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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.

2.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(5): 1250, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403908

ABSTRACT

The clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with re-positive or false-negative test results have so far remained to be determined. The present study provides a cross-sectional observational study on 134 hospitalized patients selected from Huoshenshan Hospital (Wuhan, China) using cluster sampling. A total of 68 patients had reduced red blood cell (RBC) counts, 55 a decrease in the hemoglobin concentration (HBC) and 73 a decline in hematocrit (HCT). The false-negative rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA detection in pharyngeal swab specimens was 18.7%. The absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), RBC, HBC and HCT levels in false-negative patients were significantly higher than those in patients who tested positive for viral nucleic acids. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that RBC [odds ratio (OR)=0.43, 95% CI: 0.18-0.99], HBC (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99) and ALC (OR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.20-0.91) were the factors influencing the negative testing results for viral nucleic acid. The rate of re-positive patients was 16.4%. The white blood cell, RBC, HBC and HCT values in re-positive patients were lower than those in non-re-positive patients. The median (interquartile range) values for RBC, HBC and HCT of male re-positive patients were 3.95 (3.37, 4.2) x1012/l, 123 (103, 133) g/l and 36.6 (31.1, 39.2)%, respectively, while the RBC, HBC and HCT of female re-positive patients were 3.54 (3.13, 3.74) x1012/l, 115 (102, 118) g/l and 34.2 (28.5, 34.9)%, respectively. It was determined that RBC, HBC and HCT values had moderate accuracy in predicting SARS-CoV-2 recurrence in patients with COVID-19 using receiver operating curve analysis. The present study suggested that RBC may have an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

3.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 4349-4367, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360676

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the risk factors for predicting the dynamic progression of COVID-19. Methods: A total of 2321 eligible patients were included in this study from February 4 to April 15, 2020. Two illness conditions, including mild/moderate (M/M) subtype to severe/critical (S/C) and S/C to fatality, were classified. Clinical message was collected and compared, respectively. Kaplan-Meier method, Cox regression model and risk score system were used to predict disease progression in S/C COVID-19. Results: A total of 112 of 1761 patients with M/M subtype were progressors (P) and 1649 non-progressors (NP). Increasing disease progression associated with higher levels of neutrophils count (HR=1.958, 95% CI=1.253-3.059, P=0.003), CK (HR=2.203, 95% CI=1.048-4.632, P=0.037), LDH (HR=3.309, 95% CI=2.083-5.256, P<0.001) and CRP (HR=2.575, 95% CI=1.638-4.049, P<0.001), and lower level of lymphocytes count (HR=1.549, 95% CI=1.018-2.355, P=0.041), as well as total lesion volume ratio greater than ≥10% (HR=2.286, 95% CI=1.451-3.601, P<0.001) on admission. In progression to fatality, 56 of the 672 S/C cases died and 616 survived. Increasing fatality associated with lower level of lymphocytes count (HR:2.060, 95% CI:1.000-4.242, P=0.050), higher levels of BUN (HR:2.715, 95% CI:1.539-4.790, P<0.001), CK-MB (HR:3.412, 95% CI:1.760-6.616, P<0.001), LDH (HR:5.578, 95% CI:2.317-13.427, P<0.001), and PT (HR:3.619, 95% CI:2.102-6.231, P<0.001). Furthermore, high risk of neutrophils count, lymphocytes count, CK, LDH, CRP, and total lesion volume ratio was powerfully correlated with the incidence of progression to S/C in patients with NS COVID-19 and high odds of lymphocytes count, BUN, CK-MB, LDH, and PT were significantly associated with death in patients with S/C COVID-19. In addition, the progression and mortality rates increased with increasing risk scores. Conclusion: Elevated LDH level and lymphopenia were independent predictors for COVID-19 sustainable management in classifying non-severe patients who progressed to severe condition and identifying S/C patients who deteriorated to fatal outcomes as well. Total lesion volume ratio ≥10% may provide early predictive evidence with COVID-19 patients at high risk of developing into S/C to improve prognosis.

