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Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317682


Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory types are the main phenotypes of the macrophage, which are commonly notified as M1 and M2, respectively. The alteration of macrophage phenotypes and the progression of inflammation are intimately associated; both phenotypes usually coexist throughout the whole inflammation stage, involving the transduction of intracellular signals and the secretion of extracellular cytokines. This paper aims to address the interaction of macrophages and surrounding cells and tissues with inflammation-related diseases and clarify the crosstalk of signal pathways relevant to the phenotypic metamorphosis of macrophages. On these bases, some novel therapeutic methods are proposed for regulating inflammation through monitoring the transition of macrophage phenotypes so as to prevent the negative effects of antibiotic drugs utilized in the long term in the clinic. This information will be quite beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of inflammation-related diseases like pneumonia and other disorders involving macrophages.

Biological Products , Macrophages , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Phenotype , Inflammation/metabolism , Biological Products/pharmacology
Microbiome ; 9(1): 132, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262519


BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Viruses exist in complex microbial environments, and recent studies have revealed both synergistic and antagonistic effects of specific bacterial taxa on viral prevalence and infectivity. We set out to test whether specific bacterial communities predict SARS-CoV-2 occurrence in a hospital setting. METHODS: We collected 972 samples from hospitalized patients with COVID-19, their health care providers, and hospital surfaces before, during, and after admission. We screened for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-qPCR, characterized microbial communities using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and used these bacterial profiles to classify SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection with a random forest model. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of surfaces from COVID-19 patient rooms had detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA, although infectivity was not assessed. The highest prevalence was in floor samples next to patient beds (39%) and directly outside their rooms (29%). Although bed rail samples more closely resembled the patient microbiome compared to floor samples, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected less often in bed rail samples (11%). SARS-CoV-2 positive samples had higher bacterial phylogenetic diversity in both human and surface samples and higher biomass in floor samples. 16S microbial community profiles enabled high classifier accuracy for SARS-CoV-2 status in not only nares, but also forehead, stool, and floor samples. Across these distinct microbial profiles, a single amplicon sequence variant from the genus Rothia strongly predicted SARS-CoV-2 presence across sample types, with greater prevalence in positive surface and human samples, even when compared to samples from patients in other intensive care units prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: These results contextualize the vast diversity of microbial niches where SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected and identify specific bacterial taxa that associate with the viral RNA prevalence both in the host and hospital environment. Video Abstract.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics