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1.
Build Environ ; 219: 109166, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944378

ABSTRACT

Leading health authorities have suggested short-range airborne transmission as a major route of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, there is no simple method to assess the short-range airborne infection risk or identify its governing parameters. We proposed a short-range airborne infection risk assessment model based on the continuum model and two-stage jet model. The effects of ventilation, physical distance and activity intensity on the short-range airborne exposure were studied systematically. The results suggested that increasing physical distance and ventilation reduced short-range airborne exposure and infection risk. However, a diminishing return phenomenon was observed when the ventilation rate or physical distance was beyond a certain threshold. When the infectious quantum concentration was less than 1 quantum/L at the mouth, our newly defined threshold distance and threshold ventilation rate were independent of quantum concentration. We estimated threshold distances of 0.59, 1.1, 1.7 and 2.6 m for sedentary/passive, light, moderate and intense activities, respectively. At these distances, the threshold ventilation was estimated to be 8, 20, 43, and 83 L/s per person, respectively. The findings show that both physical distancing and adequate ventilation are essential for minimising infection risk, especially in high-intensity activity or densely populated spaces.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(13): 3409-3424, 2022 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939525

ABSTRACT

The Chinese medicinal herb Mahuang is herbaceous stem of Ephedra sinica, E. intermedia, or E. equisetina(Family, Ephedraceae). In China, Mahuang has been used, all the way over a millennium, as a key component herb of many herbal medicines for management of epidemics of acute respiratory illness and is also used in officially recommended herbal medicines for COVID-19. Mahuang is the first-line medicinal herb for cold and wheezing and also an effective diuretic herb for edema. However, Mahuang can also exert significant adverse effects. The key to safety and effectiveness is rational and precise use of the herb. In this review article, we comprehensively summarize chemical composition of Mahuang and associated differences in pharmacognosy, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of Mahuang compounds, along with the adverse effects of Mahuang compounds and products. Based on full understanding of how Mahuang is used in Chinese traditional medicine, systematic research on Mahuang in line with contemporary standards of pharmaceutical sciences will facilitate promoting Chinese herbal medicines to become more efficient in management of epidemic illnesses, such as COVID-19. To this end, we recommend research on Mahuang of two aspects, i.e., pharmacological investigation for its multicompound-involved therapeutic effects and toxicological investigation for clinical manifestation of the adverse effects, chemicals responsible for the adverse effects, and conditions for safe use of the herb and the herb-containing medicines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ephedra sinica , Ephedra , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ephedra sinica/chemistry , Ephedrine/chemistry , Humans , Plants
3.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 125, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital diseases of the genitourinary system in children. The European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines recommend that children undergoing hypospadias surgery should be between 6 and 18 months. In China, where many children have hypospadias, it remains unknown whether clinical characteristics, socioeconomic factors and COVID-19 were associated with delayed surgery in children with hypospadias. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed children with hypospadias who underwent primary surgery at the Department of Pediatric Urology in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between January 2010 and October 2021. Patients who had two-stage surgery or a second round of surgery due to complications were excluded to eliminate data duplication. The clinical characteristics and demographic information were collected. We defined delayed surgery as primary surgery performed after 18 months following the EAU Guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 4439 children diagnosed with hypospadias were included in the study. The median age (29.1 ± 16.7 months) of surgery for hypospadias in our study was much higher than the recommended age reported in the EAU guidelines, and 76.6% of the children underwent surgery after the age of 18 months. Children without comorbidities including cryptorchidism (odds ratio [OR] = 1.562; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.199-2.034; p = 0.001), prostatic cyst (OR = 2.613; 95% CI 1.579-4.324; p < 0.001), penile hypoplasia (OR = 1.778; 95% CI 1.225-2.580; p = 0.002), inguinal hernia (OR = 2.070; 95% CI 1.394-3.075; p < 0.001), and penoscrotal transposition (OR = 4.125; 95% CI 1.250-13.619; p = 0.020) were more likely to receive delayed surgery. Living in a low economic area (OR = 1.731; 95% CI 1.068-2.806; p = 0.026) or not close to a main medical center (OR = 1.580; 95% CI 1.370-1.824; p < 0.001) was highly associated with delayed surgery. The proportion of children undergoing delayed surgery and the median age of surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic were significantly higher than those before the COVID-19 pandemic (p = 0.004 and < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Most children with hypospadias received delayed surgery (surgical age > 18 months). Comorbidities, living in a low economic area, too far from a main medical center and the COVID-19 pandemic were highly associated with delayed surgery. It is vital to improve the public awareness of hypospadias and strengthen the re-education of primary community doctors to reduce delayed surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypospadias , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Hypospadias/complications , Hypospadias/epidemiology , Hypospadias/surgery , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Curr Med Sci ; 42(3): 555-560, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889001