4.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343437

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 relies on its spike protein to invade host cells by interacting with the human receptor protein Angiotensin-Converting Enzymes 2 (ACE2). Therefore, designing an antibody or small-molecular entry blockers is of great significance for virus prevention and treatment. This study identified five potential small molecular anti-virus blockers via targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by combining in silico technologies with in vitro experimental methods. The five molecules were natural products that binding to the RBD domain of SARS-CoV-2 was qualitatively and quantitively validated by both native Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Anti-viral activity assays showed that the optimal molecule, H69C2, had a strong binding affinity (dissociation constant KD) of 0.0947 µM and anti-virus IC50 of 85.75 µM.

5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205431

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is threatening public health, and there is no effective treatment. In this study, we have implemented a multi-targeted anti-viral drug design strategy to discover highly potent SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors, which simultaneously act on the host ribosome, viral RNA as well as RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, and nucleocapsid protein of the virus, to impair viral translation, frameshifting, replication, and assembly. Driven by this strategy, three alkaloids, including lycorine, emetine, and cephaeline, were discovered to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 values of low nanomolar levels potently. The findings in this work demonstrate the feasibility of this multi-targeting drug design strategy and provide a rationale for designing more potent anti-virus drugs.

6.
Chin Med Sci J ; 36(1): 17-26, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187236

ABSTRACT

Objective This study aimed to determine the association of hyperlipidemia with clinical endpoints among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially those with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study included all patients who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 from 21 hospitals in Hubei province, China between December 31, 2019 and April 21, 2020. Patients who were aged < 18 or ≥ 85 years old, in pregnancy, with acute lethal organ injury (e.g., acute myocardial infarction, severe acute pancreatitis, acute stroke), hypothyroidism, malignant diseases, severe malnutrition, and those with normal lipid profile under lipid-lowering medicines (e.g., statin, niacin, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and ezetimibe) were excluded. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis at 1:1 ratio was performed to minimize baseline differences between patient groups of hyperlipidemia and non-hyperlipidemia. PSM analyses with the same strategies were further conducted for the parameters of hyperlipidemia in patients with increased triglyceride (TG), increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Mixed-effect Cox model analysis was performed to investigate the associations of the 28-days all-cause deaths of COVID-19 patients with hyperlipidemia and the abnormalities of lipid parameters. The results were verified in male, female patients, and in patients with pre-existing CVDs and type 2 diabetes. Results Of 10 945 inpatients confirmed as COVID-19, there were 9822 inpatients included in the study, comprising 3513 (35.8%) cases without hyperlipidemia and 6309 (64.2%) cases with hyperlipidemia. Based on a mixed-effect Cox model after PSM at 1:1 ratio, hyperlipidemia was not associated with increased or decreased 28-day all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.17 (95% CI, 0.95-1.44), P =0.151]. We found that the parameters of hyperlipidemia were not associated with the risk of 28-day all-cause mortality [adjusted HR, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.98-1.55), P = 0.075 in TG increase group; 0.78 (95% CI, 0.57-1.07), P = 0.123 in LDL-C increase group; and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.9-1.39), P = 0.299 in HDL-C decrease group, respectively]. Hyperlipidemia was also not significantly associated with the increased mortality of COVID-19 in patients accompanied with CVDs or type 2 diabetes, and in both male and female cohorts. Conclusion Our study support that the imbalanced lipid profile is not significantly associated with the 28-day all-cause mortality of COVID-19 patients, even in those accompanied with CVDs or diabetes. Similar results were also obtained in subgroup analyses of abnormal lipid parameters. Therefore, hyperlipidemia might be not a major causative factor for poor outcome of COVID-19, which provides guidance for the intervention of inpatients during the epidemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hyperlipidemias/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 820, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections are a serious threat to human health. So, rapid detection of all respiratory pathogens can facilitate prompt treatment and prevent the deterioration of respiratory disease. Previously published primers and probes of the TaqMan array card (TAC) for respiratory pathogens are not sensitive to Chinese clinical specimens. This study aimed to develop and improve the TAC assay to detect 28 respiratory viral and bacterial pathogens in a Chinese population. METHODS: To improve the sensitivity, we redesigned the primers and probes, and labeled the probes with minor groove binders. The amplification efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the primers and probes were determined using target-gene containing standard plasmids. The detection performance of the TAC was evaluated on 754 clinical specimens and the results were compared with those from conventional methods. RESULTS: The performance of the TAC assay was evaluated using 754 clinical throat swab samples and the results were compared with those from gold-standard methods. The sensitivity and specificity were 95.4 and 96.6%, respectively. The lowest detection limit of the TAC was 10 to 100 copies/µL. CONCLUSIONS: TAC is an efficient, accurate, and high-throughput approach to detecting multiple respiratory pathogens simultaneously and is a promising tool for the identification of pathogen outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Viruses/genetics , China/epidemiology , DNA Primers , Data Accuracy , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 29(3):346-349, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1125321

