are based on early or partial datasets from high epidemic areas. Here, we retrospect benign clinical and epidemiological outcomes-associated factors from a solved epidemic in a low epidemic area. Methods: : All 98 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients in a local epidemic (Zhuhai, China) from January 17, 2020 to March 10, 2020 were enrolled. Data were updated until all patients having final outcomes. Results: : Patients were all hospitalized. The case fatality rate was 1.0%. There were no local secondary infection cases. The median age was 46.3 years. Underlying diseases were found in 33.7% patients. The severe/critical rate was 19.4%. The mean period from disease onset to admission was 4.4 days. Compared with serious/critical cases, mild/common cases on admission were much younger, lacks of comorbidities and normal in functions of vital organs and indicators of secondary bacterial infections. The lymphocyte counts in serious/critical cases began to be significantly lower 3 days before their identification dates. The absence of lymphopenia before the eighth day from disease onset can exclude the possibility of 78.5% to be serious/critical ill. Most patients (88.8%) received antiviral treatments. Early antiviral treatment significantly shortened the viral RNA-negative conversion time. The delayed antiviral treatment was associated with critical patients. Conclusions: : Younger age, lack of aging-related diseases and early hospitalization of all patients to conduct antiviral treatment and prevention of secondary epidemic were the important benign clinical and epidemiological outcomes-associated factors of COVID-19. In combating COVID-19, the active intervention strategies are crucial in low epidemic areas and the continuous monitoring of lymphocytes may be useful to sort patients reasonably in high epidemic areas.

18.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687129

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains rampant in many countries, it has recently waned in Sichuan, China. This study examined spatiotemporal variations of the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 across its course. Three approaches, i.e. calendar-based, measure-driven and data-driven ones, were applied to all individual cases reported as of 30th November 2020, dividing the COVID-19 pandemic into five periods. A total of 808 people with confirmed diagnosis and 279 asymptomatic cases were reported, the majority of whom were aged 30-49 and <30 years, respectively. The highest risk was seen in Chengdu (capital city), with 411 confirmed and 195 asymptomatic cases. The main sources of infection changed from importation from Hubei Province to importation from other provinces, then local transmission and ultimately importation from foreign countries. The periods highlighted by the three methods presented different epidemic patterns and trends. The calendar-based periods were even with most cases aggregated in the first period, which did not reflect various transmission patterns of COVID-19 due to various sources of infection; the measure-driven and data-driven periods were not consistent with each other, revealing that the effects of implementing prevention measures were reflected on the epidemic trend with a time lag. For example, the decreasing trends of new cases occurred 7, 3 and 4 days later than the firstlevel emergency response, the district-level prevention measures and the second-level emergency response, respectively. This study has advanced our understanding of epidemic course and foreshown all stages of COVID-19 epidemic. Many countries can learn from our findings about what will occur next in their timelines and how to be better prepared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sustainability ; 14(3):1092, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625045

ABSTRACT

Good health and well-being are key to achieving the main goals of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially after the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic. What is a concern for both government and society is how to understand the spatial match of hierarchical healthcare facilities and residential areas in terms of quantity and capacity, to meet the challenges of various diseases and build a healthy life. Using hierarchical healthcare data and cellphone signaling data in Beijing, China, we used the kernel density estimation, a bivariate spatial autocorrelation model, and a coupling index to explore the spatial relationships between hierarchical healthcare facilities and residential areas. We found large numbers of both healthcare facilities and residential areas in the urban center, and small numbers of both at the urban edge. The hospitals and designated retail pharmacies in the densely populated areas do not have enough capacity to meet the need of the population. In addition, the capacity of primary healthcare institutions can meet people’s needs. Our findings would serve as a reference for urban planning, optimization of hierarchical healthcare facilities, and research on similar themes.

20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 767004, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598043

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound influence on the mental health and well-being of individuals across the globe. Emotional competence, defined as one's ability to recognize, understand, and manage their emotions, has been found linked with mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety) in previous studies. However, there is limited knowledge about the direction of the association between these factors among populations exposed to COVID-19. This study examined the possible mediation relationships between depression, anxiety, emotional competence, and COVID-19 exposure among Chinese adolescents. Methods: Responses from 7,958 Chinese adolescents who had previously taken part in a two-wave study before (December 23, 2019-January 13, 2020) and during COVID-19 (June 16, 2020-July 8, 2020) were analyzed (51.67% males, mean age = 11.74, SD = 2.15). Structural equation modeling with three covariates (i.e., age, gender, and ethnicity) was used to test the longitudinal mediation relationships between COVID-19 exposure and depression, anxiety via emotional competence. Results: Results indicated that the prevalence of depression (38.67 to 36.74%) and anxiety (13.02 to 12.77%) decreased from Time 1 to Time 2. The T2 emotional competence significantly mediated the relationship between T2 COVID-19 exposure and T2 anxiety (indirect effect [95% CI] = 0.011 [0.004-0.019], p < 0.05). T2 emotional competence also significantly mediated the relationship between T2 COVID-19 exposure and T2 depression (indirect effect [95% CI] = 0.013 [0.005-0.022], p < 0.05). The results indicated that T2 emotional competence had a significant and negative influence on T2 anxiety (ß = -0.266, SE = 0.005, p < 0.001), and T2 depression (ß = -0.326, SE = 0.029, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This longitudinal research study demonstrated the crucial role of emotional competence in influencing the severity of long-term mental health problems, and suggested that emotional competence interventions can be conducted to improve mental well-being among Chinese adolescents exposed to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety Disorders , Child , China/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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