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2.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2201-2211, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777589

ABSTRACT

The public health interventions to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could also potentially reduce the global activity of influenza. However, this strategy's impact on other common infectious diseases is unknown. We collected data of 10 respiratory infectious (RI) diseases, influenza-like illnesses (ILIs), and seven gastrointestinal infectious (GI) diseases during 2015-2020 in China and applied two proportional tests to check the differences in the yearly incidence and mortality, and case-fatality rates (CFRs) over the years 2015-2020. The results showed that the overall RI activity decreased by 7.47%, from 181.64 in 2015-2019 to 168.08 per 100 000 in 2020 (p < 0.001); however, the incidence of influenza was seen to have a 16.08% escalation (p < 0.001). In contrast, the average weekly ILI percentage and positive influenza virus rate decreased by 6.25% and 61.94%, respectively, in 2020 compared to the previous 5 years (all p < 0.001). The overall incidence of GI decreased by 45.28%, from 253.73 in 2015-2019 to 138.84 in 2020 per 100 000 (p < 0.001), and with the greatest decline seen in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) (64.66%; p < 0.001). The mortality and CFRs from RI increased by 128.49% and 146.95%, respectively, in 2020, compared to 2015-2019 (p < 0.001). However, the mortality rates and CFRs of seven GI decreased by 70.56% and 46.12%, respectively (p < 0.001). In conclusion, China's COVID-19 elimination/containment strategy is very effective in reducing the incidence rates of RI and GI, and ILI activity, as well as the mortality and CFRs of GI diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Talanta ; 243: 123388, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735000

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid detection technology is now widely used in scientific research and clinical testing, such as infectious and genetic diseases screening, molecular diagnosis of tumors and pharmacogenomic research, which is also an important part of in vitro diagnostics (IVD). However, with the increasing requirements of diagnosis and treatment, existing nucleic acid detection technologies are facing challenges in dealing with the current problems (especially since the outbreak of coronavirus disease in 2019 (Covid-19)). Recently, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas)-based diagnostics have become a hot spot of attention. CRISPR/Cas has been developed as a molecular detection tool besides scientific research in biology and medicine fields, and some CRISPR-based products have already been translated. It is known as the "next-generation molecular diagnostic technology" because of its advantages such as easy design and accurate identification. CRISPR/Cas relies on pre-amplification of target sequences and subsequent detection of Cas proteins. Combining the CRISPR/Cas system with various isothermal nucleic acid amplification strategies can generate amplified detection signals, enrich low abundance molecular targets, improve the specificity and sensitivity of analysis, and develop point-of-care (POC) diagnostic techniques. In this review, we analyze the current status of CRISPR/Cas systems and isothermal amplification, report the advantages of combining the two and summarize the recent progress with the integration of both technologies with POC sensors in the nucleic acid field. In addition, the challenges and future prospects of CRISPR technology combined with isothermal amplification strategies in biosensing and clinical applications are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321948

ABSTRACT

Critically ill 2019 coronavirus disease patients (COVID-19) under invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) are 10- to 40-times more likely to die than the general population. Although progression from mild to severe COVID-19 has been associated with hypoxia, uncontrolled inflammation and coagulopathy, the mechanisms involved in progression to severity are poorly understood. By analyzing the virome from tracheal aspirates (TA) of 25 COVID-19 patients under IMV, we found higher levels and differential expression of human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) genes compared to nasopharyngeal swabs from mild cases and TA from non-COVID patients. Proteomic analysis and RT-PCR confirmed the presence of HERV-K in these patients. Moreover, increased HERV-K expression was triggered in human primary monocytes from healthy donors after experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. In critically ill patients, higher HERV-K levels were associated with early mortality (within 14 days) in the intensive care unit. Increased HERV-K expression in deceased patients associated with IL-17-related inflammation, monocyte activation and higher consumption of clotting/fibrinolysis factors. Our data implicate the levels of HERV-K transcripts in the outcome of critical COVID-19 patients under invasive mechanical ventilation.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313381

ABSTRACT

Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of Fangcang shelter hospitals, designated hospitals, and time interval from illness onset to diagnosis in the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. Methods We use SEIAR and SEIA-CQFH warehouse models to simulate the two-stage epidemic in Wuhan and calculate the time dependent basic reproduction number (BRN) of symptomatic infected individuals, asymptomatic infected individuals, exposed individuals and community isolated infected individuals. Scenarios that varied in the maximum numbers of open beds in Fangcang shelter hospitals and designated hospitals, the intervals from onset to visit hospitals and diagnosis, are considered to quantitatively assess the optimal measures. Findings: The BRN is decreased from 4.50 on Jan 22 to 0.18 on March 18. Without Fangcang shelter hospitals, the case number of cumulative and death will increase by 18.58% and 51.73%. If the number of beds in the designated hospitals decrease by 1/2 or 1/4, the number of cumulative cases will increase by 178.04% and 92.1%. If the time interval from illness onset to hospital visit is 4 days, the number of cumulative cases and deaths will increase by 2.79% and 6.19%. If Fangcang shelter hospitals are not established, the number of beds in designated hospitals reduce 1/4 and the time interval from visiting hospitals to diagnosis is 4 days, the cumulative number of cases will increase 268.97%.