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy of a combination regimen by Lopinave/Litonawe (LPV/r), emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (FTC/TAF) for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia.

9.
Burns Trauma ; 8: tkaa048, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109169

ABSTRACT

There is little research that focuses on the relationship between the gut, metabolism, nutritional support and COVID-19. As a group of Chinese physicians, nutritionists and scientists working on the frontline treating COVID-19 patients, we aim to integrate our experiences and the current clinical evidence to address this pressing issue in this article. Based on our clinical observations and available evidence, we recommend the following practice. Firstly, the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 tool should be used routinely and periodically; for patients with a score ≥3, oral nutritional supplements should be given immediately. Secondly, for patients receiving the antiviral agents lopinavir/ritonavir, gastrointestinal side effects should be monitored for and timely intervention provided. Thirdly, for feeding, the enteral route should be the first choice. In patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, establishing a jejunal route as early as possible can guarantee the feeding target being achieved if gastric dilatation occurs. Fourthly, we suggest a permissive underfeeding strategy for severe/critical patients admitted to the intensive care unit during the first week of admission, with the energy target no more than 20 kcal/kg/day (for those on mechanical ventilation, this target may be lowered to 10-15 kcal/kg/day) and the protein target around 1.0-1.2 g/kg/day. If the inflammatory condition is significantly alleviated, the energy target may be gradually increased to 25-30 kcal/kg/day and the protein target to 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day. Fifthly, supplemental parenteral nutrition should be used with caution. Lastly, omega-3 fatty acids may be used as immunoregulators, intravenous administration of omega-3 fatty emulsion (10 g/day) at an early stage may help to reduce the inflammatory reaction.

11.
Theranostics ; 11(5): 2170-2181, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016389

ABSTRACT

Introduction: An increasing number of children with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is being reported, yet the spectrum of disease severity and expression patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in children at different developmental stages are largely unknow. Methods: We analysed clinical features in a cohort of 173 children with COVID-19 (0-15 yrs.-old) between January 22, 2020 and March 15, 2020. We systematically examined the expression and distribution of ACE2 in different developmental stages of children by using a combination of children's lung biopsies, pluripotent stem cell-derived lung cells, RNA-sequencing profiles, and ex vivo SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviral infections. Results: It revealed that infants (< 1yrs.-old), with a weaker potency of immune response, are more vulnerable to develop pneumonia whereas older children (> 1 yrs.-old) are more resistant to lung injury. The expression levels of ACE2 however do not vary by age in children's lung. ACE2 is notably expressed not only in Alveolar Type II (AT II) cells, but also in SOX9 positive lung progenitor cells detected in both pluripotent stem cell derivatives and infants' lungs. The ACE2+SOX9+ cells are readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and the numbers of the double positive cells are significantly decreased in older children. Conclusions: Infants (< 1 yrs.-old) with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more vulnerable to lung injuries. ACE2 expression in multiple types of lung cells including SOX9 positive progenitor cells, in cooperation with an unestablished immune system, could be risk factors contributing to vulnerability of infants with COVID-19. There is a need to continue monitoring lung development in young children who have recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/cytology , Stem Cells/metabolism , Adolescent , Biopsy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immune System , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/virology , Male , RNA-Seq , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Single-Cell Analysis , Stem Cells/virology
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244351, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004462