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic impacting over 200 countries/regions and more than 200 million patients worldwide. Among the infected patients, there is a high prevalence of COVID-19-related cardiovascular injuries. However, the specific mechanisms linking cardiovascular damage and COVID-19 remain unclear. The COVID-19 pandemic also has exacerbated the mental health burden of humans. Considering the close association between neuroimmune interactions and cardiovascular disease, this review assessed the complex pathophysiological mechanisms connecting neuroimmune interactions and cardiovascular disease. It was revealed that the mental health burden might be a pivotal accomplice causing COVID-19-associated cardiovascular damage. Specifically, the proinflammatory status of patients with a terrible mood state is closely related to overdrive of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, sympathovagal imbalance, and endothelial dysfunction, which lead to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular injury during COVID-19. Therefore, during the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 patients, particular attention should be given to relieve the mental health burden of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Neuroimmunomodulation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Foods ; 11(10)2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875528

ABSTRACT

Increasing grain production and ensuring food security are always major issues in China, which are related to the sustainable development of the nation. The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020 has brought new challenges to global food security, which highlights the "ballast stone" and "stabilizer" role of food. China's food security must rely on domestic production. As an important production factor, the Internet is also an important channel for farmers to obtain agricultural information, which can effectively reduce the information search cost and information asymmetry. Existing studies have mainly focused on the impact of Internet use on agricultural inputs, agricultural prices, and agricultural efficiency; there are few studies on the impact of Internet use on grain production. To fill this gap, based on the micro survey data of 1242 maize farmers in 13 provinces in China, this paper employs linear regression models and PSM methods to deeply explore the impact of Internet use on farmers' grain production. The results show that Internet use has a significant positive impact on the grain production of farmers. Compared with the farmers who do not use the Internet, Internet use increases the maize yield of farmers by 14.25%. The heterogeneity analysis further shows that the impact of Internet use on the grain production of different farmers varies significantly: the maize yield per ha after using the Internet for farmers of younger, low education level, large-scale, and living in well-developed villages had increased by 13.65%, 15.38%, 23.94%, and 10.64%, respectively, compared with the counterfactual scenario of farmers who do not use the Internet. The results of this paper have passed the robustness test.

6.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22274402

ABSTRACT

BackgroundPeople living with chronic disease, particularly seniors older than 60 years old, are lagging behind in the national vaccination campaign in China due to uncertainty of safety and effectiveness. However, this special population made up of most severe symptom and death cases among infected patients and should be prioritized in vaccination program. In this retrospective study, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the CoronaVac inactivated vaccines in people with underlying medical conditions to address the vaccine hesitation in this special population. MethodsIn this cohort study, volunteers aged 40 years and older, had received two doses of CoronaVac inactivated vaccines (3-5 weeks interval), been healthy or with at least one of the six diseases: coronary heart disease (CAD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic respiratory disease (CRD), obesity and cancer, were recruited from 4 study sites in China. The primary safety outcome was the incidence of adverse events within 14 days after each dose of vaccination. The primary immunogenic outcome was geometric mean titer (GMT) of neutralizing antibodies to living SARS-CoV-2 virus at 14-28 days, 3 months, and 6 months after full two-dose vaccination. This study is registered with ChiCTR.org.cn (ChiCTR2200058281) and is active but no longer recruiting. FindingsAmong 1,302 volunteers screened between Jul 5 and Dec 30, 2021, 969 were eligible and enrolled in our cohort, including 740 living with underlying medical conditions and 229 as healthy control. All of them formed the safety cohort. The overall incidence of adverse reactions was 150 (20.27%) of 740 in the comorbidities group versus 32 (13.97%) of 229 in the healthy group, with significant difference (P=0.0334). The difference was mainly contributed by fatigue and injection-site pain in some groups. Most adverse reactions were mild (Grade 1). We did not observe any serious adverse events related to vaccination. By day 14-28 post vaccination, the seroconversion rates and GMT of neutralizing antibody showed no significant difference between disease group and healthy group, except CAD group (P=0.03) and CRD group (P=0.04) showed slight reduction. By day 90, the neutralizing antibody GMTs were significantly reduced in each group, with no significant difference between diseases and healthy group. By day 180, the neutralizing antibody continued to decrease in each group, but with slower declination. InterpretationFor people living with chronic disease especially seniors older than 60 years, the CoronaVac vaccines are as safe as in healthy people. Although the immunogenicity is slightly different in subgroup of some diseases compared with that of the healthy population, the overall trend was consistent. Our findings highlight the evidence to address vaccine hesitancy for seniors and people living with chronic diseases. FundingYunnan Provincial Science and Technology Department (202102AA100051 and 202003AC100010, China), Sinovac Biotech Ltd (PRO-nCOV-4004).

