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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 42, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitative point-of-care testing assay for detecting antibodies is critical to COVID-19 control. In this study, we established an up-conversion phosphor technology-based point-of-care testing (UPT-POCT), a lateral flow assay, for rapid COVID-19 diagnosis, as well as prediction of seral neutralizing antibody (NAb) activity and protective effects. METHODS: UPT-POCT was developed targeting total antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Using ELISA as a contrast method, we evaluated the quantitation accuracy with NAb and serum samples. Cutoff for serum samples was determined through 70 healthy and 140 COVID-19 patients. We evaluated the cross-reactions with antibodies against other viruses. Then, we performed multi-center clinical trials of UPT-POCT, including 782 patients with 387 clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, RBD-specific antibody levels were detected using UPT-POCT and microneutralization assay for samples from both patients and vaccinees. Specifically, the antibodies of recovered patients with recurrent positive (RP) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test results were discussed. RESULTS: The ratios of signal intensities between the test and control bands on the lateral flow strip, namely, T/C ratios, was defined as the results of UPT-POCT. T/C ratios had excellent correlations with concentrations of NAb, as well as OD values of ELISA for serum samples. The sensitivity and specificity of UPT-POCT were 89.15% and 99.75% for 782 cases in seven hospitals in China, respectively. We evaluated RBD-specific antibodies for 528 seral samples from 213 recovered and 99 RP COVID-19 patients, along with 35 seral samples from inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees, and we discovered that the total RBD-specific antibody level indicated by T/C ratios of UPT-POCT was significantly related to the NAb titers in both COVID-19 patients (r = 0.9404, n = 527; ρ = 0.6836, n = 528) and the vaccinees (r = 0.9063, ρ = 0.7642, n = 35), and it was highly relevant to the protection rate against RP (r = 0.9886, n = 312). CONCLUSION: This study reveals that the UPT-POCT for quantitative detection of total RBD-specific antibody could be employed as a surrogate method for rapid COVID-19 diagnosis and prediction of protective effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , China , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoassay , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324158

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged coronavirus, causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in December, 2019. As drugs and vaccines of COVID-19 remain in development, accurate virus detection plays a crucial role in the current public health crisis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) kits have been reliably used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, whereas isothermal nucleic acid amplification-based point-of-care automated kits have also been considered as a simpler and rapid alternative. However, as these kits have only been developed and applied clinically within a short timeframe, their clinical performance has not been adequately evaluated to date. We describe a comparative study between a newly developed cross-priming isothermal amplification (CPA) kit (Kit A) and five RT-qPCR kits (Kits B–F) to evaluate their sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy. Methods: Fifty-two clinical samples were used including throat swabs (n=30), nasal swabs (n=7), nasopharyngeal swabs (n=7) and sputum specimens (n=8), comprising confirmed (n=26) and negative cases (n=26). SARS-CoV-2 detection was simultaneously performed on each sample using six nucleic acid amplification kits. The sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) and the accuracy for each kit were assessed using clinical manifestation and molecular diagnoses as the reference standard. Reproducibility for RT-qPCR kits was evaluated in triplicate by three different operators using a SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive sample. On the basis of the six kits’ evaluation results, CPA kit (Kit A) and two RT-qPCR Kits (Kit B and F) were applied to the SARS-CoV-2 detection in close-contacts of COVID-19 patients. Results: For Kit A, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV/NPV and accuracy were 100%. Among the five RT-qPCR kits, Kits B, C and F had good agreement with the clinical diagnostic reports (Kappa≥0.75);Kits D and E were less congruent (0.4≤Kappa<0.75). Differences between all kits were statistically significant (P<0.001). The reproducibility of RT-qPCR kits was determined using a coefficients of variation (CV) between 0.95% and 2.57%, indicating good reproducibility. Conclusions: This is the first comparative study to evaluate CPA and RT-qPCR kits’ specificity and sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and could serve as a reference for clinical laboratories, thus informing testing protocols amid the rapidly progressing COVID-19 pandemic. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2;COVID-19;nucleic acid detection;real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR);cross-priming isothermal amplification (CPA)

3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 799150, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643526