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is currently spreading widely around the world, causing huge threats to public safety and global society. This study analyzes the spatiotemporal pattern of the COVID-19 pandemic in China, reveals China's epicenters of the pandemic through spatial clustering, and delineates the substantial effect of distance to Wuhan on the pandemic spread. The results show that the daily new COVID-19 cases mostly occurred in and around Wuhan before March 6, and then moved to the Grand Bay Area (Shenzhen, Hong Kong and Macau). The total COVID-19 cases in China were mainly distributed in the east of the Huhuanyong Line, where the epicenters accounted for more than 60% of the country's total in/on 24 January and 7 February, half in/on 31 January, and more than 70% from 14 February. The total cases finally stabilized at approximately 84,000, and the inflection point for Wuhan was on 14 February, one week later than those of Hubei (outside Wuhan) and China (outside Hubei). The generalized additive model-based analysis shows that population density and distance to provincial cities were significantly associated with the total number of the cases, while distances to prefecture cities and intercity traffic stations, and population inflow from Wuhan after 24 January, had no strong relationships with the total number of cases. The results and findings should provide valuable insights for understanding the changes in the COVID-19 transmission as well as implications for controlling the global COVID-19 pandemic spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Cities/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Macau/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis
13.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(22): 5576-5588, 2020 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is commonly targeted to achieve glycemic control and has potent anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects. Recent structural analyses indicated a potential tight interaction between DPP4 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), raising a promising hypothesis that DPP4 inhibitor (DPP4i) drugs might be an optimal strategy for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients with diabetes. However, there has been no direct clinical evidence illuminating the associations between DPP4i use and COVID-19 outcomes. AIM: To illuminate the associations between DPP4i usage and the adverse outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective analysis including 2563 patients with type 2 diabetes who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 at 16 hospitals in Hubei Province, China. After excluding ineligible individuals, 142 patients who received DPP4i drugs and 1115 patients who received non-DPP4i oral anti-diabetic drugs were included in the subsequent analysis. We performed a strict propensity score matching (PSM) analysis where age, sex, comorbidities, number of oral hypoglycemic agents, heart rate, blood pressure, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 95%, CT diagnosed bilateral lung lesions, laboratory indicators, and proportion of insulin usage were matched. Finally, 111 participants treated with DPP4i drugs were successfully matched to 333 non-DPP4i users. Then, a linear logistic model and mixed-effect Cox model were applied to analyze the associations between in-hospital DPP4i use and adverse outcomes of COVID-19. RESULTS: After rigorous matching and further adjustments for imbalanced variables in the linear logistic model and Cox adjusted model, we found that there was no significant association between in-hospital DPP4i use (DPP4i group) and 28-d all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.09-2.11, P = 0.31). Likewise, the incidences and risks of secondary outcomes, including septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or acute organ (kidney, liver, and cardiac) injuries, were also comparable between the DPP4i and non-DPP4i groups. The performance of DPP4i agents in achieving glucose control (e.g., the median level of fasting blood glucose and random blood glucose) and inflammatory regulation was approximately equivalent in the DPP4i and non-DPP4i groups. Furthermore, we did not observe substantial side effects such as uncontrolled glycemia or acidosis due to DPP4i application relative to the use of non-DPP4i agents in the study cohort. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that DPP4i use is not significantly associated with poor outcomes of COVID-19 or other adverse effects of anti-diabetic treatment. The data support the continuation of DPP4i agents for diabetes management in the setting of COVID-19.

