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1.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537606

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a major threat to human health and health care systems. Urgent prevention and control measures have obstructed patients' access to pain treatment, and many patients with pain have been unable to receive adequate and timely medical services. Many patients with COVID-19 report painful symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and chest pain during the initial phase of the disease. Persistent pain sequela in patients with COVID-19 has a physical or mental impact and may also affect the immune, endocrine, and other systems. However, the management and treatment of neurological symptoms such as pain are often neglected for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Based on the China's early experience in the management of COVID-19 symptoms, the possible negative effects of pre-existing chronic pain in patients with COVID-19 and the challenges of COVID-19 prevention and control bring to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain are discussed. This review calls to attention the need to optimize pain management during and after COVID-19.

2.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 210, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The thymic microenvironment is mainly comprised of thymic epithelial cells, the cytokines, exosomes, surface molecules, and hormones from the cells, and plays a vital role in the development, differentiation, maturation and homeostasis of T lymphocytes. However, the thymus begins to degenerate as early as the second year of life and continues through aging in human beings, leading to a decreased output of naïve T cells, the limited TCR diversity and an expansion of monoclonal memory T cells in the periphery organs. These alternations will reduce the adaptive immune response to tumors and emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, also it is easier to suffer from autoimmune diseases in older people. In the context of global aging, it is important to investigate and clarify the causes and mechanisms of thymus involution. MAIN BODY: Epigenetics include histone modification, DNA methylation, non-coding RNA effects, and chromatin remodeling. In this review, we discuss how senescent thymic epithelial cells determine and control age-related thymic atrophy, how this process is altered by epigenetic modification. How the thymus adipose influences the dysfunctions of the thymic epithelial cells, and the prospects of targeting thymic epithelial cells for the treatment of thymus atrophy. CONCLUSION: Epigenetic modifications are emerging as key regulators in governing the development and senescence of thymic epithelial cells. It is beneficial to re-establish effective thymopoiesis, identify the potential therapeutic strategy and rejuvenate the immune function in the elderly.

3.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-291967

ABSTRACT

Using consumer complaints filed with the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau as a measure for the quality of financial products and services, we document significant and robust differential impacts of COVID-19 on high vs. low minority communities. Relative to the pre-COVID period, the racial gap in financial complaints increased by more than 60% during the pandemic. In contrast, we do not find a robust COVID spike related to other heterogeneities in community characteristics. Textual analysis of the complaint narratives reveals that the COVID spike in the racial gap is partly driven by worsening consumer experiences and communication in minority communities—more disputes but less attention from financial institutions during the pandemic. Finally, using triple-differences, we establish the role of inclusive corporate culture, reflected in, for example, inclusive promotion practices and diversity in leadership, in mitigating the increase in the racial gap in consumer complaints during COVID. Our results shed light on how inclusive corporate culture filters through an organization to help minority communities during a crisis, and underscore the effect of corporate social attitudes on important stakeholder outcomes.

4.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 327, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, more and more women are engaging in entrepreneurial activities. Meanwhile, female entrepreneurs' health problems have been increasingly reported worldwide. What factors would influence female entrepreneurs' health are the subject of this paper. METHODS: This paper focuses on the effects of entrepreneurial experience and age of firm on female entrepreneurs' health through the analysis of 2 years of tracking data in the Bohai Economic Rim, which is one of the most developed areas for entrepreneurial activities in China. RESULTS: Results from the samples of female entrepreneurs demonstrate that increasing entrepreneurial experience and growing firm age could help female entrepreneurs to activate multiple positive identities. These identities can help female entrepreneurs cope with gender stereotype threat and maintain good health. CONCLUSION: This paper contributes to entrepreneur health research in two aspects. First, this study focused on entrepreneurial history indexed by entrepreneurial experience and firm age, enriching the field of female entrepreneurship. Second, this study further explored the mechanism that women cope with stereotype threat in the context of entrepreneurship. At the same time, this paper addresses ways that policy-makers and social media are responsible to help female entrepreneurs stay healthy.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Entrepreneurship , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Health Status , Humans
5.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111990, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385553