6.
Family Relations ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1685296

ABSTRACT

Objective Our study investigates how changes in family contexts were associated with child behaviors during Ohio's COVID-19 shutdown of early 2020. Background The COVID-19 pandemic caused major economic and social changes for families. Rapid research was conducted to assess these changes and their potential impacts on child behaviors. Method Using a diverse sample of families with children aged birth to 9?years (N = 559), we describe key economic changes and parent-reported stressors experienced during Ohio's shutdown period. Then, we use regression models to examine how these family conditions were associated with child emotional distress and changes in sleep routines. Results When parents experienced more total COVID-19 pandemic-related stressors, they also reported that their children exhibited more anxious and withdrawn, fearful, acting out, and COVID-19 pandemic-related behaviors (p?<?0.01). Conclusion Families and children living at home in Ohio experienced significant stress during the shutdown. These findings can be used to inform future studies of the social and economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for parents and children. Implications Families and children have experienced multiple stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Researchers and practitioners should continue to monitor and support families and children to mitigate potential lasting consequences.

7.
Arch Virol ; 167(2): 577-581, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639483

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) are associated with a high disease burden. In this study, we investigated the association between enhanced public health intervention and the incidence of AHC during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. A total of 212,526 AHC cases were reported in China during 2015-2020. The overall yearly incidence rate and number of AHC cases decreased by 23.08% and 22.15%, respectively, during the COVID-19 epidemic, compared with the previous 5 years (all p < 0.001). Significant reductions in AHC incidence were found both during the emergency period and after the relaxation of emergency measures in 2020 compared to the previous 5 years (22.22% and 28.00% reduction, respectively; p < 0.001). Enhanced public health initiatives during the COVID-19 pandemic in China were therefore associated with lower transmission of pathogens causing AHC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic , China/epidemiology , Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/epidemiology , Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Appl Dev Psychol ; 78: 101375, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568498

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and associated government-mandated shutdowns disrupted schooling, socialization, and family life for school-aged children during spring 2020. These disruptions may have contributed to increased child behavior problems. Thus, we examined behavior problems in 247 children aged 7 to 9 years during Ohio's shutdown period. We investigated whether differences in parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with concurrent parent distress during spring 2020 and/or children's social-emotional skills measured via teacher-reports from the previous year (spring 2019). Parent distress significantly predicted behavior problems, such that more distressed parents also reported more child behavior problems. Child pre-pandemic peer social skills also significantly predicted behavior problems, such that more skilled children exhibited fewer behavior problems. There were no interaction effects between parent distress and children's social-emotional skills on child behavior problems. Further research is needed to understand how children's social-emotional skills impact their ability to cope during times of epidemiological crisis.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22493, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526101

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has infected millions worldwide, therefore there is an urgent need to increase our diagnostic capacity to identify infected cases. Although RT-qPCR remains the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection, this method requires specialised equipment in a diagnostic laboratory and has a long turn-around time to process the samples. To address this, several groups have recently reported the development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as a simple, low cost and rapid method for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Herein we present a comparative analysis of three LAMP-based assays that target different regions of the SARS-CoV-2: ORF1ab RdRP, ORF1ab nsp3 and Gene N. We perform a detailed assessment of their sensitivity, kinetics and false positive rates for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics in LAMP or RT-LAMP reactions, using colorimetric or fluorescent detection. Our results independently validate that all three assays can detect SARS-CoV-2 in 30 min, with robust accuracy at detecting as little as 1000 RNA copies and the results can be visualised simply by color changes. Incorporation of RT-LAMP with fluorescent detection further increases the detection sensitivity to as little as 100 RNA copies. We also note the shortcomings of some LAMP-based assays, including variable results with shorter reaction time or lower load of SARS-CoV-2, and false positive results in some experimental conditions and clinical saliva samples. Overall for RT-LAMP detection, the ORF1ab RdRP and ORF1ab nsp3 assays have faster kinetics for detection but varying degrees of false positives detection, whereas the Gene N assay exhibits no false positives in 30 min reaction time, which highlights the importance of optimal primer design to minimise false-positives in RT-LAMP. This study provides validation of the performance of LAMP-based assays as a rapid, highly sensitive detection method for SARS-CoV-2, which have important implications in development of point-of-care diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Saliva/virology
10.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(5): E906-E908, 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502125

