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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324114

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of corticosteroid therapy on outcomes of patients with Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is highly controversial. We aimed to compare the risk of death between COVID-19-related ARDS patients with corticosteroid treatment and those without. Methods In this single-centre retrospective observational study, patients with ARDS caused by COVID-19 between 24 December 2019 and 24 February 2020 were enrolled. The primary outcome was 60-day in-hospital death. The exposure was prescribed systemic corticosteroids or not. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 60-day in-hospital mortality. Results A total of 382 patients including 226 (59.2%) patients who received systemic corticosteroids and 156 (40.8%) patients with standard treatment were analyzed. The maximum dose of corticosteroids was 80.0 (IQR 40.0–80.0) mg equivalent methylprednisolone per day, and duration of corticosteroid treatment was 7.0 (4.0–12.0) days in total. In Cox regression analysis using corticosteroid treatment as a time-varying variable, corticosteroid treatment was associated with a significant reduction in risk of in-hospital death within 60 days (HR, 0.48;95% CI, 0.25, 0.93;p  = 0.0285). The association remained significantly after adjusting for age, sex, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at hospital admission, propensity score of corticosteroid treatment, and comorbidities (HR: 0.51;CI: 0.27, 0.99;p  = 0.0471). Corticosteroids were not associated with delayed viral RNA clearance in our cohort. Conclusion In this clinical practice setting, low-to-moderate dose corticosteroid treatment was associated with reduced risk of death in COVID-19 patients who developed ARDS.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308258

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 appeared high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which exhibited the predictor of mortality in non-COVID-19 patients. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between risk of VTE with 30-day mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods: : In this retrospective cohort study, 1030 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were recruited in two hospitals of Wuhan, China. We collected baseline data on demographics, SOFA parameters, and VTE risk assessment models (RAMs) including Padua Prediction Score (PPS), IMPROVE and Caprini RAM. The primary outcome of the study was 30-day mortality. Results: : Thirty-day mortality increased progressively from 2% in patients at low risk of VTE to 63% in those at high risk defined by PPS. Similar findings were also observed for risk of VTE defined by IMPROVE and Caprini score. Progressive increases in VTE risk also were associated with higher SOFA score. Our findings showed that the presence of high risk of VTE was independently associated with 30-day mortality regardless of adjusted gender, smoking status and some comorbidities with hazard ratios of 29.19, 37.37, 20.60 for PPS, IMPROVE and Caprini RAM, respectively ( P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Predictive accuracy of PPS (AUC, 0.900), IMPROVE (AUC, 0.917) or Caprini RAM (AUC, 0.861) as the risk of 30-day mortality was markedly well. Conclusions: : The presence of high risk of VTE identifies a group of patients with COVID-19 at higher risk for 30-day mortality. Furthermore, there is higher accuracy of VTE RAMs to predict 30-day mortality in these patients.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 543-549, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of risk of venous thromboembolism with 30-day mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 1030 COVID-19 patients were retrospectively collected, with baseline data on demographics, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, and VTE risk assessment models (RAMs), including Padua prediction score (PPS), International Medical Prevention Registry (IMPROVE), and Caprini. RESULTS: Thirty-day mortality increased progressively from 2% in patients at low VTE risk to 63% in those at high risk defined by PPS. Similar findings were observed in IMPROVE and Caprini scores. Progressive increases in VTE risk were also associated with higher SOFA score. High risk of VTE was independently associated with mortality regardless of adjusted gender, smoking status and some comorbidities, with hazard ratios of 29.19, 37.37 and 20.60 for PPS, IMPROVE and Caprini RAM, respectively (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). The predictive accuracy of PPS (area under curve (AUC) 0.900), IMPROVE (AUC 0.917), or Caprini (AUC 0.861) RAM for risk of hospitalized mortality was unexpectedly strong. CONCLUSIONS: We established that the presence of a high risk of VTE identifies a group of COVID-19 patients at higher risk for mortality. Furthermore, there is a high accuracy of VTE RAMs to predict mortality in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
5.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 643, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of corticosteroid therapy on outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly controversial. We aimed to compare the risk of death between COVID-19-related ARDS patients with corticosteroid treatment and those without. METHODS: In this single-center retrospective observational study, patients with ARDS caused by COVID-19 between January 20, 2020, and February 24, 2020, were enrolled. The primary outcome was 60-day in-hospital death. The exposure was prescribed systemic corticosteroids or not. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 60-day in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 382 patients [60.7 ± 14.1 years old (mean ± SD), 61.3% males] were analyzed. The median of sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was 2.0 (IQR 2.0-3.0). Of these cases, 94 (24.6%) patients had invasive mechanical ventilation. The number of patients received systemic corticosteroids was 226 (59.2%), and 156 (40.8%) received standard treatment. The maximum dose of corticosteroids was 80.0 (IQR 40.0-80.0) mg equivalent methylprednisolone per day, and duration of corticosteroid treatment was 7.0 (4.0-12.0) days in total. In Cox regression analysis using corticosteroid treatment as a time-varying variable, corticosteroid treatment was associated with a significant reduction in risk of in-hospital death within 60 days after adjusting for age, sex, SOFA score at hospital admission, propensity score of corticosteroid treatment, comorbidities, antiviral treatment, and respiratory supports (HR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21, 0.85; p = 0.0160). Corticosteroids were not associated with delayed viral RNA clearance in our cohort. CONCLUSION: In this clinical practice setting, low-dose corticosteroid treatment was associated with reduced risk of in-hospital death within 60 days in COVID-19 patients who developed ARDS.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Propensity Score , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Aged , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends
6.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4908