ABSTRACT

Existing studies on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on carbon emissions are mainly based on inter-annual change rate of carbon emissions. This study provided a new way to investigate the impact of the pandemic on carbon emissions by calculating the difference between the pandemic-free carbon emissions and the actual carbon emissions in 2020 based on scenario analysis. In this work, derived from Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) method, two combined ARIMA-BPNN and BPNN-ARIMA simulation approaches were developed to simulate the carbon emissions of China, India, U.S. and EU under the pandemic-free scenario. The average relative error of the simulation was about 1%, which could provide reliable simulation results. The scenario simulation of carbon emission reduction in the US and EU were almost the same as the inter-annual change rate of carbon emissions reported by the existing statistics. However, the scenario simulation of carbon emission reduction in China and India is 5% larger than the inter-annual change rate of carbon emissions reported by the existing statistics. In some sense, the impact of the pandemic on carbon emission reduction in developing countries might be underestimated. This work would provide new sight to more comprehensive understanding of the impact of the pandemic on carbon emissions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Carbon , China , Developing Countries , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23935, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutral-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and many diseases, but there are few data about the reference interval (RI) of NLR, LMR, and PLR. METHODS: The neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, and platelet count of 404,272 Chinese healthy adults (>18 years old) were measured by Sysmex XE-2100 automatic hematology analyzer, and NLR, LMR, and PLR were calculated. According to CLSI C28-A3, the nonparametric 95% percentile interval is defined as the reference interval. RESULTS: The results of Mann-Whitney U test showed that NLR (p < .001) in male was significantly higher than that in female; LMR (p < .001) and PLR (p < .001) in male were significantly lower than that in female. Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there were significant differences in NLR, LMR, and PLR among different genders and age groups (p < .001). The linear graph showed that the reference upper limit of NLR and PLR increased with age and the reference upper limit of LMR decreases with age in male population. In female population, the reference upper limit of NLR in 50-59 group, LMR in >80 group, and PLR in 70-79 group appeared a trough; the reference upper limit of NLR in >80 group, LMR in 50-59 group, and PLR in 40-49 group appeared peak. CONCLUSION: The establishment of RI for NLR, LMR, and PLR in Chinese healthy adults according to gender and age will promote the standardization of clinical application.


Subject(s)
Leukocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Platelet Count/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reference Values , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354558

ABSTRACT

A 60-year-old patient presented with respiratory distress, after recently being tested COVID-19 positive and was mechanically ventilated for 15 days. After cessation of sedation, he remained in deep comatose state, without any reaction on pain stimuli (Glasgow Coma Score 3). MRI of the brain showed diffuse leukoencephalopathy and multiple (>50) microbleeds. Diffuse COVID-19-associated leukoencephalopathy with microhaemorrhages is associated with a poor prognosis. However, 3 months later, our patient showed a remarkable recovery and was able to walk independently. This case report shows COVID-related leukoencephalopathy and intracerebral microbleeds, even with persistent comatose state, may have a favourable clinical outcome and prolonged treatment should be considered in individual cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukoencephalopathies , Cerebral Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Coma/chemically induced , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnosis , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine ; 27(8):15-17, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1319773