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory disease that threatens global health. During the pandemic period of COVID-19, the task for prevention in the general ward of cardiovascular surgery is fairly arduous. The present study intends to summarize our experience with infection control, including ward setting, admission procedures, personnel management, health education, and so on, to provide references for clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/standards , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Guidelines as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms/standards , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5565549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476874

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging virus causing substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. We performed a cross-sectional investigation of SARS-CoV-2 clusters in Suzhou to determine the transmissibility of the virus among close contacts and to assess the demographic and clinical characteristics between index and secondary cases. METHODS: We review the clustered patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections in Suzhou between 22 January and 29 February 2020. The demographic and clinical characteristics were compared between index and secondary cases. We calculated the basic reproduction number (R 0) among close contacts with SLI model. RESULTS: By 22 February, 87 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported, including 50 sporadic and 37 clustered cases, who were generated from 13 clusters. On admission, 5 (20.8%) out of 24 secondary cases were asymptomatic. The male ratio of index cases was significantly higher than that of secondary cases. Additionally, the index cases were more likely to have fever and increased CRP levels than the secondary cases. The R 0 values of clusters displayed a significantly declining trend over time for all clusters. The relative risk of infection in blood-related contacts of cases versus unrelated contacts was 1.60 for SARS-CoV-2 (95% CI: 0.42-2.95). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 has great person-to-person transmission capability among close contacts. The secondary cases are more prone to have mild symptoms than index cases. There is no increased RR of secondary infection in blood relatives versus unrelated contacts. The high rate of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections highlights the urgent need to enhance active case finding strategy for early detection of infectious patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
12.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470992

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, severely affecting public health and the global economy. Adaptive immunity plays a crucial role in fighting against SARS-CoV-2 infection and directly influences the clinical outcomes of patients. Clinical studies have indicated that patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit delayed and weak adaptive immune responses; however, the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 impedes adaptive immunity remains unclear. Here, by using an in vitro cell line, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein significantly inhibits DNA damage repair, which is required for effective V(D)J recombination in adaptive immunity. Mechanistically, we found that the spike protein localizes in the nucleus and inhibits DNA damage repair by impeding key DNA repair protein BRCA1 and 53BP1 recruitment to the damage site. Our findings reveal a potential molecular mechanism by which the spike protein might impede adaptive immunity and underscore the potential side effects of full-length spike-based vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , DNA Repair/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , V(D)J Recombination/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BRCA1 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , DNA Damage/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Tumor Suppressor p53-Binding Protein 1/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470870

ABSTRACT

Various intelligent technologies have been applied during COVID-19, which has become a worldwide public health emergency and brought significant challenges to the medical systems around the world. Notably, the application of robots has played a role in hospitals, quarantine facilities and public spaces and has attracted much attention from the media and the public. This study is based on a questionnaire survey on the perception and reception of robots used for medical care in the pandemic among the Chinese population. A total of 1667 people participated in the survey, 93.6% of respondents were pursuing or had completed a bachelor, master or even doctorate degree. The results show that Chinese people generally held positive attitudes towards "anti-pandemic robots" and affirmed their contribution to reducing the burden of medical care and virus transmission. A few respondents were concerned about the issues of robots replacing humans and it was apparent that their ethical views on robots were not completely consistent across their demographics (e.g., age, industry). Nevertheless, most respondents tended to be optimistic about robot applications and dialectical about the ethical issues involved. This is related to the prominent role robots played during the pandemic, the Chinese public's expectations of new technologies and technology-friendly public opinion in China. Exploring the perception and reception of anti-pandemic robots in different countries or cultures is important because it can shed some light on the future applications of robots, especially in the field of infectious disease control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Robotics , Emergencies , Humans , Public Health , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Front Public Health ; 9: 727242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468375

