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1.
Epidemics ; 39: 100553, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the relative transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 virus across different contact settings and the possibility of superspreading events is important for prioritizing disease control. Such assessment requires proper consideration of individual level exposure history, which is made possible by contact tracing. METHODS: The case-ascertained study in Shandong, China including 97 laboratory-confirmed index cases and 3158 close contacts. All close contacts were quarantined after their last exposure of index cases. Contacts were tested for COVID-19 regularly by PCR to identify both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. We developed a Bayesian transmission model to the contact tracing data to account for different duration of exposure among individuals to transmission risk in different settings, and the heterogeneity of infectivity of cases. RESULTS: We estimate secondary attack rates (SAR) to be 39% (95% credible interval (CrI): 20-64%) in households, 30% (95% CrI: 11-67%) in healthcare facilities, 23% (95% CrI: 7-51%) at workplaces, and 4% (95% CrI: 1-17%) during air travel. Models allowing heterogeneity of infectivity of cases provided a better goodness-of-fit. We estimated that 64% (95% CrI: 55-72%) of cases did not generate secondary transmissions, and 20% (95% CrI: 15-26%) cases explained 80% of secondary transmissions. CONCLUSIONS: Household, healthcare facilities and workplaces are efficient setting for transmission. Timely identification of potential superspreaders in most transmissible settings remains crucial for containing the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324264

ABSTRACT

Background: Case isolation and contacts tracing are the most widely used strategies to control the outbreak of COVID-19. However, little attention has been paid to the infectiousness of recovered patients with COVID-19.Case presentationIn this study, we reported a confirmed case of COVID-19 whose nasopharyngeal swab test of SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned positive 28 days after hospital discharged.ConclusionsSARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in respiratory tract sample 28 days after hospital discharged. Further studies about consecutive detection of SARS-CoV-2 combined with viral isolation among COVID-19 cases should be designed to determine the accurate contagious period.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313361

ABSTRACT

Background: To analyze the clinical outcomes of COVID-2019 cases and the influencing factors of severe cases in Qingdao City and provide theoretical reference basis for optimizing medical treatment and the strategies of epidemic prevention and control. MethodsThe demographical, epidemiological, clinical data of 81 confirmed COVID-2019 cases in Qingdao City were collected via epidemiological investigation and clinical process tracking. The status of cure, discharge, clinical outcome and influencing factors were analyzed in our study. ResultsAmong the 81 cases,12(14.81%) and 55(67.90%) were mild and ordinary, 9(11.11%) and 4(4.94%) were severe and critical, and 1 critical cases (1.23%) developed into fatal, with the fatality rate 1.23%. The median time from onset of symptoms to hospital admission were 3.67 days (IQR, 1.75 to 6.71). The median duration of illness were 21.00 days (IQR, 16.00 to 26.00) and the median length of hospitalization were 15.63 days (IQR, 11.60 to 20.50). The median time for progression to severe cases was 6.00 days after onset (IQR, 5.00-10.00). The median duration of severe cases was 8.00 days (IQR, 6.25-14.00). Age older than 40 years old (OR=5.797, 95% CI : 1.064~31.568) and first chest CT abnormal (OR=0.1140, 95% CI : 0.014~0.923) were the influencing factors of COVID-2019 severe cases. ConclusionsOlder age and first chest CT normal would be more prone to develop to severe cases of COVID-2019. During the epidemic period, it was necessary to classify and manage cases according to the needs of prevention and control in order to ensure the rational allocation of medical resources.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 690653, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359187