ABSTRACT

A review. Strengthen supportive treatment, active oxygen therapy and respiratory support (ventilator-assisted ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) are important means for the treatment of severe and critical COVID-19 patients based on the National Health Commission Department and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine issued the "New Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Program (Trial Version 5)" and "New Coronavirus Pneumonia Severe, Critical and Severe Case Diagnosis and Treatment Program (Trial Version 2)". When conventional treatment cannot prevent the progression of COVID-19, it is recommended to use small doses of short-term glucocorticoids, but no evidence Academic basis;the therapeutic effect of Xuebijing injection on severe COVID-19 patients needs to be confirmed. Strictly adhere to the principle of scientific rescue, and do a good job in the treatment of critical and critical illnesses in isolation and wards, isolation wards, and isolation intensive care units The protection of medical personnel of COVID-19 patients is very important.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 959, 2020 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous published prognostic models for COVID-19 patients have been suggested to be prone to bias due to unrepresentativeness of patient population, lack of external validation, inappropriate statistical analyses, or poor reporting. A high-quality and easy-to-use prognostic model to predict in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 patients could support physicians to make better clinical decisions. METHODS: Fine-Gray models were used to derive a prognostic model to predict in-hospital mortality (treating discharged alive from hospital as the competing event) in COVID-19 patients using two retrospective cohorts (n = 1008) in Wuhan, China from January 1 to February 10, 2020. The proposed model was internally evaluated by bootstrap approach and externally evaluated in an external cohort (n = 1031). RESULTS: The derivation cohort was a case-mix of mild-to-severe hospitalized COVID-19 patients (43.6% females, median age 55). The final model (PLANS), including five predictor variables of platelet count, lymphocyte count, age, neutrophil count, and sex, had an excellent predictive performance (optimism-adjusted C-index: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.87; averaged calibration slope: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.82 to 1.08). Internal validation showed little overfitting. External validation using an independent cohort (47.8% female, median age 63) demonstrated excellent predictive performance (C-index: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.89; calibration slope: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.92 to 1.12). The averaged predicted cumulative incidence curves were close to the observed cumulative incidence curves in patients with different risk profiles. CONCLUSIONS: The PLANS model based on five routinely collected predictors would assist clinicians in better triaging patients and allocating healthcare resources to reduce COVID-19 fatality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Models, Statistical , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Platelet Count , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clinical eHealth ; 3:7-15, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-822402

ABSTRACT

The aim is to diagnose COVID-19 earlier and to improve its treatment by applying medical technology, the “COVID-19 Intelligent Diagnosis and Treatment Assistant Program (nCapp)” based on the Internet of Things. Terminal eight functions can be implemented in real-time online communication with the “cloud” through the page selection key. According to existing data, questionnaires, and check results, the diagnosis is automatically generated as confirmed, suspected, or suspicious of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection. It classifies patients into mild, moderate, severe or critical pneumonia. nCapp can also establish an online COVID-19 real-time update database, and it updates the model of diagnosis in real time based on the latest real-world case data to improve diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, nCapp can guide treatment. Front-line physicians, experts, and managers are linked to perform consultation and prevention. nCapp also contributes to the long-term follow-up of patients with COVID-19. The ultimate goal is to enable different levels of COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment among different doctors from different hospitals to upgrade to the national and international through the intelligent assistance of the nCapp system. In this way, we can block disease transmission, avoid physician infection, and epidemic prevention and control as soon as possible.

10.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(3): 106114, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665569

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to compare ribavirin therapy versus supportive therapy only for patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 115 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were retrospectively analysed. All patients received supportive care as well as regular laboratory and clinical monitoring. The 115 patients comprised 44 patients who received intravenous ribavirin (treatment group) and 71 who did not (control group). Baseline laboratory and clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups. The negative conversion time for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR in the ribavirin group was 12.8 ± 4.1 days compared with 14.1 ± 3.5 days in the control group (P = 0.314). Moreover, 7/41 patients (17.1%) in the ribavirin group died compared with 17/69 (24.6%) in the control group (P = 0.475). Adverse effects were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, in patients with severe COVID-19, ribavirin therapy is not associated with improved negative conversion time for SARS-CoV-2 test and is not associated with an improved mortality rate. Further assessment in designed randomised controlled trials is recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(1): 33-39, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618187