14.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 8: 557652, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940188

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which has posed an increasing serious public health threat. However, still there are no approved antiviral agents or vaccines available yet. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as a novel promising adjuvant therapy for the attenuation of COVID-19 based on its putative pathogenesis. MSCs may exert anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-apoptotic, as well as regenerative effects through a series of mechanisms. Remarkably, MSCs may be resistant to virus infection, which is fundamental for the treatment of COVID-19. The beneficial therapeutic effects of MSCs have been preliminarily proved to be safe and efficacious for the treatment of COVID-19 in current clinical trials. This work aims to review the beneficial effects of MSCs in treating ALI/ARDS, which provides novel insight into the potential therapeutic strategies against COVID-19. However, further research is warranted regarding both safety and efficacy of MSCs.

18.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 41(9): 1167-1177, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691161

ABSTRACT

Human infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and there is no cure currently. The 3CL protease (3CLpro) is a highly conserved protease which is indispensable for CoVs replication, and is a promising target for development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. In this study we investigated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of Shuanghuanglian preparation, a Chinese traditional patent medicine with a long history for treating respiratory tract infection in China. We showed that either the oral liquid of Shuanghuanglian, the lyophilized powder of Shuanghuanglian for injection or their bioactive components dose-dependently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro as well as the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells. Baicalin and baicalein, two ingredients of Shuanghuanglian, were characterized as the first noncovalent, nonpeptidomimetic inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and exhibited potent antiviral activities in a cell-based system. Remarkably, the binding mode of baicalein with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro determined by X-ray protein crystallography was distinctly different from those of known 3CLpro inhibitors. Baicalein was productively ensconced in the core of the substrate-binding pocket by interacting with two catalytic residues, the crucial S1/S2 subsites and the oxyanion loop, acting as a "shield" in front of the catalytic dyad to effectively prevent substrate access to the catalytic dyad within the active site. Overall, this study provides an example for exploring the in vitro potency of Chinese traditional patent medicines and effectively identifying bioactive ingredients toward a specific target, and gains evidence supporting the in vivo studies of Shuanghuanglian oral liquid as well as two natural products for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Flavanones , Flavonoids , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Virus Replication/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Enzyme Assays , Flavanones/chemistry , Flavanones/pharmacokinetics , Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/physiology
19.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(11): 2525-2532, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging worldwide threat to public health. While chest computed tomography (CT) plays an indispensable role in its diagnosis, the quantification and localization of lesions cannot be accurately assessed manually. We employed deep learning-based software to aid in detection, localization and quantification of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 2460 RT-PCR tested SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (1250 men and 1210 women; mean age, 57.7 ± 14.0 years (age range, 11-93 years) were retrospectively identified from Huoshenshan Hospital in Wuhan from February 11 to March 16, 2020. Basic clinical characteristics were reviewed. The uAI Intelligent Assistant Analysis System was used to assess the CT scans. RESULTS: CT scans of 2215 patients (90%) showed multiple lesions of which 36 (1%) and 50 patients (2%) had left and right lung infections, respectively (> 50% of each affected lung's volume), while 27 (1%) had total lung infection (> 50% of the total volume of both lungs). Overall, 298 (12%), 778 (32%) and 1300 (53%) patients exhibited pure ground glass opacities (GGOs), GGOs with sub-solid lesions and GGOs with both sub-solid and solid lesions, respectively. Moreover, 2305 (94%) and 71 (3%) patients presented primarily with GGOs and sub-solid lesions, respectively. Elderly patients (≥ 60 years) were more likely to exhibit sub-solid lesions. The generalized linear mixed model showed that the dorsal segment of the right lower lobe was the favoured site of COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSION: Chest CT combined with analysis by the uAI Intelligent Assistant Analysis System can accurately evaluate pneumonia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Software , Young Adult
20.
Head Neck ; 42(6): 1153-1158, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-48032

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, a number of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) have been identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. NCP has rapidly spread to other provinces and cities in China and other countries in the world. Due to the rapid increase in reported cases in China and around the world, on January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) Emergency Committee announced that NCP is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). However, there are relatively few suggestions and measures for tumor patients, especially patients with head and neck tumors. This article summarizes the prevention and control of disease in our medical institution to provide a reference for front-line head and neck surgeons.


Subject(s)
Cancer Care Facilities/organization & administration , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Head and Neck Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hospitals, Special/organization & administration , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
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