7.
Environ Pollut ; 305: 119308, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796874

ABSTRACT

Numerous epidemiological studies have shown a close relationship between outdoor air pollution and increased risks for cancer, infection, and cardiopulmonary diseases. However, very few studies have investigated the potential health effects of coexposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) and bioaerosols through the transmission of infectious agents, particularly under the current circumstances of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to identify urinary metabolite biomarkers that might serve as clinically predictive or diagnostic standards for relevant diseases in a real-time manner. We performed an unbiased gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/LC-MS) approach to detect urinary metabolites in 92 samples from young healthy individuals collected at three different time points after exposure to clean air, polluted ambient, or purified air, as well as two additional time points after air repollution or repurification. Subsequently, we compared the metabolomic profiles between the two time points using an integrated analysis, along with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes-enriched pathway and time-series analysis. We identified 33 and 155 differential metabolites (DMs) associated with PM and bioaerosol exposure using GC/LC-MS and follow-up analyses, respectively. Our findings suggest that 16-dehydroprogesterone and 4-hydroxyphenylethanol in urine samples may serve as potential biomarkers to predict or diagnose PM- or bioaerosol-related diseases, respectively. The results indicated apparent differences between PM- and bioaerosol-associated DMs at five different time points and revealed dynamic alterations in the urinary metabolic profiles of young healthy humans with cyclic exposure to clean and polluted air environments. Our findings will help in investigating the detrimental health effects of short-term coexposure to airborne PM and bioaerosols in a real-time manner and improve clinically predictive or diagnostic strategies for preventing air pollution-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Young Adult
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331247

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital diseases of the genitourinary system in children. The European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines recommend that children undergoing hypospadias surgery should be between 6-18 months. In China, where many children have hypospadias, it remains unknown whether clinical characteristics, socioeconomic factors and COVID-19 were associated with delayed surgery in children with hypospadias. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed children with hypospadias who underwent primary surgery at the Department of Pediatric Urology in Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center between January 2010 and October 2021. Patients who had two-stage surgery or a second round of surgery due to complications were excluded to eliminate data duplication. The clinical characteristics and demographic information were collected. We defined delayed surgery as primary surgery performed after 18 months following the EAU guideline. Results: A total of 4439 children diagnosed with hypospadias were included in the study. The median age (29.1±16.7 months) of surgery for hypospadias in our study was much higher than the recommended age reported in the EAU guidelines, and 76.6% of the children underwent surgery after the age of 18 months. Children without comorbidities including cryptorchidism (odds ratio [OR]=1.562;95% confidence interval [CI]1.199-2.034;p =0.001), prostatic cyst (OR=2.613;95% CI 1.579-4.324;p< 0.001), penile hypoplasia (OR=1.778;95% CI 1.225-2.580;p= 0.002), inguinal hernia (OR=2.070;95% CI 1.394-3.075;p< 0.001), and penoscrotal transposition (OR=4.125;95% CI 1.250-13.619;p= 0.020) were more likely to receive delayed surgery. Living in a low economic area (OR=1.731;95% CI 1.068-2.806;p= 0.026) or not close to a main medical center (OR=1.580;95% CI 1.370-1.824;p <0.001) was highly associated with delayed surgery. The proportion of children undergoing delayed surgery and the median age of surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic were significantly higher than those before the COVID-19 pandemic ( p =0.004 and < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Most children with hypospadias received delayed surgery (surgical age >18 months). Comorbidities, living in a low economic area, too far from a major city medical center and the COVID-19 pandemic were also highly associated with delayed surgery. It is vital to improve the public awareness of hypospadias and strengthen the re-education of primary community doctors to reduce delayed surgery. Trial registration Not applicable.

