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1.
Biogerontology ; 2023 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237549

ABSTRACT

SARS-Cov-2 infection, which has caused the COVID-19 global pandemic, triggers cellular senescence. In this study, we investigate the role of the SARS-COV-2 spike protein (S-protein) in regulating the senescence of RPE cells. The results showed that administration or overexpression of S-protein in ARPE-19 decreased cell proliferation with cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. S-protein increased SA-ß-Gal positive ARPE-19 cells with high expression of P53 and P21, senescence-associated inflammatory factors (e.g., IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, ICAM, and VEGF), and ROS. Elimination of ROS by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or knocking down p21 by siRNA diminished S-protein-induced ARPE cell senescence. Both administrated and overexpressed S-protein colocalize with the ER and upregulate ER-stress-associated BIP, CHOP, ATF3, and ATF6 expression. S-protein induced P65 protein nuclear translocation. Inhibition of NF-κB by bay-11-7082 reduced S-protein-mediated expression of senescence-associated factors. Moreover, the intravitreal injection of S-protein upregulates senescence-associated inflammatory factors in the zebrafish retina. In conclusions, the S-protein of SARS-Cov-2 induces cellular senescence of ARPE-19 cells in vitro and the expression of senescence-associated cytokines in zebrafish retina in vivo likely by activating ER stress, ROS, and NF-κb. These results may uncover a potential association between SARS-cov-2 infection and development of AMD.

2.
JCI Insight ; 7(13)2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDProlonged symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are well documented. However, which factors influence development of long-term symptoms, how symptoms vary across ethnic groups, and whether long-term symptoms correlate with biomarkers are points that remain elusive.METHODSAdult SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription PCR-positive (RT-PCR-positive) patients were recruited at Stanford from March 2020 to February 2021. Study participants were seen for in-person visits at diagnosis and every 1-3 months for up to 1 year after diagnosis; they completed symptom surveys and underwent blood draws and nasal swab collections at each visit.RESULTSOur cohort (n = 617) ranged from asymptomatic to critical COVID-19 infections. In total, 40% of participants reported at least 1 symptom associated with COVID-19 six months after diagnosis. Median time from diagnosis to first resolution of all symptoms was 44 days; median time from diagnosis to sustained symptom resolution with no recurring symptoms for 1 month or longer was 214 days. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG level in the first week after positive RT-PCR test and history of lung disease were associated with time to sustained symptom resolution. COVID-19 disease severity, ethnicity, age, sex, and remdesivir use did not affect time to sustained symptom resolution.CONCLUSIONWe found that all disease severities had a similar risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome in an ethnically diverse population. Comorbid lung disease and lower levels of initial IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were associated with longer symptom duration.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04373148.FUNDINGNIH UL1TR003142 CTSA grant, NIH U54CA260517 grant, NIEHS R21 ES03304901, Sean N Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, Sunshine Foundation, Crown Foundation, and Parker Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
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