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) disease has spread quickly throughout China and around the world, endangering human health and life. Individuals' perceptions and attitudes as well as related health education measures may affect disease progression and prognosis during the COVID-19 outbreak. To promote and implement health education, research must focus on the perceptions and attitudes towards COVID-19 among Chinese people. The present study aimed to examine the profiles and predictive factors of the perceptions and attitudes towards COVID-19 in a sample of Chinese people. Methods: A sample of 2,663 Chinese people comprising medical staff and members of the general public completed an online survey on Wenjuanxing. The survey measured demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, education level, and place of residence) and perceptions and attitudes towards COVID-19. Results: Two profiles of perceptions and attitudes towards COVID-19 (positive and negative perceptions and attitudes) were identified in the sample. Place of residence during the COVID-19 pandemic and first response to COVID-19 were found to be independent predictive factors for COVID-19 related perceptions and attitudes. Conclusion: In addition to drug therapy and mental health services, the perceptions and attitudes of Chinese people towards COVID-19 should be considered when promoting health education during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Attitude , China/epidemiology , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-14, 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455051

ABSTRACT

The mental health of individuals has become increasingly important during the novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the number of healthcare staff that are helping to treat the victims of COVID-19 all over the world, there is a lack of research concerning the mental health of healthcare staff, and of the prior studies carried out, the research has been relatively descriptive and has not used more sophisticated types of analyses (e.g. latent profile analysis [LPA]). The aim of the present study was to investigate profiles of mental health among Chinese healthcare staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample comprised of 456 healthcare staff, and participants completed an online survey including individual information and their working status during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey included the Chinese Mental Health Scale (MHS-C), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Utilizing the LPA, two profiles of mental health (good mental health and poor mental health) were identified for Chinese healthcare staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to those with a good mental health profile, those with poor mental health profile had significantly higher scores on SAS and SDS. Female healthcare staff had higher mental health disturbances than males. Taking care and protecting the mental health of healthcare staff is very important in the fight against COVID-19. The need for employers to implement positive and effective measures among mental healthcare staff is likely to help them to cope better with mental health issues and improve mental health, as well as enhance resilience. Healthcare staff with good mental health can dedicate themselves to better nursing practice and nursing education during the COVID-19 epidemic.

16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e31125, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is a significant independent risk factor for both severe COVID-19 presentation at hospital admission and in-hospital mortality. Available information has suggested that people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) could benefit from COVID-19 vaccination. However, there is a dearth of evidence on willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among a national sample of PLWHA in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey investigated factors associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA aged 18 to 65 years living in eight conveniently selected Chinese metropolitan cities between January and February 2021. Eight community-based organizations (CBOs) providing services to PLWHA facilitated the recruitment. Eligible PLWHA completed an online survey developed using a widely used encrypted web-based survey platform in China. We fitted a single logistic regression model to obtain adjusted odds ratios (aORs), which involved one of the independent variables of interest and all significant background variables. Path analysis was also used in the data analysis. RESULTS: Out of 10,845 PLWHA approached by the CBOs, 2740 completed the survey, and 170 had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. This analysis was performed among 2570 participants who had never received COVID-19 vaccination. Over half of the participants reported willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination (1470/2570, 57.2%). Perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination were significantly associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination, including positive attitudes (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.09-1.12; P<.001), negative attitudes (aOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.97; P<.001), perceived support from significant others (perceived subjective norm; aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.46-1.61; P<.001), and perceived behavioral control (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.11-1.14; P<.001). At the interpersonal level, receiving advice supportive of COVID-19 vaccination from doctors (aOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.65-2.40; P<.001), CBO staff (aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.51-2.36; P<.001), friends and/or family members (aOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.93-5.35; P<.001), and PLWHA peers (aOR 2.38, 95% CI 1.85-3.08; P<.001) was associated with higher willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The overall opinion supporting COVID-19 vaccination for PLWHA on the internet or social media was also positively associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.31-1.94; P<.001). Path analysis indicated that interpersonal-level variables were indirectly associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination through perceptions (ß=.43, 95% CI .37-.51; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to PLWHA in other countries and the general population in most parts of the world, PLWHA in China reported a relatively low willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The internet and social media as well as interpersonal communications may be major sources of influence on PLWHA's perceptions and willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Discrete Dynamics in Nature & Society ; : 1-15, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1350065