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate and characterize the putative Elizabethkingia anophelis contaminant isolated from throat and anal swab samples of patients from three fever epidemic clusters, which were not COVID-19 related, in Shenzhen, China, during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Bacteria were cultured from throat (n = 28) and anal (n = 3) swab samples from 28 fever adolescent patients. The isolated bacterial strains were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the VITEK2 automated identification system. Nucleic acids were extracted from the patient samples (n = 31), unopened virus collection kits from the same manufacturer as the patient samples (n = 35, blank samples) and from unopened throat swab collection kits of two other manufacturers (n = 22, control samples). Metagenomic sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) detection were performed. Blood serum collected from patients (n = 13) was assessed for the presence of antibodies to E. anophelis. The genomic characteristics, antibiotic susceptibility, and heat resistance of E. anophelis isolates (n = 31) were analyzed. Results: The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and VITEK2 as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. DNA sequence analysis confirmed isolates to be E. anophelis. The patients' samples and blank samples were positive for E. anophelis. Control samples were negative for E. anophelis. The sera from a sub-sample of 13 patients were antibody-negative for isolated E. anophelis. Most of the isolates were highly homologous and carried multiple ß-lactamase genes (bla B, bla GOB, and bla CME). The isolates displayed resistance to nitrofurans, penicillins, and most ß-lactam drugs. The bacteria survived heating at 56°C for 30 min. Conclusion: The unopened commercial virus collection kits from the same manufacturer as those used to swab patients were contaminated with E. anophelis. Patients were not infected with E. anophelis and the causative agent for the fevers remains unidentified. The relevant authorities were swiftly notified of this discovery and subsequent collection kits were not contaminated. DNA sequence-based techniques are the definitive method for Elizabethkingia species identification. The E. anophelis isolates were multidrug-resistant, with partial heat resistance, making them difficult to eradicate from contaminated surfaces. Such resistance indicates that more attention should be paid to disinfection protocols, especially in hospitals, to avoid outbreaks of E. anophelis infection.

4.
J Diabetes Investig ; 13(1): 148-155, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621938

ABSTRACT

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To explore the relationship between handgrip strength per weight (HGS/W), triglyceride glucose index (TyG) and diabetes, and whether lower HGS levels precede TyG in the Chinese elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two linear regression models were used to explore the association of whether baseline HGS/W predicted follow-up variation of TyG or baseline TyG predicted follow-up variation of HGS/W. The logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between baseline HGS/W and future diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 4,561 participants in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were enrolled, of which 47.0% were men, and the mean age was 58.7 years (standard deviation 8.68 years). A lower baseline HGS/W significantly correlated with a higher level of follow-up TyG (ß = -0.173, P = 0.002). The baseline level of HGS/W was significantly negatively associated with the incidence risk of diabetes (rate ratio 0.375, P = 0.004). However, in sex stratification, the statistical association between HGS/W and TyG and diabetes was only in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that HGS/W was inversely associated with TyG and diabetes, and lower HGS/W levels preceded TyG levels in the elderly population. However, the effect was inconsistent between men and women, and the possible mechanism would require further clarification.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/etiology , Hand Strength , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Aged , Body Weight , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Linear Models , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 707977, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457901

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a huge public health crisis for the globe. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein plays a vital role in viral infection and serves as a major target for developing neutralizing antibodies. In this study, the antibody response to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 S protein was analyzed by a panel of sera from animals immunized with RBD-based antigens and four linear B-cell epitope peptides (R345, R405, R450 and R465) were revealed. The immunogenicity of three immunodominant peptides (R345, R405, R465) was further accessed by peptide immunization in mice, and all of them could induced potent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 S protein, indicating that the three determinants in the RBD were immunogenic. We further generated and characterized monoclonal antibodies (15G9, 12C10 and 10D2) binding to these epitope peptides, and finely mapped the three immunodominant epitopes using the corresponding antibodies. Neutralization assays showed that all three monoclonal antibodies had neutralization activity. Results from IFA and western blotting showed that 12C10 was a cross-reactive antibody against both of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Results from conservative and structural analysis showed that 350VYAWN354 was a highly conserved epitope and exposed on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 S trimer, whereas 473YQAGSTP479 located in the receptor binding motif (RBM) was variable among different SARS-CoV-2 strains. 407VRQIAP412 was a highly conserved, but cryptic epitope shared between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. These findings provide important information for understanding the humoral antibody response to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and may facilitate further efforts to design SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the target of COVID-19 diagnostic.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Peptides/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Motifs/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines , Conserved Sequence/genetics , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Peptides/genetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363753
8.
Pediatr Investig ; : e12282, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353594

