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1.
Pers Individ Dif ; 192: 111589, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839183

ABSTRACT

To be or not to be quarantined? That is the question posed by COVID-19 pandemic to almost every resident in the world. Approximately three months after the first application of the COVID-19 lockdown to residents in 17 Asian, African, European, American, and Oceanian countries, we carried out a cross-national survey of 26,266 residents via online platforms such as Sojump and Prolific to investigate their willingness to quarantine and its influencing factors. Findings show that 1) The willingness to quarantine is low in countries with high long-term orientation; 2) Females are more willing to be quarantined than males; 3) Gender difference on willingness to quarantine is large among people with older age and low education. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. Understanding how culture and demographics affect people's willingness to quarantine not only provides insight into how to respond to the current pandemic, but also helps the world prepare for future crises.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315336

ABSTRACT

Wuhan encountered a serious attack in the first round of the COVID-19 pandemic which has resulted in serious worldwide consequences politically and economically. Based on the Weibo help data, we inferred the spatial distribution pattern of the epidemic situation and its impacts. Seven urban factors, i.e. urban growth, general hospital, commercial facilities, subway station, landuse mixture, aging ratio, and road density, were selected for validation with the ordinary linear model, and the former six presented globally significant association with the epidemic severity;thereafter, the geographically weighted regression model was further adopted for local test to identify their unevenly distributed effects in urban space. Among the six, the place where general hospitals exert effects on epidemic situation highly is associated with their distribution and density;commercial facilities appear the most prevalently distributed factor over the city;newly developed residential quarters with high-rise buildings face greater risks, mainly distributed around the waterfront area of Hanyang and Wuchang;the influence of subway stations concentrates at the adjacency place where the three towns meet and near-terminal locations;aging ratio dominantly affects the hinterland of Hankou in a broader extent than other areas in the city. Upon the result, a series of managerial implications that coordinate various urban factors have been proposed. This research is conductive to developing specific planning and design responses for different areas in the city based on a better understanding of the occurrence, transmission, and diffusion of the COVID-19 epidemic in the metropolitan area.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1831-1839, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monitoring of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody prevalence can complement case reporting to inform more accurate estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infection burden, but few studies have undertaken repeated sampling over time on a broad geographic scale. METHODS: We performed serologic testing on a convenience sample of residual serum obtained from persons of all ages, at 10 sites in the United States from 23 March through 14 August 2020, from routine clinical testing at commercial laboratories. We standardized our seroprevalence rates by age and sex, using census population projections and adjusted for laboratory assay performance. Confidence intervals were generated with a 2-stage bootstrap. We used bayesian modeling to test whether seroprevalence changes over time were statistically significant. RESULTS: Seroprevalence remained below 10% at all sites except New York and Florida, where it reached 23.2% and 13.3%, respectively. Statistically significant increases in seroprevalence followed peaks in reported cases in New York, South Florida, Utah, Missouri, and Louisiana. In the absence of such peaks, some significant decreases were observed over time in New York, Missouri, Utah, and Western Washington. The estimated cumulative number of infections with detectable antibody response continued to exceed reported cases in all sites. CONCLUSIONS: Estimated seroprevalence was low in most sites, indicating that most people in the United States had not been infected with SARS-CoV-2 as of July 2020. The majority of infections are likely not reported. Decreases in seroprevalence may be related to changes in healthcare-seeking behavior, or evidence of waning of detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels at the population level. Thus, seroprevalence estimates may underestimate the cumulative incidence of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Bayes Theorem , Child , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Utah
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e1004-e1009, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, with subsequent worldwide spread. The first US cases were identified in January 2020. METHODS: To determine if SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies were present in sera prior to the first identified case in the United States on 19 January 2020, residual archived samples from 7389 routine blood donations collected by the American Red Cross from 13 December 2019 to 17 January 2020 from donors resident in 9 states (California, Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin) were tested at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Specimens reactive by pan-immunoglobulin (pan-Ig) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the full spike protein were tested by IgG and IgM ELISAs, microneutralization test, Ortho total Ig S1 ELISA, and receptor-binding domain/ACE2 blocking activity assay. RESULTS: Of the 7389 samples, 106 were reactive by pan-Ig. Of these 106 specimens, 90 were available for further testing. Eighty-four of 90 had neutralizing activity, 1 had S1 binding activity, and 1 had receptor-binding domain/ACE2 blocking activity >50%, suggesting the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies. Donations with reactivity occurred in all 9 states. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may have been introduced into the United States prior to 19 January 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , China , Connecticut , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Iowa , Massachusetts , Michigan , Oregon , Rhode Island , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Washington , Wisconsin
5.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 98-103, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974348

ABSTRACT

Half a year after its emergence, severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a pandemic, with cases continuing to increase in nearly every country. Surges in coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) cases have clearly had profound effects on current cancer treatment paradigms. Considering the effect of antineoplastic treatment and the immunosuppressive properties of cancer itself, cancer patients are deemed to be more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2. Hence, the specific risk of SARS-CoV-2 must be carefully weighed against the benefit of antineoplastic treatment for cancer patients in the COVID-19 era. In this review, we discuss the current evidence in this important field, and in particular, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on antineoplastic treatment.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
6.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 17(18):6712, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-762684

ABSTRACT

Wuhan encountered a serious attack in the first round of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in a public health social impact, including public mental health. Based on the Weibo help data, we inferred the spatial distribution pattern of the epidemic situation and its impacts. Seven urban factors, i.e., urban growth, general hospital, commercial facilities, subway station, land-use mixture, aging ratio, and road density, were selected for validation with the ordinary linear model, in which the former six factors presented a globally significant association with epidemic severity. Then, the geographically weighted regression model (GWR) was adopted to identify their unevenly distributed effects in the urban space. Among the six factors, the distribution and density of major hospitals exerted significant effects on epidemic situation. Commercial facilities appear to be the most prevalently distributed significant factor on epidemic situation over the city. Urban growth, in particular the newly developed residential quarters with high-rise buildings around the waterfront area of Hanyang and Wuchang, face greater risk of the distribution. The influence of subway stations concentrates at the adjacency place where the three towns meet and some near-terminal locations. The aging ratio of the community dominantly affects the hinterland of Hankou to a broader extent than other areas in the city. Upon discovering the result, a series of managerial implications that coordinate various urban factors were proposed. This research may contribute toward developing specific planning and design responses for different areas in the city based on a better understanding of the occurrence, transmission, and diffusion of the COVID-19 epidemic in the metropolitan area.

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