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners have deepened their understanding of the disease theory with the gradually increasing degree of clinical intervention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Especially, "Dampness Toxin" as the core of TCM pathogenesis has reached consensus. However, the comprehension on the pathogenesis and transmission laws of COVID-19 still need to be quickly improved in order to promote optimization to form a more effective common regimen for diagnosis and treatment of TCM on COVID-19. The author's team based on first-line clinical and academic data verified the cause and proposed that "cold-dampness and retained fluid blocking lung with fire deficiency of Mingmen" be important pathogenesis of severe patients with COVID-19. And the treatment principle should follow "ruling water with fire, and treating tri-jiao simultaneously". The prescription should refer to Shegan Mahuang Decoction, Zhenwu Decoction, Fuzi Lizhong Decoction and other formulas to warm tri- jiao, which aims to consolidate the essence of human body. "Detoxification, dredging six-Fu organs and diuresis" also need to be considered to alleviate the symptoms at the same time. This regimen reflects the consideration of both the symptoms and causes, the combination of cold and warm medicinal herbs, tonification and purgation in combination, flexibility in syndrome differentiation and prescription and careful grasp of the balance of the property of herbs, which can provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment on COVID-19.

9.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; : 127897, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1267736

ABSTRACT

The existing measurement of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on energy consumption is based on changes between the years, which demonstrates the changes in energy consumption over the years without fully reflecting the impact of the pandemic on energy consumption. To better uncover the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on energy consumption, this research compared pandemic-free scenarios with actual (with COVID-19) energy consumption in 2020, rather than comparing energy consumption between 2020 and 2019 in the existing studies. The simulation approach used for scenario simulation is developed by combing the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and back propagation neural network (BP). In the proposed ARIMAR-BP approach, BP is used to correct the error of ARMIA simulation, and then develop a new simulation approach so as to reduce the error of simulation. The results of the model testing show that the simulation error of the developed model is much lower than that of the BP or ARIMA simulation. This study runs China's electricity consumption from 2015 to 2019 on the proposed ARIMAR-BP approach, and produces the simulated value of China's electricity consumption from January to August 2020, which is China's electricity consumption under the pandemic-free scenario. Compared with China's electricity consumption under the pandemic-free scenario, China's actual electricity consumption dropped by an average of 29% due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which is much larger than the decline rate derived from year-to-year comparison. In addition, the results of the correlation analysis show the simulated decline in electricity consumption is only positively correlated with the number of new cases of COVID-19 in January–March, when the COVID-19 outbreak in China. This research provides a novel research structure for a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of the pandemic on energy consumption.

10.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231052

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a major threat to human health and health care systems. Urgent prevention and control measures have obstructed patients' access to pain treatment, and many patients with pain have been unable to receive adequate and timely medical services. Many patients with COVID-19 report painful symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and chest pain during the initial phase of the disease. Persistent pain sequela in patients with COVID-19 has a physical or mental impact and may also affect the immune, endocrine, and other systems. However, the management and treatment of neurological symptoms such as pain are often neglected for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Based on the China's early experience in the management of COVID-19 symptoms, the possible negative effects of pre-existing chronic pain in patients with COVID-19 and the challenges of COVID-19 prevention and control bring to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain are discussed. This review calls to attention the need to optimize pain management during and after COVID-19.

11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223964

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs) cause acute respiratory infections with similar symptoms. Since the treatments and outcomes of these infections are different, the early detection and accurate differentiation of the viruses are clinically important for the prevention and treatment of the diseases. We previously demonstrated that clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) could rapidly and precisely detect SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this study was to develop CRISPR as a test for simultaneously detecting and accurately distinguishing the viruses. The CRISPR assay with an RNA guide against each virus was performed in the reference standards of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and RSV. The CRISPR assay had a limit of detection of 1-100 copies/µL for specifically detecting SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and RSV without cross-reaction with other respiratory viruses. The validation of the test in nasopharyngeal specimens showed that it had a 90-100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and RSV. The CRISPR assay could potentially be used for sensitive detection and specific differentiation of the respiratory viruses.

12.
Policing-a Journal of Policy and Practice ; 14(4):1127-1137, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1199502

ABSTRACT

This article provides an overview of frontier issues of policing in China by examining the roles of police during the pandemic. It starts with a short introduction to the challenges and overall performance of China in keeping social order in the context of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Then, it outlines four major missions the Chinese police have pursued, each with a sketch of what has been done and how law enforcement officials have managed to achieve their goals. It follows with a further insight into their strategies in social control in connection with the latest reforms on policing. Finally, it concludes briefly with features of Chinese policing.