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a considerable challenge for pediatricians. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of pediatric patients with COVID-19 in China. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included pediatric patients from 46 hospitals in China, covering 12 provinces and two municipalities. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 211 pediatric patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. The median age was 7.0 years (range: 22 days to 18 years). Approximately 16.3% of the patients exhibited asymptomatic infections, 23.0% had upper respiratory tract infections, and 60.7% had pneumonia, including two with severe pneumonia and one with critical illness. Approximately 78.7% of the pediatric patients occurred in familial clusters. The most three common symptoms or signs at onset in children with COVID-19 were fever (54.5%), cough (49.3%), and pharyngeal congestion (20.8%). Only 17.6% of the patients presented with decreased lymphocyte count, whereas 13.6% had increased lymphocyte count. Among the patients with pneumonia who exhibited abnormal chest computed tomography findings, 18.2% (23/127) of the patients had no other symptoms. Generally, the chest radiographs showed abnormalities that affected both lungs (49.6%); ground-glass opacity (47.2%) was the most common manifestation. The cure and improvement rates were 86.7% (183/211) and 13.3% (28/211), respectively. Only one patient with an underlying condition received invasive mechanical ventilation; none of the patients died. INTERPRETATION: Similar to adults, children of all age groups are susceptible to COVID-19. Fortunately, most pediatric patients have mild symptoms or remain asymptomatic, despite the high incidence of pneumonia. Decreased proportions of white blood cells and lymphocytes are less frequent in children than in adults.

9.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 653245, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311388

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among the first batch of students returning to a college during the COVID-19 epidemic, and to explore the correlation of suicidal ideation with family characteristics and social support. Methods: A cluster sampling survey with a self-designed questionnaire was conducted among the first batch of students returning to a college in Wuhu, China. The Positive and Negative Suicidal ideation (PANSI) and Social Support Scale (SSRS) were used to define students' suicidal ideation and social support, respectively. The influence of family characteristics and social support on the students' suicidal ideation was investigated using multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results: Two thousand seven hundred valid questionnaires were collected, including 673 males (24.9%) and 2,027 females (75.1%), in this study. A total of 146 students (5.4%) showed suicidal ideation. Male respondents reported higher rates (7.9%) than females (4.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a higher risk level of residence before returning to school and lower objective support were the risk factors for suicidal ideation in males. In contrast, a higher level of maternal education, a poorer relationship with the mother, and lower scores for subjective support and support availability had significant effects on females' suicidal ideation. Limitations: This is a cross-sectional study, and lacks comparison to the time point unaffected by COVID-19. Moreover, it was limited by COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control restrictions, and the differences in returning to school in different regions. Only one college was investigated in this study, and all of the respondents were sophomores, so there may be some limitations in the representativeness of the sample and extrapolation of the results. Conclusion: Family characteristics and social support have had an important influence on suicidal ideation among students returning to school during the COVID-19 epidemic. Some gender differences were identified. Targeted interventions are needed for early prevention and control.

10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 689568, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295660

ABSTRACT

Objective: Early identification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with worse outcomes may benefit clinical management of patients. We aimed to quantify pneumonia findings on CT at admission to predict progression to critical illness in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This retrospective study included laboratory-confirmed adult patients with COVID-19. All patients underwent a thin-section chest computed tomography (CT) scans showing evidence of pneumonia. CT images with severe moving artifacts were excluded from analysis. Patients' clinical and laboratory data were collected from medical records. Three quantitative CT features of pneumonia lesions were automatically calculated using a care.ai Intelligent Multi-disciplinary Imaging Diagnosis Platform Intelligent Evaluation System of Chest CT for COVID-19, denoting the percentage of pneumonia volume (PPV), ground-glass opacity volume (PGV), and consolidation volume (PCV). According to Chinese COVID-19 guidelines (trial version 7), patients were divided into noncritical and critical groups. Critical illness was defined as a composite of admission to the intensive care unit, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, shock, or death. The performance of PPV, PGV, and PCV in discrimination of critical illness was assessed. The correlations between PPV and laboratory variables were assessed by Pearson correlation analysis. Results: A total of 140 patients were included, with mean age of 58.6 years, and 85 (60.7%) were male. Thirty-two (22.9%) patients were critical. Using a cutoff value of 22.6%, the PPV had the highest performance in predicting critical illness, with an area under the curve of 0.868, sensitivity of 81.3%, and specificity of 80.6%. The PPV had moderately positive correlation with neutrophil (%) (r = 0.535, p < 0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.567, p < 0.001), d-Dimer (r = 0.444, p < 0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.495, p < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.410, p < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.644, p < 0.001), and urea nitrogen (r = 0.439, p < 0.001), whereas the PPV had moderately negative correlation with lymphocyte (%) (r = -0.535, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Pneumonia volume quantified on initial CT can non-invasively predict the progression to critical illness in advance, which serve as a prognostic marker of COVID-19.