9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731242

ABSTRACT

From 2003 onwards, three pandemics have been caused by coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV); middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV); and, most recently, SARS-CoV-2. Notably, all three were transmitted from animals to humans. This would suggest that animals are potential sources of epidemics for humans. The emerging porcine delta-coronavirus was reported to infect children. This is a red flag that marks the ability of PDCoV to break barriers of cross-species transmission to humans. Therefore, we conducted molecular genetic analysis of global clade PDCoV to characterize spatiotemporal patterns of viral diffusion and genetic diversity. PDCoV was classified into three major lineages, according to distribution and phylogenetic analysis of PDCoV. It can be inferred based on the analysis results of the currently known PDCoV strains that PDCoV might originate in Asia. We also selected six special spike amino acid sequences to align and analyze to find seven significant mutation sites. The accumulation of these mutations may enhance dynamic movements, accelerating spike protein membrane fusion events and transmission. Altogether, our study offers a novel insight into the diversification, evolution, and interspecies transmission and origin of PDCoV and emphasizes the need to study the zoonotic potential of the PDCoV and comprehensive surveillance and enhanced biosecurity precautions for PDCoV.

10.
Interface Focus ; 12(2): 20210063, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713822

ABSTRACT

Poor housing conditions are known to be associated with infectious diseases such as high Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidences. Transmission causes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in poor housing conditions can be complex. An understanding of the exact mechanism of transmission can help to pinpoint contributing environmental issues. Here, we investigated a Hong Kong COVID-19 outbreak in early 2021 in four traditional Tong Lau houses with subdivided units. There are more than 80 subdivided units of less than 20 m2 floor area each on average. With a total of 34 confirmed COVID-19 cases, the outbreak had an attack rate of 25.4%, being one of the highest attack rates observed in Hong Kong, and ranked among the highest attack rates in reported outbreaks internationally. Tracer gas leakage and decay measurements were performed in the drainage system and in the subdivided units to determine the transport of infectious aerosols by the owner-modified sophisticated wastewater drainage pipe networks and the poor ventilation conditions in some subdivided units. The results show that the outbreak was probably due to multiple transmission routes, i.e. by the drainage pipe spread of stack aerosols, which is enhanced by poor ventilation in the subdivided units.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324149

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, treatment and short-term prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in children with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to twelve hospitals in eight cities in Hunan province, China, from January 26, 2020 to June 30, 2020. Results: A total of 48 children were enrolled in this study. 11 cases (23%) were asymptomatic, 15 cases (31%) were mild, 20 cases (42%) were moderate, and 2 cases (4%) were severe. No children were critical requiring intensive care. The most common symptom was fever (42%), cough (40%), fatigue (17%) and diarrhea (10%). The total peripheral blood leukocytes count decreased in two case (4%), Lymphocytopenia was present in 5 cases (10%). There were abnormal chest CT changes in 22 children (46%), including 15 (68%) with patchy ground glass opacity. In addition to supportive treatment, 41 children (85%) received antiviral therapy, 11 patients and (23%) were treated with antibiotics, 2 children (4%) were treated with methylprednisolone and IVIG. There was no death occurred. Conclusions: Most children with SARS CoV-2 infection in Hunan province were asymptomatic, mild or moderate. Severe cases are rare. Close family contact was the main route of infection. The younger the age, the less obvious symptoms for children might be. Epidemiological history, nucleic acid test and chest imaging were important tools for the diagnosis in children.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315184