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the development prospects of zinc-nickel battery industry, further investigates the industry competition in existing markets by mathematical modeling, calculates the equilibrium price and profit of the oligarch competition by using the method of Stackelberg equilibrium and Nash equilibrium, and makes a comparison between them. Then, we study and model the case of renting and selling simultaneously. In addition, we also study the impact of futures prices on the zinc-nickel battery companies and carry out numerical simulation. At the end of this paper, we analyze the location of zinc-nickel battery enterprises and the industry development under the COVID-19 pandemic. The finding show that the reduction of raw material cost is of great help to the development of the zinc-nickel battery industry. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Discrete Dynamics in Nature & Society is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, COVID-19 vaccination programs have been rolled out. To inform health promotion, this study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of performance or being scheduled to perform at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination (PSCV) in a Chinese adult general population. METHODS: An anonymous, random telephone survey interviewed 500 adults aged 18-75 in Hong Kong, China from 14-27 May 2021. RESULTS: The prevalence of PSCV was 21.0%, which was significantly lower among females and those aged ≤30. Positively associated factors of PSCV included perceived protection effect of vaccination, self-perceived physical fitness for vaccination, compulsory COVID-19 testing experience, perceived need to travel, general trust toward the government, and trust toward the governmental vaccination program, while negatively associated factors included perceived low efficacy of vaccination, concerns about side effects, and chronic disease status. Furthermore, the association between sex and PSCV was fully mediated by stronger concern about side effects and lower levels of self-perceived physical fitness for COVID-19 vaccination among females than males. CONCLUSION: Moderately low prevalence of COVID-19 vaccination was observed in Hong Kong, where there was no shortage of vaccine supply. To achieve herd immunity, health promotion is greatly warranted and may incorporate messages based on the findings of this study.

19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 626, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of Fangcang shelter hospitals, designated hospitals, and the time interval from illness onset to diagnosis toward the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: We used SEIAR and SEIA-CQFH warehouse models to simulate the two-period epidemic in Wuhan and calculate the time dependent basic reproduction numbers (BRNs) of symptomatic infected individuals, asymptomatic infected individuals, exposed individuals, and community-isolated infected individuals. Scenarios that varied in terms of the maximum numbers of open beds in Fangcang shelter hospitals and designated hospitals, and the time intervals from illness onset to hospitals visit and diagnosis were considered to quantitatively assess the optimal measures. RESULTS: The BRN decreased from 4.50 on Jan 22, 2020 to 0.18 on March 18, 2020. Without Fangcang shelter hospitals, the cumulative numbers of cases and deaths would increase by 18.58 and 51.73%, respectively. If the number of beds in the designated hospitals decreased by 1/2 and 1/4, the number of cumulative cases would increase by 178.04 and 92.1%, respectively. If the time interval from illness onset to hospital visit was 4 days, the number of cumulative cases and deaths would increase by 2.79 and 6.19%, respectively. If Fangcang shelter hospitals were not established, the number of beds in designated hospitals reduced 1/4, and the time interval from visiting hospitals to diagnosis became 4 days, the cumulative number of cases would increase by 268.97%. CONCLUSION: The declining BRNs indicate the high effectiveness of the joint measures. The joint measures led by Fangcang shelter hospitals are crucial and need to be rolled out globally, especially when medical resources are limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Computer Simulation , Mobile Health Units , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Hospitals, Special , Humans , Models, Biological , Public Health
20.
Chin J Acad Radiol ; : 1-9, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent risk factor of major adverse cardiovascular events; however, the impact of CAC on in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between CAC and in-hospital mortality and adverse events in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study enrolled 2067 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with definitive clinical outcomes (death or discharge) admitted from 22 tertiary hospitals in China between January 3, 2020 and April 2, 2020. Demographic, clinical, laboratory results, chest CT findings, and CAC on admission were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital death and the secondary outcome was composed of in-hospital death, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), and requiring mechanical ventilation. Multivariable Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to explore the association between CAC and in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The mean age was 50 years (SD,16) and 1097 (53.1%) were male. A total of 177 patients showed high CAC level, and compared with patients with low CAC, these patients were older (mean age: 49 vs. 69 years, P < 0.001) and more likely to be male (52.0% vs. 65.0%, P = 0.001). Comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) ([33.3%, 59/177] vs. [4.7%, 89/1890], P < 0.001), presented more often among patients with high CAC, compared with patients with low CAC. As for laboratory results, patients with high CAC had higher rates of increased D-dimer, LDH, as well as CK-MB (all P < 0.05). The mean CT severity score in high CAC group was also higher than low CAC group (12.6 vs. 11.1, P = 0.005). In multivariable Cox regression model, patients with high CAC were at a higher risk of in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.731; 95% CI 1.010-2.971, P = 0.046) and adverse clinical outcomes (HR, 1.611; 95% CL 1.087-2.387, P = 0.018). CONCLUSION: High CAC is a risk factor associated with in-hospital death and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with confirmed COVID-19, which highlights the importance of calcium load testing for hospitalized COVID-19 patients and calls for attention to patients with high CAC. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42058-021-00072-4.

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