11.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 194, 2021 06 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological test is helpful in confirming and tracking infectious diseases in large population with the advantage of fast and convenience. Using the specific epitope peptides identified from the whole antigen as the detection antigen is sensitive and relatively economical. The development of epitope peptide-based detection kits for COVID-19 patients requires comprehensive information about epitope peptides. But the data on B cell epitope of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is still limited. More importantly, there is a lack of serological data on the peptides in the population. In this study, we aimed to identify the B cell epitope peptides of spike protein and detect the reactivity in serum samples, for further providing data support for their subsequent serological applications. RESULTS: Two B cell linear epitopes, P104 and P82, located in non-RBD region of SARS-CoV-2 S protein were identified by indirect ELISA screening of an overlapping peptide library of the S protein with COVID-19 patients' convalescent serum. And the peptides were verified by testing with 165 serum samples. P104 has not been reported previously; P82 is contained in peptide S21P2 reported before. The positive reaction rates of epitope peptides S14P5 and S21P2, the two non-RBD region epitopes identified by Poh et al., and P82 and P104 were 77.0%, 73.9%, 61.2% and 30.3%, respectively, for 165 convalescent sera, including 30 asymptomatic patients. Although P104 had the lowest positive rate for total patients (30.3%), it exhibited slight advantage for detection of asymptomatic infections (36.7%). Combination of epitopes significantly improved the positive reaction rate. Among all combination patterns, (S14P5 + S21P2 + P104) pattern exhibited the highest positive reaction rate for all patients (92.7%), as well as for asymptomatic infections (86.7%), confirming the feasibility of P104 as supplementary antigen for serological detection. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between epitopes with neutralizing antibody, but only S14P5 had a medium positive correlation with neutralizing antibody titre (rs = 0.510, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our research proved that epitopes on non-RBD region are of value in serological detection especially when combination more than one epitope, thus providing serological reaction information about the four epitopes, which has valuable references for their usage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
12.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(4): e15014, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255374