ABSTRACT

Few data are available on the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in critically ill COVID-19 with thrombosis prophylaxis. This study retrospectively included 88 patients in the ICU with critically ill COVID-19 at Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, China. All patients underwent compression ultrasonography for identifying DVT. Firth logistic regression was used to examine the association of DVT with sex, age, hypoalbuminemia, D-dimer, and SOFA score. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age and SOFA score of 88 patients were 63 (55-71) years old and 5 (4-6), respectively. Despite all patients receiving guideline-recommended low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT was 46% (95% CI 35-56%). Proximal DVT was recognized in 9% (95% CI 3-15%) of the patients, while 46% (95% CI 35-56%) of patients had distal DVT. All of the proximal DVT combined with distal DVT. Risk factors of DVT extension occurred in all distal DVT patients. As Padua score ≥ 4 or IMPROVE score ≥ 2, 53% and 46% of patients had DVT, respectively. Mortality was higher in patients with acute DVT (30%) compared with non-DVT (17%), but did not reach statistical significance. Hypoalbuminemia (odds ratio [OR], 0.17; 95% CI 0.06-0.05, P = 0.001), higher SOFA score (OR per IQR, 2.07; 95% CI 1.38-3.39, P = 0.001), and elevated D-dimer (OR per IQR, 1.04; 95% CI 1.03-1.84, P = 0.029) were significant DVT risk factors in multivariable analyses. High incidence of DVT was identified in patients with critically ill COVID-19, despite the use of guideline-recommended pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. The presence of hypoalbuminemia, higher SOFA score, and elevated D-dimer were significantly independent risk factors of DVT. More effective VTE prevention and management strategies may need to be addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemoprevention , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Hypoalbuminemia , Venous Thrombosis , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Chemoprevention/methods , Chemoprevention/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia/diagnosis , Hypoalbuminemia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
12.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(7): 934-943, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-8523

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has subsequently spread worldwide. Risk factors for the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia have not yet been well delineated. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or died. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 201 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital in China between December 25, 2019, and January 26, 2020. The final date of follow-up was February 13, 2020. Exposures: Confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Main Outcomes and Measures: The development of ARDS and death. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management, treatment, and outcome data were also collected and analyzed. Results: Of 201 patients, the median age was 51 years (interquartile range, 43-60 years), and 128 (63.7%) patients were men. Eighty-four patients (41.8%) developed ARDS, and of those 84 patients, 44 (52.4%) died. In those who developed ARDS, compared with those who did not, more patients presented with dyspnea (50 of 84 [59.5%] patients and 30 of 117 [25.6%] patients, respectively [difference, 33.9%; 95% CI, 19.7%-48.1%]) and had comorbidities such as hypertension (23 of 84 [27.4%] patients and 16 of 117 [13.7%] patients, respectively [difference, 13.7%; 95% CI, 1.3%-26.1%]) and diabetes (16 of 84 [19.0%] patients and 6 of 117 [5.1%] patients, respectively [difference, 13.9%; 95% CI, 3.6%-24.2%]). In bivariate Cox regression analysis, risk factors associated with the development of ARDS and progression from ARDS to death included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 3.26; 95% CI 2.08-5.11; and HR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.26-11.67, respectively), neutrophilia (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.19; and HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17, respectively), and organ and coagulation dysfunction (eg, higher lactate dehydrogenase [HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.44-1.79; and HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.11-1.52, respectively] and D-dimer [HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; and HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04, respectively]). High fever (≥39 °C) was associated with higher likelihood of ARDS development (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.11-2.84) and lower likelihood of death (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82). Among patients with ARDS, treatment with methylprednisolone decreased the risk of death (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.72). Conclusions and Relevance: Older age was associated with greater risk of development of ARDS and death likely owing to less rigorous immune response. Although high fever was associated with the development of ARDS, it was also associated with better outcomes among patients with ARDS. Moreover, treatment with methylprednisolone may be beneficial for patients who develop ARDS.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Care Planning/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Transl Med ; 9(1): 19, 2020 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493

ABSTRACT

An ongoing outbreak of 2019-nCoV pneumonia was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei province, China at the end of 2019. With the spread of the new coronavirus accelerating, person-to-person transmission in family homes or hospitals, and intercity spread of 2019-nCoV occurred. At least 40,261 cases confirmed, 23,589 cases suspected, 909 cases death and 3444 cases cured in China and worldwide 24 countries confirmed 383 cases being diagnosed, 1 case death in February 10th, 2020. At present, the mortality of 2019-nCoV in China is 2.3%, compared with 9.6% of SARS and 34.4% of MERS reported by WHO. It seems the new virus is not as fatal as many people thought. Chinese authorities improved surveillance network, made the laboratory be able to recognize the outbreak within a few weeks and announced the virus genome that provide efficient epidemiological control. More comprehensive information is required to understand 2019-nCoV feature, the epidemiology of origin and spreading, and the clinical phenomina. According to the current status, blocking transmission, isolation, protection, and alternative medication are the urgent management strategies against 2019-nCoV.

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