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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113: 308-317, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing global health emergency. T-cell receptors (TCRs) are crucial mediators of antiviral adaptive immunity. This study sought to comprehensively characterize the TCR repertoire changes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A large sample size multi-center randomized controlled trial was implemented to study the features of the TCR repertoire and identify COVID-19 disease-related TCR sequences. RESULTS: It was found that some T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRß) features differed markedly between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, including decreased repertoire diversity, longer complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) length, skewed utilization of the TCRß variable gene/joining gene (TRBV/J), and a high degree of TCRß sharing in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, this analysis showed that TCR repertoire diversity declines with aging, which may be a cause of the higher infection and mortality rates in elderly patients. Importantly, a set of TCRß clones that can distinguish COVID-19 patients from healthy controls with high accuracy was identified. Notably, this diagnostic model demonstrates 100% specificity and 82.68% sensitivity at 0-3 days post diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study lays the foundation for immunodiagnosis and the development of medicines and vaccines for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(30): 637-644, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317436

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Though coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has largely been controlled in China, several outbreaks of COVID-19 have occurred from importation of cases or of suspected virus-contaminated products. Though several outbreaks have been traced to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated on the outer packaging of cold chain products, live virus has not been obtained. What is added by this report? In September 2020, two dock workers were detected as having asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection using throat swabs during routine screening in Qingdao, China. Epidemiological information showed that the two dock workers were infected after contact with contaminated outer packaging, which was confirmed by genomic sequencing. Compared to the Wuhan reference strain, the sequences from the dock workers and the package materials differed by 12-14 nucleotides. Furthermore, infectious virus from the cold chain products was isolated by cell culture, and typical SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed under electron microscopy. What are the implications for public health practice? The international community should pay close attention to SARS-CoV-2 transmission mode through cold chain, build international cooperative efforts in response, share relevant data, and call on all countries to take effective prevention and control measures to prevent virus contamination in cold-chain food production, marine fishing and processing, transportation, and other operations.

3.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(21): 441-447, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237076

ABSTRACT

What is known about this topic? Few major outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in China after major non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccines have been deployed and implemented. However, sporadic outbreaks that had high possibility to be linked to cold chain products were reported in several cities of China.. What is added by this report? In July 2020, a COVID-19 outbreak occurred in Dalian, China. The investigations of this outbreak strongly suggested that the infection source was from COVID-19 virus-contaminated packaging of frozen seafood during inbound unloading personnel contact. What are the implications for public health practice? Virus contaminated paper surfaces could maintain infectivity for at least 17-24 days at -25 ℃. Exposure to COVID-19 virus-contaminated surfaces is a potential route for introducing the virus to a susceptible population. Countries with no domestic transmission of COVID-19 should consider introducing prevention strategies for both inbound travellers and imported goods. Several measures to prevent the introduction of the virus via cold-chain goods can be implemented.

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