ABSTRACT

Background: Numerous epidemiological studies showed close relationships of outdoor air pollution with increased risk of cancer, infection, and cardiopulmonary diseases. However, a very limited number of studies investigate the potential biomarkers of the co-exposures of particle matters (PM) and bioaerosols, especially under current circumstances of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the present study, we aimed to identify metabolic candidate biomarkers that are associated with co-exposure to PM and bioaerosols.Methods: We performed an unbiased gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/LC-MS) approach to detect urinary metabolites of 92 samples from young healthy individuals collected at three different time points with exposure to clean, polluted ambient, and purified air , followed by a cycling test after air re-pollution and re-purification with two additional time points. Subsequently, we compared metabolomic profiles in between two-time points via an integrated analysis, plus KEGG enriched pathway and time series analysis.Findings: We identified 33 and 155 differential metabolites (DMs) associated with PM and bioaerosol exposure, respectively. The results from KEGG data and time series analysis indicated significantly enriched pathways and dynamic alterations of metabolomic profiles, respectively. 16-Dehydroprogesterone and 4-Hydroxyphenylethanol in urine might be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of PM- or bioaerosol-relevant diseases.Interpretation: The present studies revealed dynamic alterations in urinary metabolites of young healthy humans with the cycling of the clean and polluted air environment. Our findings help to investigate detrimental health effects of airborne PM and bioaerosols in a real-time manner and improve clinically diagnostic tools for PM- and bioaerosol-related diseases.Funding Information: This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [NSFC Grant no. 81673958, 82074262, and 81828010];CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences [CIFMS 2016-I2M-3-013];The Drug Innovation Major Project of China [2018ZX09711001-007-002].Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflicts of interest in this work.Ethics Approval Statement: Our study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Guang'anmen Hospital. All recruited subjects provided written informed consent.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308319

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a continuous-time stochastic intensity model, namely, two-phase dynamic contagion process(2P-DCP), for modelling the epidemic contagion of COVID-19 and investigating the lockdown effect based on the dynamic contagion model introduced by Dassios and Zhao (2011). It allows randomness to the infectivity of individuals rather than a constant reproduction number as assumed by standard models. Key epidemiological quantities, such as the distribution of final epidemic size and expected epidemic duration, are derived and estimated based on real data for various regions and countries. The associated time lag of the effect of intervention in each country or region is estimated. Our results are consistent with the incubation time of COVID-19 found by recent medical study. We demonstrate that our model could potentially be a valuable tool in the modeling of COVID-19. More importantly, the proposed model of 2P-DCP could also be used as an important tool in epidemiological modelling as this type of contagion models with very simple structures is adequate to describe the evolution of regional epidemic and worldwide pandemic.

14.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 70, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639260

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary sequelae following COVID-19 pneumonia have been emerging as a challenge; however, suitable cell sources for studying COVID-19 mechanisms and therapeutics are currently lacking. In this paper, we present a standardized primary alveolar cell culture method for establishing a human alveolar epithelium model that can recapitulate viral infection and cellular plasticity. The alveolar model is infected with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, and the clinically relevant features of the viral entry into the alveolar type-I/II cells, cytokine production activation, and pulmonary surfactant destruction are reproduced. For this damaged alveolar model, we find that the inhibition of Wnt signaling via XAV939 substantially improves alveolar repair function and prevents subsequent pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, the proposed alveolar cell culture strategy exhibits potential for the identification of pathogenesis and therapeutics in basic and translational research.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cell Plasticity , Primary Cell Culture/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Humans , Virus Internalization
15.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(4): 513-520, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of 14 October 2021, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected more than 246 million individuals and caused more than 4.9 million deaths worldwide. COVID-19 has caused significant damage to the health, economy and lives of people worldwide. Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is not as lethal as SARS coronavirus or Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, its high transmissibility has had disastrous consequences for public health and health-care systems worldwide given the lack of effective treatment at present. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 caused lung inflammation and injury, from the molecular mechanism to lung damage and tissue repair, from research to clinical practice, and then presented clinical requirements. SOURCES: References for this review were identified through searches '(COVID-19 [Title]) OR (SARS-CoV-2 [Title])' on PubMed, and focused on the pathological damage and clinical practice of COVID-19. CONTENT: We comprehensively reviewed the process of lung inflammation and injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection, including pyroptosis of alveolar epithelial cells, cytokine storm and thrombotic inflammatory mechanisms. IMPLICATIONS: This review describes SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to SARS and explores why most people have mild inflammatory responses, even asymptomatic infections, and only a few develop severe disease. It suggests that future therapeutic strategies may be targeted antiviral therapy, the pathogenic pathways in the lung inflammatory response, and enhancing repair and regeneration in lung injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Displays ; 72: 102148, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597394

