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1.
Sustainability ; 15(2):892, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166894

ABSTRACT

Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome COVID-19 virus 2 (COVID-19) virus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on 9 January 2020, the entire world has been exceptionally interested in examining the impact of this pandemic on people and the environment. The pandemic led to unprecedented measures to halt air traffic and close factories due to lockdowns, economic closures, and the stopping of transportation of all kinds. The decline in the use of coal by power plants, oil refining, and steel manufacturing had a beneficial effect on air pollution and caused a decrease in carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, the concept of sustainability has become more prevalent, reflecting the increasing awareness of the responsibility placed on every member of society. Sustainability is the quality and quantity of change that meets our needs without destroying the giving planet, which is the hope for the survival of future generations. We summarized and discussed the studies and research documenting these effects on the environment and health worldwide to come up with objective conclusions, and to draw some recommendations and concepts about the importance of sustainability. The significance of this article lies in that it aims to briefly review some of the positive and negative impacts observed and reported during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on health and the planet's environment for the duration of April 2020-October 2022, and finally discuss the challenges and prospects to endorse planet sustainability. While COVID-19 had many beneficial effects on the planet's recovery, there were also profound effects on health due to the disease itself. Government and policymakers must take measures to prevent this environmental healing process from being transient.

2.
Clin Interv Aging ; 17: 1365-1378, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043232

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic significantly threatens the health and well-being of older adults. Aging-related changes, including multimorbidity, weakened immunity and frailty, may make older people more susceptible to severe infection and place them at higher risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Various quarantine measures have been implemented to control the spread of COVID-19. Nevertheless, such social distancing has disrupted routine health care practices, such as accessibility of medical services and long-term continuous care services. The medical management of older adults with multimorbidity is significantly afflicted by COVID-19. Older persons with frailty or multiple chronic disease may poorly adapt to the altered health care system, having detrimental consequences on their physical and mental health. COVID-19 pandemic has posed great challenges to the health of older adults. We highlighted the difficulties and obstacles of older adults during this unprecedented time. Also, we provided potential strategies and recommendations for actions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic threats. Certain strategies like community primary health care, medication delivery and home care support are adopted by many health facilities and caregivers, whereas other services such as internet hospital and virtual medical care are promoted to be accessible in many regions. However, guidelines and policies based on high-quality data are still needed for better health promotion of older groups with increasing resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Delivery of Health Care , Health Facilities , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Mol Biosci ; 9: 647826, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952429

ABSTRACT

TMPRSS2 is a transmembrane serine protease and plays a pivotal role in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the correlation of TMPRSS2 with prognosis and immune infiltration in tumors has not yet been explored. Here, we analyzed the expression of TMPRSS2 in Oncomine and TIMER databases, the correlation between TMPRSS2 and overall survival in the PrognoScan, Kaplan-Meier plotter, and GEPIA databases. The association between TMPRSS2 and immune infiltration levels was investigated in the TIMER database. In addition, the prognosis of TMPRSS2 related to immune cells in cancers was analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed that TMPRSS2 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and downregulated in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA). We demonstrated that high TMPRSS2 expression was associated with favorable prognosis in LUAD, but it was associated with poor prognosis in BRCA. Interestingly, we found that TMPRSS2 expression was significantly correlated with immune infiltration of B cells, CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells in LUAD, and it was positively correlated with the infiltrating levels of CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, neutrophils, and dendric cells in BRCA. Consistent with the prognosis of TMPRSS2 in LUAD and BRCA, the high expression level of TMPRSS2 has a favorable prognosis in enriched immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells in LUAD, and it has a poor prognosis in CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in BRCA. In conclusion, our results indicate that the prognosis of TMPRSS2 in LUAD and BRCA is significantly correlated with immune cells infiltration. Our study comprehensively revealed the relationship between the prognosis of TMPRSS2 in pan-cancers and tumor immunity.

4.
Social Science Computer Review ; : 08944393221111482, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1916815

ABSTRACT

Many companies have applied virtual reality (VR), a new and popular technology, to their corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. This study examines how 360-degree VR-powered videos might further enhance consumers? engagement in CSR activities and facilitate business outcomes during a crisis setting. The researchers conducted an online survey study, during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, with 1422 representative U.S. residents and applied the structural equation modeling for data analysis. Results indicated that the four categories of gratifications-sought (i.e., being there, enhancement, interaction, and fun) on 360-degree VR-powered videos could all positively influence CSR engagement;in contrast, CSR skepticism would reduce such engagement online. Corporate social responsibility engagement further improved the organization-public relationships (OPRs) and ultimately influenced consumers? word-of-mouth toward the company. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings were discussed.

