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1.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information ; 10(12):802, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1592306

ABSTRACT

As a typical cybercrime, cyber fraud poses severe threats to civilians’ property safety and social stability. Traditional criminological theories such as routine activity theory focus mainly on the effects of individual characteristics on cybercrime victimization and ignore the impacts of macro-level environmental factors. This study aims at exploring the spatiotemporal pattern of cyber fraud crime in China and investigating the relationships between cyber fraud and environmental factors. The results showed that cyber fraud crimes were initially distributed in southeastern China and gradually spread towards the middle and northern regions;spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that the spatial concentration trend of cyber fraud became more and more strong, and a strong distinction in cyber fraud clustering between the north and the south was identified. To further explain the formative causes of these spatial patterns, a generalized additive model (GAM) was constructed by incorporating natural and social environmental factors. The results suggested that the distribution of cyber fraud was notably affected by the regional economy and population structure. Also, the high incidence of cyber fraud crime was closely associated with a large nonagricultural population, a high proportion of tertiary industry in GDP, a large number of general college students, a longer cable length, and a large numbers of internet users.

2.
EMBO J ; 40(18): e108249, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323479

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging coronavirus that causes dysfunctions in multiple human cells and tissues. Studies have looked at the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells mediated by the viral spike protein and human receptor ACE2. However, less is known about the cellular immune responses triggered by SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. Here, we show that the nucleocapsid of SARS-CoV-2 inhibits host pyroptosis by blocking Gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage. SARS-CoV-2-infected monocytes show enhanced cellular interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) expression, but reduced IL-1ß secretion. While SARS-CoV-2 infection promotes activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1, GSDMD cleavage and pyroptosis are inhibited in infected human monocytes. SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein associates with GSDMD in cells and inhibits GSDMD cleavage in vitro and in vivo. The nucleocapsid binds the GSDMD linker region and hinders GSDMD processing by caspase-1. These insights into how SARS-CoV-2 antagonizes cellular inflammatory responses may open new avenues for treating COVID-19 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Pyroptosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Caspase 1/immunology , Caspase 1/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/immunology , Mice , Monocytes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , THP-1 Cells
3.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 836-846, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275907

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is frequently accompanied by dysfunction of the lungs and extrapulmonary organs. However, the organotropism of SARS-CoV-2 and the port of virus entry for systemic dissemination remain largely unknown. We profiled 26 COVID-19 autopsy cases from four cohorts in Wuhan, China, and determined the systemic distribution of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the lungs and multiple extrapulmonary organs of critically ill COVID-19 patients up to 67 days after symptom onset. Based on organotropism and pathological features of the patients, COVID-19 was divided into viral intrapulmonary and systemic subtypes. In patients with systemic viral distribution, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at blood-air barrier, blood-testis barrier, and filtration barrier. Critically ill patients with long disease duration showed decreased pulmonary cell proliferation, reduced viral RNA, and marked fibrosis in the lungs. Permanent SARS-CoV-2 presence and tissue injuries in the lungs and extrapulmonary organs suggest direct viral invasion as a mechanism of pathogenicity in critically ill patients. SARS-CoV-2 may hijack monocytes, macrophages, and vascular endothelia at physiological barriers as the ports of entry for systemic dissemination. Our study thus delineates systemic pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which sheds light on the development of novel COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Fibrosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/virology , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/virology
4.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4364

ABSTRACT

A review. Beginning at the end of 2019, Novel coronavirus pneumonia caused by the 2019 novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) appeared in Wuhan, China, and spread rapidly across the country. Prior to this, there had been two outbreaks in the world that caused serious consequences caused by different coronaviruses: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This article introduces the structure and classification of coronaviruses, discusses the origin, virol. characteristics, and epidemiol. overview of three coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV, and reviews the current market and possible prevention and Coronavirus drugs, in order to explain the characteristics of coronavirus, provide new ideas for the prevention and control of 2019-nCoV and new coronavirus.

5.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-743

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that broke out in Wuhan has been rapidly spreading to cities in China and the other countries globally. Poli

6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1567-1579, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707709

ABSTRACT

Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have been identified from bats and other animal species. Like SARS-CoV, some bat SL-CoVs, such as WIV1, also use angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) from human and bat as entry receptor. However, whether these viruses can also use the ACE2 of other animal species as their receptor remains to be determined. We report herein that WIV1 has a broader tropism to ACE2 orthologs than SARS-CoV isolate Tor2. Among the 9 ACE2 orthologs examined, human ACE2 exhibited the highest efficiency to mediate the infection of WIV1 pseudotyped virus. Our findings thus imply that WIV1 has the potential to infect a wide range of wild animals and may directly jump to humans. We also showed that cell entry of WIV1 could be restricted by interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs). However, WIV1 could exploit the airway protease TMPRSS2 to partially evade the IFITM3 restriction. Interestingly, we also found that amphotericin B could enhance the infectious entry of SARS-CoVs and SL-CoVs by evading IFITM3-mediated restriction. Collectively, our findings further underscore the risk of exposure to animal SL-CoVs and highlight the vulnerability of patients who take amphotericin B to infection by SL-CoVs, including the most recently emerging (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chiroptera/virology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Rats , Receptors, Coronavirus , SARS Virus/physiology , Viverridae
7.
Chin. Pharm. J. (China) ; 4(55): 284-292, 20200222.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-703880

ABSTRACT

Beginning at the end of 2019, corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) caused by sevare acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus(SARS-CoV-2) appeared in Wuhan, China, and spread rapidly across the country. Prior to this, there had been two outbreaks in the world that caused serious consequences by different coronaviruses: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This article introduces the structure and classification of coronaviruses, discusses the origin, virological characteristics, and epidemiological overview of three coronaviruses-SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, and reviews the drugs that are currently on the market and are being developed to treat coronavirus infections, in order to explain the characteristics of coronavirus and provide new ideas for the prevention and control of 2019-nCoV and new coronavirus.

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