13.
Biomedicines ; 9(3)2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121945

ABSTRACT

Rapid and accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for controlling the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique is the standard test for detection of SARS-CoV-2, which, however, requires complicated sample manipulation (e.g., RNA extraction) and is time-consuming. We previously demonstrated that clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) could precisely detect Human papillomavirus and somatic mutations of Epidermal growth factor receptor gene and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene in plasma. The objective of this study was to develop CRISPR as a rapid test for sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2. We first combined reverse transcription-isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification and CRSIPR to detect SARS-CoV-2 in genomic RNA of cells infected with the virus. The CRISPR assay with guide RNA against the M gene of SARS-CoV-2 had a sensitivity of 0.1 copies per µL for detection of the virus. We then used the CRSIPR assay to directly analyze raw SARS-CoV-2 samples. The CRISPR assay could sensitively detect SARS-CoV-2 in one hour without RNA extraction. This assay can be performed at a single temperature and with minimal equipment. The results were immediately visualized either by a UV light illuminator or paper strips. The diagnostic value of the test was confirmed in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Altogether, we have developed a rapid CRISPR test for sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2.

14.
Perfusion ; : 267659121995999, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119371

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has already become a global pandemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Previous evidence from similar patient populations proved that carefully selected patients with severe ARDS who did not benefit from conventional treatment might be successfully supported with Veno-Venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO). We now share the case reports of COVID-19 patients with ECMO combined prone position strategies.

15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 580237, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116681

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induced Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a global threat to public health. The immune system is crucial in defending and eliminating the virus and infected cells. However, immune dysregulation may result in the rapid progression of COVID-19. Here, we evaluated the subsets, phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) and T cells in patients with COVID-19 and their associations with disease severity. Methods: Demographic and clinical data of COVID-19 patients enrolled in Wuhan Union Hospital from February 25 to February 27, 2020, were collected and analyzed. The phenotypic and functional characteristics of NK cells and T cells subsets in circulating blood and serum levels of cytokines were analyzed via flow cytometry. Then the LASSO logistic regression model was employed to predict risk factors for the severity of COVID-19. Results: The counts and percentages of NK cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NKT cells were significantly reduced in patients with severe symptoms. The cytotoxic CD3-CD56dimCD16+ cell population significantly decreased, while the CD3-CD56dimCD16- part significantly increased in severe COVID-19 patients. More importantly, elevated expression of regulatory molecules, such as CD244 and programmed death-1 (PD-1), on NK cells and T cells, as well as decreased serum cytotoxic effector molecules including perforin and granzyme A, were detected in patients with COVID-19. The serum IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were significantly increased in severe patients. Moreover, the CD3-CD56dimCD16- cells were screened out as an influential factor in severe cases by LASSO logistic regression. Conclusions: The functional exhaustion and other subset alteration of NK and T cells may contribute to the progression and improve the prognosis of COVID-19. Surveillance of lymphocyte subsets may in the future enable early screening for signs of critical illness and understanding the pathogenesis of this disease.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
16.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(12): 893-905, 2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060079