5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747246

ABSTRACT

VV116 (JT001) is an oral drug candidate of nucleoside analog against SARS-CoV-2. The purpose of the three phase I studies was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending oral doses of VV116 in healthy subjects, as well as the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics and safety of VV116. Three studies were launched sequentially: Study 1 (single ascending-dose study, SAD), Study 2 (multiple ascending-dose study, MAD), and Study 3 (food-effect study, FE). A total of 86 healthy subjects were enrolled in the studies. VV116 tablets or placebo were administered per protocol requirements. Blood samples were collected at the scheduled time points for pharmacokinetic analysis. 116-N1, the metabolite of VV116, was detected in plasma and calculated for the PK parameters. In SAD, AUC and Cmax increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner in the dose range of 25-800 mg. T1/2 was within 4.80-6.95 h. In MAD, the accumulation ratio for Cmax and AUC indicated a slight accumulation upon repeated dosing of VV116. In FE, the standard meal had no effect on Cmax and AUC of VV116. No serious adverse event occurred in the studies, and no subject withdrew from the studies due to adverse events. Thus, VV116 exhibited satisfactory safety and tolerability in healthy subjects, which supports the continued investigation of VV116 in patients with COVID-19.

6.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 16, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692632

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) continue to wreak havoc across the globe. Higher transmissibility and immunologic resistance of VOCs bring unprecedented challenges to epidemic extinguishment. Here we describe a monoclonal antibody, 2G1, that neutralizes all current VOCs and has surprising tolerance to mutations adjacent to or within its interaction epitope. Cryo-electron microscopy structure showed that 2G1 bound to the tip of receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein with small contact interface but strong hydrophobic effect, which resulted in nanomolar to sub-nanomolar affinities to spike proteins. The epitope of 2G1 on RBD partially overlaps with angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interface, which enables 2G1 to block interaction between RBD and ACE2. The narrow binding epitope but high affinity bestow outstanding therapeutic efficacy upon 2G1 that neutralized VOCs with sub-nanomolar half maximal inhibitory concentration in vitro. In SARS-CoV-2, Beta or Delta variant-challenged transgenic mice and rhesus macaque models, 2G1 protected animals from clinical illness and eliminated viral burden, without serious impact to animal safety. Mutagenesis experiments suggest that 2G1 is potentially capable of dealing with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants in the future. This report characterized the therapeutic antibodies specific to the tip of spike against SARS-CoV-2 variants and highlights the potential clinical applications as well as for developing vaccine and cocktail therapy.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Stem Cells , Aged , Child , Humans , Lung/cytology , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1250, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403908

ABSTRACT

The clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with re-positive or false-negative test results have so far remained to be determined. The present study provides a cross-sectional observational study on 134 hospitalized patients selected from Huoshenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China) using cluster sampling. A total of 68 patients had reduced red blood cell (RBC) counts, 55 a decrease in the hemoglobin concentration (HBC) and 73 a decline in hematocrit (HCT). The false-negative rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA detection in pharyngeal swab specimens was 18.7%. The absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), RBC, HBC and HCT levels in false-negative patients were significantly higher than those in patients who tested positive for viral nucleic acids. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that RBC [odds ratio (OR)=0.43, 95% CI: 0.18-0.99], HBC (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99) and ALC (OR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.91) were the factors influencing the negative testing results for viral nucleic acid. The rate of re-positive patients was 16.4%. The white blood cell, RBC, HBC and HCT values in re-positive patients were lower than those in non-re-positive patients. The median (interquartile range) values for RBC, HBC and HCT of male re-positive patients were 3.95 (3.37, 4.2) x1012/l, 123 (103, 133) g/l and 36.6 (31.1, 39.2)%, respectively, while the RBC, HBC and HCT of female re-positive patients were 3.54 (3.13, 3.74) x1012/l, 115 (102, 118) g/l and 34.2 (28.5, 34.9)%, respectively. It was determined that RBC, HBC and HCT values had moderate accuracy in predicting SARS-CoV-2 recurrence in patients with COVID-19 using receiver operating curve analysis. The present study suggested that RBC may have an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