ABSTRACT

In their continuing battle against the COVID-19 pandemic, medical workers in hospitals worldwide need to wear safety glasses and goggles to protect their eyes from the possible transmission of the virus. However, they work for long hours and need to wear a mask and other personal protective equipment, which causes their protective eye wear to fog up. This fogging up of eye wear, in turn, has a substantial impact in the speed and accuracy of reading information on the interface of electrocardiogram (ECG) machines. To gain a better understanding of the extent of the impact, this study experimentally simulates the fogging of protective goggles when viewing the interface with three variables: the degree of fogging of the goggles, brightness of the screen, and color of the font of the cardiovascular readings. This experimental study on the target recognition of digital font is carried out by simulating the interface of an ECG machine and readability of the ECG machine with fogged eye wear. The experimental results indicate that the fogging of the lenses has a significant impact on the recognition speed and the degree of fogging has a significant correlation with the font color and brightness of the screen. With a reduction in screen brightness, its influence on recognition speed shows a v-shaped trend, and the response time is the shortest when the screen brightness is 150 cd/m2. When eyewear is fogged, yellow and green font colors allow a quicker response with a higher accuracy. On the whole, the subjects show a better performance with the use of green font, but there are inconsistencies. In terms of the interaction among the three variables, the same results are also found and the same conclusion can be made accordingly. This research study can act as a reference for the interface design of medical equipment in events where medical staff wear protective eyewear for a long period of time.

18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21267353

ABSTRACT

Given high SARS-CoV-2 incidence, coupled with slow and inequitable vaccine roll-out, there is an urgent need for evidence to underpin optimum vaccine deployment, aiming to maximise global population immunity at speed. We evaluate whether a single vaccination in previously infected individuals generates similar initial and subsequent antibody responses to two vaccinations in those without prior infection. We compared anti-spike IgG antibody responses after a single dose of ChAdOx1, BNT162b2, or mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in the COVID-19 Infection Survey in the UK general population. In 100,849 adults who received at least one vaccination, 13,404 (13.3%) had serological and/or PCR evidence of prior infection. Prior infection significantly boosted antibody responses for all three vaccines, producing a higher peak level and longer half-life, and a response comparable to those without prior infection receiving two vaccinations. In those with prior infection, median time above the positivity threshold was estimated to last for >1 year after the first dose. Single-dose vaccination targeted to those previously infected may provide protection in populations with high rates of previous infection faced with limited vaccine supply, as an interim measure while vaccine campaigns are scaled up.

19.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537606

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a major threat to human health and health care systems. Urgent prevention and control measures have obstructed patients' access to pain treatment, and many patients with pain have been unable to receive adequate and timely medical services. Many patients with COVID-19 report painful symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and chest pain during the initial phase of the disease. Persistent pain sequela in patients with COVID-19 has a physical or mental impact and may also affect the immune, endocrine, and other systems. However, the management and treatment of neurological symptoms such as pain are often neglected for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Based on the China's early experience in the management of COVID-19 symptoms, the possible negative effects of pre-existing chronic pain in patients with COVID-19 and the challenges of COVID-19 prevention and control bring to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain are discussed. This review calls to attention the need to optimize pain management during and after COVID-19.

20.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(12): 1493-1503, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532765

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Human urinary kallidinogenase (HUK) has shown favorable efficacies in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treatment. We sought confirmation of the safety and efficacy of HUK for AIS in a large population. METHODS: RESK study enrolled patients with AIS of anterior circulation to receive HUK infusion. The primary endpoint was the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Secondary endpoints assessed neurological and functional improvements and stroke recurrent rate. RESULTS: Of 1206 eligible patients, 1202 patients received at least one dose of HUK infusion and 983 (81.5%) completed the study. The incidence of treatment-emergent AEs and serious AEs were 55.99% and 2.41%, respectively. Pre-specified AEs of special interest occurred in 21.71% of patients, but the majority were mild and unrelated to therapy. Hypertension, age, treatment time, and drug combination were identified to be associated with drug-related blood pressure reduction. Neurological and functional evaluations revealed favorable outcomes from baseline to post-treatment assessment. The cumulative recurrence rate of stroke was 2.50% during the 90-day assessment. CONCLUSION: HUK had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in AIS patients. Besides, HUK demonstrated the neurological and functional improvements in AIS, further confirming its clinical efficacy in a real-world large population.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Kallikreins/pharmacology , Aged , Female , Humans , Kallikreins/administration & dosage , Kallikreins/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
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