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, routine treatments are delayed to some extent and their negative impacts have been widely reported. However, virtually nothing is known about vitiligo in the context of COVID-19. Therefore, we analyzed treatment delays and its impact on vitiligo, aiming to provide suggestions on vitiligo management within this special period. We performed a retrospective cohort study on 322 patients who visited our clinics at least 2 times from January to December 2020, and their medical records and photographs were reviewed. Patients were divided into normal (n = 155) and late group (n = 167) based on whether experienced treatment delays. As for the active cases, the late group showed higher progression rate than normal group (35 of 86 [40.7%] vs. 10 of 81 [12.3%]; p = 0.002). Moreover, we observed higher recurrence rate in delay group than those of normal group (26 of 81[32.1%] vs. 9 of 74 [12.2%]; p = 0.018) among stable cases. Further univariate and multivariate analysis determined treatment delays as the most important independent risk factor for disease progression and recurrence, and maintenance therapy (>2 years) as a protective factor against recurrence. This study, for the first time, revealed the independent adverse impact of treatment delays on the progression and recurrence of vitiligo and indicated the significance of continuous treatment for halting progression and long-term maintenance therapy for preventing recurrence for vitiligo, which should be highly valued in the management of vitiligo during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitiligo , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment , Vitiligo/diagnosis , Vitiligo/epidemiology , Vitiligo/therapy
13.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 38, 2021 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged coronavirus, causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in December, 2019. As drugs and vaccines of COVID-19 remain in development, accurate virus detection plays a crucial role in the current public health crisis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) kits have been reliably used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, whereas isothermal nucleic acid amplification-based point-of-care automated kits have also been considered as a simpler and rapid alternative. However, as these kits have only been developed and applied clinically within a short timeframe, their clinical performance has not been adequately evaluated to date. We describe a comparative study between a newly developed cross-priming isothermal amplification (CPA) kit (Kit A) and five RT-qPCR kits (Kits B-F) to evaluate their sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy. METHODS: Fifty-two clinical samples were used including throat swabs (n = 30), nasal swabs (n = 7), nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 7) and sputum specimens (n = 8), comprising confirmed (n = 26) and negative cases (n = 26). SARS-CoV-2 detection was simultaneously performed on each sample using six nucleic acid amplification kits. The sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) and the accuracy for each kit were assessed using clinical manifestation and molecular diagnoses as the reference standard. Reproducibility for RT-qPCR kits was evaluated in triplicate by three different operators using a SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive sample. On the basis of the six kits' evaluation results, CPA kit (Kit A) and two RT-qPCR Kits (Kit B and F) were applied to the SARS-CoV-2 detection in close-contacts of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: For Kit A, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV/NPV and accuracy were 100%. Among the five RT-qPCR kits, Kits B, C and F had good agreement with the clinical diagnostic reports (Kappa ≥ 0.75); Kits D and E were less congruent (0.4 ≤ Kappa < 0.75). Differences between all kits were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reproducibility of RT-qPCR kits was determined using a coefficients of variation (CV) between 0.95% and 2.57%, indicating good reproducibility. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comparative study to evaluate CPA and RT-qPCR kits' specificity and sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and could serve as a reference for clinical laboratories, thus informing testing protocols amid the rapidly progressing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 55(1): 67-76, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 infected millions of people. Some patients had gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, abnormal liver function, digestive system disease and liver disease. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of GI symptoms, abnormal liver function, digestive system disease and liver disease in patients with COVID-19 by a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Ovid Embase, Medline, and 2 Chinese databases. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of GI symptoms, abnormal liver function, digestive system disease, and liver disease. Different studies were included in different subset analysis. These outcomes were estimated with proportions, odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI) and P-value by Stata SE 15.1. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies involving 4682 patients were included. The most significant GI symptoms were diarrhea (0.08, 95% CI: 0.06-0.11) and anorexia (0.17, 95% CI: 0.06-0.27). The most significant abnormal liver function was increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (0.25, 95% CI: 0.16-0.33). A total of 5% of the patients had digestive system disease (95% CI: 0.02-0.08). A total of 3% of the patients had liver disease (95% CI: 0.02-0.05). The prevalence of nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, abnormal liver function, digestive system disease, and liver disease was higher in Wuhan group. The prevalence of diarrhea was higher in non-China group. Patients in severe/intensive care unit group were more likely to have diarrhea, anorexia, abdominal pain increased aspartate aminotransferase, and increased ALT. CONCLUSION: The most significant GI symptoms were anorexia and diarrhea. The most significant abnormal liver function was increased ALT. Severe patients were more likely to have GI symptoms and abnormal liver function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Global Health , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Prevalence
15.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(2): 1215-1229, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To develop machine learning classifiers at admission for predicting which patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who will progress to critical illness. METHODS: A total of 158 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to three designated hospitals between December 31, 2019 and March 31, 2020 were retrospectively collected. 27 clinical and laboratory variables of COVID-19 patients were collected from the medical records. A total of 201 quantitative CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia were extracted by using an artificial intelligence software. The critically ill cases were defined according to the COVID-19 guidelines. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression was used to select the predictors of critical illness from clinical and radiological features, respectively. Accordingly, we developed clinical and radiological models using the following machine learning classifiers, including naive bayes (NB), linear regression (LR), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), kernel support vector machine (k-SVM), and back propagation neural networks (BPNN). The combined model incorporating the selected clinical and radiological factors was also developed using the eight above-mentioned classifiers. The predictive efficiency of the models is validated using a 5-fold cross-validation method. The performance of the models was compared by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: The mean age of all patients was 58.9±13.9 years and 89 (56.3%) were males. 35 (22.2%) patients deteriorated to critical illness. After LASSO analysis, four clinical features including lymphocyte percentage, lactic dehydrogenase, neutrophil count, and D-dimer and four quantitative CT features were selected. The XGBoost-based clinical model yielded the highest AUC of 0.960 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.913-1.000)]. The XGBoost-based radiological model achieved an AUC of 0.890 (95% CI: 0.757-1.000). However, the predictive efficacy of XGBoost-based combined model was very close to that of the XGBoost-based clinical model, with an AUC of 0.955 (95% CI: 0.906-1.000). CONCLUSIONS: A XGBoost-based based clinical model on admission might be used as an effective tool to identify patients at high risk of critical illness.