9.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 4349-4367, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors for predicting the dynamic progression of COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 2321 eligible patients were included in this study from February 4 to April 15, 2020. Two illness conditions, including mild/moderate (M/M) subtype to severe/critical (S/C) and S/C to fatality, were classified. Clinical message was collected and compared, respectively. Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression model and risk score system were used to predict disease progression in S/C COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 112 of 1761 patients with M/M subtype were progressors (P) and 1649 non-progressors (NP). Increasing disease progression associated with higher levels of neutrophils count (HR=1.958, 95% CI=1.253-3.059, P=0.003), CK (HR=2.203, 95% CI=1.048-4.632, P=0.037), LDH (HR=3.309, 95% CI=2.083-5.256, P<0.001) and CRP (HR=2.575, 95% CI=1.638-4.049, P<0.001), and lower level of lymphocytes count (HR=1.549, 95% CI=1.018-2.355, P=0.041), as well as total lesion volume ratio greater than ≥10% (HR=2.286, 95% CI=1.451-3.601, P<0.001) on admission. In progression to fatality, 56 of the 672 S/C cases died and 616 survived. Increasing fatality associated with lower level of lymphocytes count (HR:2.060, 95% CI:1.000-4.242, P=0.050), higher levels of BUN (HR:2.715, 95% CI:1.539-4.790, P<0.001), CK-MB (HR:3.412, 95% CI:1.760-6.616, P<0.001), LDH (HR:5.578, 95% CI:2.317-13.427, P<0.001), and PT (HR:3.619, 95% CI:2.102-6.231, P<0.001). Furthermore, high risk of neutrophils count, lymphocytes count, CK, LDH, CRP, and total lesion volume ratio was powerfully correlated with the incidence of progression to S/C in patients with NS COVID-19 and high odds of lymphocytes count, BUN, CK-MB, LDH, and PT were significantly associated with death in patients with S/C COVID-19. In addition, the progression and mortality rates increased with increasing risk scores. CONCLUSION: Elevated LDH level and lymphopenia were independent predictors for COVID-19 sustainable management in classifying non-severe patients who progressed to severe condition and identifying S/C patients who deteriorated to fatal outcomes as well. Total lesion volume ratio ≥10% may provide early predictive evidence with COVID-19 patients at high risk of developing into S/C to improve prognosis.

10.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(4): 788-796, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343437

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 relies on its spike protein to invade host cells by interacting with the human receptor protein Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes 2 (ACE2). Therefore, designing an antibody or small-molecular entry blockers is of great significance for virus prevention and treatment. This study identified five potential small molecular anti-virus blockers via targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by combining in silico technologies with in vitro experimental methods. The five molecules were natural products that binding to the RBD domain of SARS-CoV-2 was qualitatively and quantitively validated by both native Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Anti-viral activity assays showed that the optimal molecule, H69C2, had a strong binding affinity (dissociation constant KD) of 0.0947 µM and anti-virus IC50 of 85.75 µM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(2): 483-493, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205431

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is threatening public health, and there is no effective treatment. In this study, we have implemented a multi-targeted anti-viral drug design strategy to discover highly potent SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors, which simultaneously act on the host ribosome, viral RNA as well as RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, and nucleocapsid protein of the virus, to impair viral translation, frameshifting, replication, and assembly. Driven by this strategy, three alkaloids, including lycorine, emetine, and cephaeline, were discovered to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 values of low nanomolar levels potently. The findings in this work demonstrate the feasibility of this multi-targeting drug design strategy and provide a rationale for designing more potent anti-virus drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Design , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship
12.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(1): 17-26, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187236