ABSTRACT

Objective: Several COVID-19 patients have overlapping comorbidities. The independent role of each component contributing to the risk of COVID-19 is unknown, and how some non-cardiometabolic comorbidities affect the risk of COVID-19 remains unclear. Methods: A retrospective follow-up design was adopted. A total of 1,160 laboratory-confirmed patients were enrolled from nine provinces in China. Data on comorbidities were obtained from the patients' medical records. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio ( OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the associations between comorbidities (cardiometabolic or non-cardiometabolic diseases), clinical severity, and treatment outcomes of COVID-19. Results: Overall, 158 (13.6%) patients were diagnosed with severe illness and 32 (2.7%) had unfavorable outcomes. Hypertension (2.87, 1.30-6.32), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (3.57, 2.32-5.49), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (3.78, 1.81-7.89), fatty liver disease (7.53, 1.96-28.96), hyperlipidemia (2.15, 1.26-3.67), other lung diseases (6.00, 3.01-11.96), and electrolyte imbalance (10.40, 3.00-26.10) were independently linked to increased odds of being severely ill. T2DM (6.07, 2.89-12.75), CVD (8.47, 6.03-11.89), and electrolyte imbalance (19.44, 11.47-32.96) were also strong predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease on admission (5.46, 3.25-9.19), while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes (6.58, 1.46-29.64) within two weeks. Conclusion: Besides hypertension, diabetes, and CVD, fatty liver disease, hyperlipidemia, other lung diseases, and electrolyte imbalance were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity and poor treatment outcome. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease, while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(7):e035430-e035430, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662396

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Shanghai Suburban Adult Cohort and Biobank (SSACB) was established to identify environmental, lifestyle and genetic risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) in adults (20-74 years old) living in a suburban area of Shanghai with rapid urbanisation. PARTICIPANTS: Two of eight suburban district were purposely selected according to participant willingness, health service facilities, population, geographic region and electronic medical record system. From these suburban districts, four communities were selected based on economic level and population size. At stage three, one-third of the committees/villages were randomly selected from each community. All residents aged 20-74 years old were invited as study participants. FINDINGS TO DATE: The baseline data on demographics, lifestyle and physical health-related factors were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire interview. All participants completed physical examinations and had blood and urine tests. Blood and urine samples from these tests were stored in a biobank. From 6 April 2016 through 31 October 2017, we conducted face-to-face interviews and clinical examinations in 44 887 participants: 35 727 from Songjiang District and 9160 from Jiading District. The average age of participants was 56.4±11.2 years in Songjiang and 56.6±10.5 years in Jiading. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia was 34.0%, 8.2% and 11.1%, respectively. FUTURE PLANS: In-person surveys will be conducted every 5 years. For annual tracking, baseline data was linked to the local health information system, which was composed of an electronic medical record system, a chronic disease management system, a cancer registry system, an infectious disease report system and a death registry system. The data of the SSACB cohort is located in the School of Public Health, Fudan University. International and domestic collaborative research projects are encouraged and inherent in the project.

19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2265-2274, 2020 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398790

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of viral pneumonia began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, which caused the spread of infectious pneumonia to a certain extent in China and neighboring countries and regions, and triggered the epidemic crisis. The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease listed as a B infectious disease, which is managed according to standards for A infectious disease. Traditional Chinese medicine and integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine have played an active role in the prevention and control of this epidemic. China's ethnomedicine has recognized infectious diseases since ancient times, and formed a medical system including theory, therapies, formula and herbal medicines for such diseases. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Chuxiong Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, Qiandongnan Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou have issued the prevention and control programs for COVID-19 using Tibetan, Mongolian, Uygur, Yi and Miao medicines. These programs reflect the wisdom of ethnomedicine in preventing and treating diseases, which have successfully extracted prescriptions and preventive measures for the outbreak of the epidemic from their own medical theories and traditional experiences. In this paper, we summarized and explained the prescriptions and medicinal materials of ethnomedicine in these programs, and the origin of Tibetan medicine prescriptions and Mongolian medicine prescriptions in ancient books were studied. These become the common characteristics of medical prevention and treatment programs for ethnomedicine to formulate therapeutic programs under the guidance of traditional medicine theories, recommend prescriptions and prevention and treatment methods with characteristics of ethnomedicine, and focus on the conve-nience and standardization. However, strengthening the support of science and technology and the popularization to the public, and improving the participation of ethnomedicine in national public health services and the capacity-building to deal with sudden and critical diseases are key contents in the development of ethnomedicine in the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , China , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tibet
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