ABSTRACT

Although vaccine resources are being distributed worldwide, insufficient vaccine production remains a major obstacle to herd immunity. In such an environment, the cases of re-positive occurred frequently, and there is a big controversy regarding the cause of re-positive episodes and the infectivity of re-positive cases. In this case-control study, we tracked 39 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from the Jiaodong Peninsula area of China, of which 7 patients tested re-positive. We compared the sex distribution, age, comorbidities, and clinical laboratory results between normal patients and re-positive patients, and analysed the correlation between the significantly different indicators and the re-positive. Re-positive patients displayed a lower level of serum creatinine (63.38 ± 4.94 U/L vs. 86.82 ± 16.98 U/L; P =0.014) and lower albumin (34.70 ± 5.46 g/L vs. 41.24 ± 5.44 g/L, P =0.039) at the time of initial diagnosis. In addition, two positive phases and the middle negative phase in re-positive patients with significantly different eosinophil counts (0.005 ± 0.005 × 109/L; 0.103 ± 0.033 × 109/L; 0.007 ± 0.115 × 109/L; Normal range: 0.02-0.52 × 109/L). The level of eosinophils in peripheral blood can be used as a marker to predict re-positive in patients who once had COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Eosinophils/cytology , Reinfection/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , China , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
6.
China CDC Wkly ; 2(34): 655-657, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355402
7.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(30): 637-644, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317436

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Though coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has largely been controlled in China, several outbreaks of COVID-19 have occurred from importation of cases or of suspected virus-contaminated products. Though several outbreaks have been traced to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated on the outer packaging of cold chain products, live virus has not been obtained. What is added by this report? In September 2020, two dock workers were detected as having asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection using throat swabs during routine screening in Qingdao, China. Epidemiological information showed that the two dock workers were infected after contact with contaminated outer packaging, which was confirmed by genomic sequencing. Compared to the Wuhan reference strain, the sequences from the dock workers and the package materials differed by 12-14 nucleotides. Furthermore, infectious virus from the cold chain products was isolated by cell culture, and typical SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed under electron microscopy. What are the implications for public health practice? The international community should pay close attention to SARS-CoV-2 transmission mode through cold chain, build international cooperative efforts in response, share relevant data, and call on all countries to take effective prevention and control measures to prevent virus contamination in cold-chain food production, marine fishing and processing, transportation, and other operations.

11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111438, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049770

ABSTRACT

Roles of environmental factors in transmission of COVID-19 have been highlighted. In this study, we sampled the high-touch environmental surfaces in the quarantine room, aiming to detect the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the environmental surfaces during the incubation period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Fifteen sites were sampled from the quarantine room, distributing in the functional areas such as bedroom, bathroom and living room. All environmental surface samples were collected with sterile polyester-tipped applicator pre-moistened in viral transport medium and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 34.1% of samples were detected positively for SARS-CoV-2. The positive rates of Patient A, B and C, were 46.2%, 0% and 61.5%, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was detected positively in bedroom and bathroom, with the positive rate of 50.0% and 46.7%, respectively. In contrast, living room had no positive sample detected. Environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 distributes widely during the incubation period of COVID-19, and the positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 on environmental surfaces are relatively high in bathroom and bedroom.


Subject(s)
Bathroom Equipment/virology , COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Microbiology , Environmental Pollution , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Latent Infection/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Latent Infection/epidemiology , Latent Infection/prevention & control , Male , Quarantine/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Properties , Toilet Facilities/standards
12.
Biosaf Health ; 2(4): 199-201, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932794

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread in 220 countries/regions to wreak havoc to human beings around the world. At present, the second wave of COVID-19 has begun in many European countries. The complete control of COVID-19 is very urgent. Although China quickly brought the virus under control, there have been eight sporadic outbreaks in China since then. Both in Xinfadi of Beijing and Dalian outbreak of COVID-19, environmental swab samples related to imported cold chain food were tested nucleic acid positive for SARS-CoV-2. In this outbreak in Qingdao, we directly isolated SARS-CoV-2 from the cod outer package's surface swab samples. This is the first time worldwide, SARS-CoV-2 were isolated from the imported frozen cod outer package's surface, which showed that imported frozen food industry could import SARS-CoV-2 virus.