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to determine the association of hyperlipidemia with clinical endpoints among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study included all patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from 21 hospitals in Hubei province, China between December 31, 2019 and April 21, 2020. Patients who were aged < 18 or ≥ 85 years old, in pregnancy, with acute lethal organ injury (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, severe acute pancreatitis, acute stroke), hypothyroidism, malignant diseases, severe malnutrition, and those with normal lipid profile under lipid-lowering medicines (e.g., statin, niacin, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and ezetimibe) were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis at 1:1 ratio was performed to minimize baseline differences between patient groups of hyperlipidemia and non-hyperlipidemia. PSM analyses with the same strategies were further conducted for the parameters of hyperlipidemia in patients with increased triglyceride (TG), increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mixed-effect Cox model analysis was performed to investigate the associations of the 28-days all-cause deaths of COVID-19 patients with hyperlipidemia and the abnormalities of lipid parameters. The results were verified in male, female patients, and in patients with pre-existing CVDs and type 2 diabetes. Results Of 10 945 inpatients confirmed as COVID-19, there were 9822 inpatients included in the study, comprising 3513 (35.8%) cases without hyperlipidemia and 6309 (64.2%) cases with hyperlipidemia. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after PSM at 1:1 ratio, hyperlipidemia was not associated with increased or decreased 28-day all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.17 (95% CI, 0.95-1.44), P =0.151]. We found that the parameters of hyperlipidemia were not associated with the risk of 28-day all-cause mortality [adjusted HR, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.98-1.55), P = 0.075 in TG increase group; 0.78 (95% CI, 0.57-1.07), P = 0.123 in LDL-C increase group; and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.9-1.39), P = 0.299 in HDL-C decrease group, respectively]. Hyperlipidemia was also not significantly associated with the increased mortality of COVID-19 in patients accompanied with CVDs or type 2 diabetes, and in both male and female cohorts. Conclusion Our study support that the imbalanced lipid profile is not significantly associated with the 28-day all-cause mortality of COVID-19 patients, even in those accompanied with CVDs or diabetes. Similar results were also obtained in subgroup analyses of abnormal lipid parameters. Therefore, hyperlipidemia might be not a major causative factor for poor outcome of COVID-19, which provides guidance for the intervention of inpatients during the epidemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 820, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections are a serious threat to human health. So, rapid detection of all respiratory pathogens can facilitate prompt treatment and prevent the deterioration of respiratory disease. Previously published primers and probes of the TaqMan array card (TAC) for respiratory pathogens are not sensitive to Chinese clinical specimens. This study aimed to develop and improve the TAC assay to detect 28 respiratory viral and bacterial pathogens in a Chinese population. METHODS: To improve the sensitivity, we redesigned the primers and probes, and labeled the probes with minor groove binders. The amplification efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the primers and probes were determined using target-gene containing standard plasmids. The detection performance of the TAC was evaluated on 754 clinical specimens and the results were compared with those from conventional methods. RESULTS: The performance of the TAC assay was evaluated using 754 clinical throat swab samples and the results were compared with those from gold-standard methods. The sensitivity and specificity were 95.4 and 96.6%, respectively. The lowest detection limit of the TAC was 10 to 100 copies/µL. CONCLUSIONS: TAC is an efficient, accurate, and high-throughput approach to detecting multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously and is a promising tool for the identification of pathogen outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Viruses/genetics , China/epidemiology , DNA Primers , Data Accuracy , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 29(3):346-349, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1125321

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy of a combination regimen by Lopinave/Litonawe (LPV/r), emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (FTC/TAF) for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia.

15.
Burns Trauma ; 8: tkaa048, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109169

ABSTRACT

There is little research that focuses on the relationship between the gut, metabolism, nutritional support and COVID-19. As a group of Chinese physicians, nutritionists and scientists working on the frontline treating COVID-19 patients, we aim to integrate our experiences and the current clinical evidence to address this pressing issue in this article. Based on our clinical observations and available evidence, we recommend the following practice. Firstly, the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 tool should be used routinely and periodically; for patients with a score ≥3, oral nutritional supplements should be given immediately. Secondly, for patients receiving the antiviral agents lopinavir/ritonavir, gastrointestinal side effects should be monitored for and timely intervention provided. Thirdly, for feeding, the enteral route should be the first choice. In patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, establishing a jejunal route as early as possible can guarantee the feeding target being achieved if gastric dilatation occurs. Fourthly, we suggest a permissive underfeeding strategy for severe/critical patients admitted to the intensive care unit during the first week of admission, with the energy target no more than 20 kcal/kg/day (for those on mechanical ventilation, this target may be lowered to 10-15 kcal/kg/day) and the protein target around 1.0-1.2 g/kg/day. If the inflammatory condition is significantly alleviated, the energy target may be gradually increased to 25-30 kcal/kg/day and the protein target to 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day. Fifthly, supplemental parenteral nutrition should be used with caution. Lastly, omega-3 fatty acids may be used as immunoregulators, intravenous administration of omega-3 fatty emulsion (10 g/day) at an early stage may help to reduce the inflammatory reaction.

16.
Theranostics ; 11(5): 2170-2181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016389

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An increasing number of children with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is being reported, yet the spectrum of disease severity and expression patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in children at different developmental stages are largely unknow. Methods: We analysed clinical features in a cohort of 173 children with COVID-19 (0-15 yrs.-old) between January 22, 2020 and March 15, 2020. We systematically examined the expression and distribution of ACE2 in different developmental stages of children by using a combination of children's lung biopsies, pluripotent stem cell-derived lung cells, RNA-sequencing profiles, and ex vivo SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral infections. Results: It revealed that infants (< 1yrs.-old), with a weaker potency of immune response, are more vulnerable to develop pneumonia whereas older children (> 1 yrs.-old) are more resistant to lung injury. The expression levels of ACE2 however do not vary by age in children's lung. ACE2 is notably expressed not only in Alveolar Type II (AT II) cells, but also in SOX9 positive lung progenitor cells detected in both pluripotent stem cell derivatives and infants' lungs. The ACE2+SOX9+ cells are readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and the numbers of the double positive cells are significantly decreased in older children. Conclusions: Infants (< 1 yrs.-old) with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more vulnerable to lung injuries. ACE2 expression in multiple types of lung cells including SOX9 positive progenitor cells, in cooperation with an unestablished immune system, could be risk factors contributing to vulnerability of infants with COVID-19. There is a need to continue monitoring lung development in young children who have recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/cytology , Stem Cells/metabolism , Adolescent , Biopsy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immune System , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/virology , Male , RNA-Seq , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Stem Cells/virology
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244351, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004462