16.
Finance: Theory and Practice ; 24(5):6-14, 2020.
Article in English | Russian Science Citation Index | ID: covidwho-1094729

ABSTRACT

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are vital drivers of China’s economy. As in any other country, SMEs in China are exceptionally exposed to the devastating effects of the COVID-19 outbreak. The aim of the paper is to assess the impact of the pandemic on SMEs in China and study the effectiveness of the government’s support for SMEs through the crisis. The methodologies applied by the authors included the historical and logical method, the method of the rising from the abstract to the concrete, synthesis, comparative factor analysis, grouping and graphical methods, as well as a systematic and statistical approach. The authors investigate the main policies and initiatives launched in support of smaller businesses and implemented by the People’s Bank of China, the Ministry of Finance, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, as well as by the two national regulatory authorities -- China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission and China Securities Regulatory Commission. In this paper the authors analyze the direct and indirect support available to SMEs through financial institutions. The study leads to the conclusions that the state support for SMEs has been effective and helped to avoid a sharp decline in production. However, the spread of the disease in other countries may threaten the recovery of the Chinese economy.

17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e26799, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In view of repeated COVID-19 outbreaks in most countries, clinical trials will continue to be conducted under outbreak prevention and control measures for the next few years. It is very significant to explore an optimal clinical trial management model during the outbreak period to provide reference and insight for other clinical trial centers worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the management strategies used to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on oncology clinical trials. METHODS: We implemented a remote management model to maintain clinical trials conducted at Beijing Cancer Hospital, which realized remote project approval, remote initiation, remote visits, remote administration and remote monitoring to get through two COVID-19 outbreaks in the capital city from February to April and June to July 2020. The effectiveness of measures was evaluated as differences in rates of protocol compliance, participants lost to follow-up, participant withdrawal, disease progression, participant mortality, and detection of monitoring problems. RESULTS: During the late of the first outbreak, modifications were made in trial processing, participant management and quality control, which allowed the hospital to ensure the smooth conduct of 572 trials, with a protocol compliance rate of 85.24% for 3718 participants across both outbreaks. No COVID-19 infections were recorded among participants or trial staff, and no major procedural errors occurred between February and July 2020. These measures led to significantly higher rates of protocol compliance and significantly lower rates of loss to follow-up or withdrawal after the second outbreak than after the first, without affecting rates of disease progression or mortality. The hospital provided trial sponsors with a remote monitoring system in a timely manner, and 3820 trial issues were identified. CONCLUSIONS: When public health emergencies occur, an optimal clinical trial model combining on-site and remote management could guarantee the health care and treatment needs of clinical trial participants, in which remote management plays a key role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cancer Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Beijing/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Oncology/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5250

ABSTRACT

A review. A number of cases of pneumonia with unknown causes have been found in Wuhan, Hubei province since Dec. 2019, which were later identified as the Novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). And the NCP was included in category B infectious diseases and controlled by measures for category A infectious diseases by National Health Commission (NHC) of the People′s Republic of China. At the same time, the NHC has also released several versions of Prevention and Treatment Plan of the Pneumonia Caused by the 2019-nCoV, and in the latest fifth version of the plan, ribavirin was used for antiviral treatment for the first time. Therefore, in order to provide theor. evidence for ribavirin in the fight against novel coronavirus, this paper summarizes the efficays and safety of ribavirin in the treatment of SARS and MERS.

19.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4201

ABSTRACT

A review. Arbidol has a broad-spectrum antiviral activity, which has a significant role in the prevention and treatment of influenza virus and other respiratory viral infections. As one of the most widely used antiviral drugs, it can significantly improve patients′ clin. symptoms and vital signs, and ultimately improve the quality of life. Currently, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, posing a major threat to the lives of people around the world. Because of its broad spectrum antiviral effect, arbidol has huge potential and has been added to the diagnosis and treatment plan for combating the epidemic in China, and cooperated with other antiviral drug to bring good therapeutic effects to patients. Therefore, based on the previous antiviral treatment of arbidol, the feasibility of arbidol for COVID-19, with a view to providing a reference for rational clin. use were systematically reviewed in this article.

20.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-3575

ABSTRACT

A review. At present, the diagnosis and treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has entered a critical period. The treatment of complex and changeable disease requires the cooperation of doctors, nurses and pharmacists. Therefore, from the perspective of pharmaceutical service, this article introduced some important aspects to improve the treatment of COVID-19, including the formulation of pharmaceutical care standards, prescription and medical order review, remote pharmaceutical care for COVID-19, pharmaceutical care for COVID-19 patients in the hospital and science popularization of COVID-19. As an important part of the prevention and control of epidemic disease, clin. pharmacy service has played an active role in ensuring the safety and effectiveness of patients′ medication, thereby making contribution to the effective control of the epidemic.

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