14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(2): 782-788, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657344

ABSTRACT

Tracing and isolation of close contacts is used to control outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, risk factors associated with the occurrence of COVID-19 among close contacts have not been well described. A total of 106 household contacts were included in this study, of whom 19 developed into COVID-19 cases, and the secondary attack rate was 17.9%. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing risk of occurrence of COVID-19 among household contacts was associated with female index patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.84, 95% CI = 1.07-13.78), critical disease index patients (aHR = 7.58, 95% CI = 1.66-34.66), effective contact duration with index patients > 2 days (aHR = 4.21, 95% CI = 1.29-13.73), and effective contact duration > 11 days (aHR = 17.88, 95% CI = 3.26-98.01). The sex and disease severity of index patients with COVID-19 and longer effective contact duration with patients with confirmed COVID-19 could help epidemiologists to identify potential COVID-19 cases among household contacts at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Family Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Contact Tracing , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140620, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624355

ABSTRACT

We collected environmental surface samples prior to and after disinfection of a quarantine room to evaluate the stability of SARS-CoV-2 during the incubation period of an imported case traveling to Qingdao, China. Overall, 11 of 23 (47.8%) of the first batch of environmental surface samples (within 4 h after case confirmation) were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Whereas only 2 of 23 (8.7%) of the second batch of environmental samples (after first disinfection) were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The majority of samples from the bedroom (70%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, followed by 50% of samples from the bathroom and that of 33% from the corridor. The inner walls of toilet bowl and sewer inlet were the most contaminated sites with the highest viral loads. SARS-CoV-2 was widely distributed on object surfaces in a quarantine room of a later diagnosed COVID-19 case during the incubation period. Proper disinfection is crucial to minimize community transmission of this highly contagious virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Environmental Monitoring , Hospitals, Isolation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , China , Environment , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306108

ABSTRACT

We investigated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) environmental contamination in 2 rooms of a quarantine hotel after 2 presymptomatic persons who stayed there were laboratory-confirmed as having coronavirus disease. We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA on 8 (36%) of 22 surfaces, as well as on the pillow cover, sheet, and duvet cover.


Subject(s)
Bedding and Linens/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Fomites/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138812, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102112

ABSTRACT

Factors associated with negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in hospitalized patients have not yet been systematically determined. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 patients in Qingdao, China. Both univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify independent factors for time to viral RNA negative conversion. Data on patients with re-detectable viral RNA after showing negative on RT-PCR test (intermittent negative status) were also analyzed. A total of 59 patients confirmed with COVID-19 were included in this study, with a median duration of 1 (interquartile range, IQR: 0-2) day from symptom onset to hospital admission. Median communicable period (from first day of positive nucleic acid test to first day of consecutive negative results) was 14 (IQR: 10-18) days, and 7 (IQR: 6-10) days for 10 patients with intermittent negative results. Age older than 45 years (hazard ratio, HR: 0.378; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.205-0.698) and chest tightness (HR: 0.290; 95%CI: 0.091-0.919) were factors independently affecting negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Headache (odds ratio: 7.553; 95%CI: 1.011-28.253) was significantly associated with intermittent negative status, with a predicted probability of 60%. Older age and chest tightness were independently associated with delayed clearance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in hospitalized patients. These predictors would provide a new perspective on early identification of patients with prolonged viral shedding and facilitate optimal isolation protocols and treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
18.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 14(5): 643-647, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-19314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: As an emerging infectious disease, COVID-19 has involved many countries and regions. With the further development of the epidemic, the proportion of clusters has increased. METHODS: In our study, we collected information on COVID-19 clusters in Qingdao City. The epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations were analyzed. RESULTS: Eleven clusters of COVID-19 were reported in Qingdao City between January 29, and February 23, 2020, involving 44 confirmed cases, which accounted for 73.33% of all confirmed cases. From January 19 to February 2, 2020, the cases mainly concentrated in the district that had many designated hospitals. Patients aged 20-59 y old accounted for the largest proportion (68.18%) of cases; the male-to-female sex ratio was 0.52:1. Three cases were infected from exposure to confirmed cases. The average incubation period was 6.28 d. The median number of cases per cluster was 4, and the median duration time was 6 d. The median cumulative number of exposed persons was 53. CONCLUSION: More attention should be paid to the epidemic of clusters in prevention and control of COVID-19. In addition to isolating patients, it is essential to track, screen, and isolate those who have come in close contact with patients. Self-isolation is the key especially for healthy people in the epidemic area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Cluster Analysis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Epidemiology/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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