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is currently spreading widely around the world, causing huge threats to public safety and global society. This study analyzes the spatiotemporal pattern of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, reveals China's epicenters of the pandemic through spatial clustering, and delineates the substantial effect of distance to Wuhan on the pandemic spread. The results show that the daily new COVID-19 cases mostly occurred in and around Wuhan before March 6, and then moved to the Grand Bay Area (Shenzhen, Hong Kong and Macau). The total COVID-19 cases in China were mainly distributed in the east of the Huhuanyong Line, where the epicenters accounted for more than 60% of the country's total in/on 24 January and 7 February, half in/on 31 January, and more than 70% from 14 February. The total cases finally stabilized at approximately 84,000, and the inflection point for Wuhan was on 14 February, one week later than those of Hubei (outside Wuhan) and China (outside Hubei). The generalized additive model-based analysis shows that population density and distance to provincial cities were significantly associated with the total number of the cases, while distances to prefecture cities and intercity traffic stations, and population inflow from Wuhan after 24 January, had no strong relationships with the total number of cases. The results and findings should provide valuable insights for understanding the changes in the COVID-19 transmission as well as implications for controlling the global COVID-19 pandemic spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Cities/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Macau/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis
19.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(22): 5576-5588, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is commonly targeted to achieve glycemic control and has potent anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects. Recent structural analyses indicated a potential tight interaction between DPP4 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), raising a promising hypothesis that DPP4 inhibitor (DPP4i) drugs might be an optimal strategy for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with diabetes. However, there has been no direct clinical evidence illuminating the associations between DPP4i use and COVID-19 outcomes. AIM: To illuminate the associations between DPP4i usage and the adverse outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective analysis including 2563 patients with type 2 diabetes who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 at 16 hospitals in Hubei Province, China. After excluding ineligible individuals, 142 patients who received DPP4i drugs and 1115 patients who received non-DPP4i oral anti-diabetic drugs were included in the subsequent analysis. We performed a strict propensity score matching (PSM) analysis where age, sex, comorbidities, number of oral hypoglycemic agents, heart rate, blood pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 95%, CT diagnosed bilateral lung lesions, laboratory indicators, and proportion of insulin usage were matched. Finally, 111 participants treated with DPP4i drugs were successfully matched to 333 non-DPP4i users. Then, a linear logistic model and mixed-effect Cox model were applied to analyze the associations between in-hospital DPP4i use and adverse outcomes of COVID-19. RESULTS: After rigorous matching and further adjustments for imbalanced variables in the linear logistic model and Cox adjusted model, we found that there was no significant association between in-hospital DPP4i use (DPP4i group) and 28-d all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.09-2.11, P = 0.31). Likewise, the incidences and risks of secondary outcomes, including septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or acute organ (kidney, liver, and cardiac) injuries, were also comparable between the DPP4i and non-DPP4i groups. The performance of DPP4i agents in achieving glucose control (e.g., the median level of fasting blood glucose and random blood glucose) and inflammatory regulation was approximately equivalent in the DPP4i and non-DPP4i groups. Furthermore, we did not observe substantial side effects such as uncontrolled glycemia or acidosis due to DPP4i application relative to the use of non-DPP4i agents in the study cohort. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that DPP4i use is not significantly associated with poor outcomes of COVID-19 or other adverse effects of anti-diabetic treatment. The data support the continuation of DPP4i agents for diabetes management in the setting of COVID-19.

20.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 557652, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940188

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which has posed an increasing serious public health threat. However, still there are no approved antiviral agents or vaccines available yet. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as a novel promising adjuvant therapy for the attenuation of COVID-19 based on its putative pathogenesis. MSCs may exert anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, as well as regenerative effects through a series of mechanisms. Remarkably, MSCs may be resistant to virus infection, which is fundamental for the treatment of COVID-19. The beneficial therapeutic effects of MSCs have been preliminarily proved to be safe and efficacious for the treatment of COVID-19 in current clinical trials. This work aims to review the beneficial effects of MSCs in treating ALI/ARDS, which provides novel insight into the potential therapeutic strategies against COVID-19. However, further research is warranted regarding both safety and efficacy of MSCs.

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