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1.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787236

ABSTRACT

Reducing neonatal mortality is an important goal in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and with the outbreak of the new crown epidemic and severe global inflation, it is extremely important to explore the relationship between inflation and infant mortality. This paper investigates the causal relationship between inflation and infant mortality using a mixed frequency vector autoregressive model (MF-VAR) without any filtering procedure, along with impulse response analysis and forecast misspecification variance decomposition, and compares it with a low frequency vector autoregressive model (LF-VAR). We find that there is a causal relationship between inflation and infant mortality, specifically, that is inflation increases infant mortality. Moreover, the contribution of CPI to IMR is greater in the forecast error variance decomposition in the MF-VAR model compared to the LF-VAR model, indicating that CPI has stronger explanatory power for IMR in mixed-frequency data. The results of the study have important implications for China and other developing countries in reducing infant mortality and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Policymakers should focus on inflation as a macroeconomic variable that reduces the potential negative impact of inflation on infant mortality. The results of the analysis further emphasize the importance of price stability in the context of global inflation caused by the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic outbreak.

2.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(4): e606, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763240

ABSTRACT

A new variant named Omicron (B.1.1.529), first identified in South Africa, has become of considerable interest to the World Health Organization. This variant differs from the other known major variants, as it carries a large number of unusual mutations, particularly in the spinous process protein and receptor binding domains. Some specific mutation sites make it vaccine resistant, highly infectious, and highly pathogenic. The world fears that the Omicron variant could be even more harmful than the previous major variant, given that it has emerged amid fierce competition to trigger a new global pandemic peak as infections in South Africa rise. However, some epidemiological evidence has emerged that the Omicron variant may produce milder patient symptoms. We speculate if the virulence of the Omicron variant will diminish as transmissibility increases, thereby signaling the beginning of the end for the global COVID-19 pandemic. Based on this view, we make recommendations for COVID-19 mitigation in the present and future. However, it will take a few weeks to determine the true threat posed by the Omicron variant and we need to be fully prepared for future outbreaks, regardless of their severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 324, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745431

ABSTRACT

High-throughput single-cell technologies hold the promise of discovering novel cellular relationships with disease. However, analytical workflows constructed for these technologies to associate cell proportions with disease often employ unsupervised clustering techniques that overlook the valuable hierarchical structures that have been used to define cell types. We present treekoR, a framework that empirically recapitulates these structures, facilitating multiple quantifications and comparisons of cell type proportions. Our results from twelve case studies reinforce the importance of quantifying proportions relative to parent populations in the analyses of cytometry data - as failing to do so can lead to missing important biological insights.


Subject(s)
Flow Cytometry/methods , Phenotype , CD8 Antigens , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324115

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic, and little is known regarding the gut microbiota dynamics of the disease that often features a drastic and swift progression. Here we employed analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metatranscriptome to investigate the gut microbiome characteristics of a group of COVID-19 patients over the course of a probiotics-assisted therapy. Results: The COVID-19 patients exhibited apparent microbiota alterations characterized by prominent compositional and functional shifts, which included taxonomic changes (e.g., increased relative abundance of Enterococcus and Rhodococcus , and decreased relative abundance of Faecalibacterium and Clostridium XlVa) and transcriptional changes (e.g., increased transcriptional activities of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae , virulence factors, and antibiotic resistance genes, and decreased activities of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ). Importantly, there were great interpersonal heterogeneity and intertimepoint fluctuations, as the most abundant or transcriptionally active taxa often greatly differed among individual patients and timepoints. Coincided with the resolution of respiratory symptoms, after the therapy some patients showed signs of recovery in the gut microbiome abnormalities. Associations were identified between gut and airway taxa and serum factors. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that there is a lack of gut microbiota stability in COVID-19 patients and that measures are needed to ameliorate the gut microbiome perturbations in the patients to improve the prognosis. In addition, inclusion of probiotics is safe for treating COVID-19 patients and may improve their prognosis. Trial registration ISRCTN, ChiCTR2000029999. Registered 19 February 2020, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=49717

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323654

ABSTRACT

Objectives: One of the major challenges in treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is predicting the severity of disease. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that respond to viral infection and might relate to COVID-19 disease severity. Therefore, we aimed to develop a new predictive score for progression from mild/moderate to severe COVID-19 based on NK cells information. Method: In total, 239 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from two medical center in China were retrospectively included. The prognostic effects of variables, including clinical data and laboratory findings from the electronic medical records of each hospital, were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier methods. A prognostic score was developed to predict progression from mild/moderate to severe COVID-19. Results: : Among the 239 patients, 216 (90.38%) patients had mild/moderate disease and 23 (9.62%) progressed to severe disease. After adjusting multiple confounding factors, pulmonary disease, age >75, IgM, CD16 + /CD56 + NK cells and aspartate aminotransferase were independently predictors of progression to severe COVID-19. Based on these five factors, a new predictive score (the ‘PAINT score’) was established and showed a high predictive value (C-index = 0.91, 0.902 ± 0.021, p<0.001). The PAINT score was validated using nomogram, bootstrap internal validations, calibration curves, decision curves and clinical impact curve, all of which confirmed its high predictive value. Conclusions: : The PAINT score for progression from mild/moderate to severe COVID-19 based on NK cell information may be helpful to identify patients at high risk of progression. Trial registration: None

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323650

ABSTRACT

This article describes a psychological practice reference to provide peer support via social media, derived from the experience learned from our intervention project, which was developed and carried out by a group of experienced mental health professionals, offering peer psychological support to healthcare professionals working at the frontline of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China. The authors describe the infrastructure of the team and the novel model of peer-to-peer crisis intervention via social media. This offers a model for intervention that can be used elsewhere for current pandemic and future crises.

7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0155021, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685499

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen causing respiratory disease in children. We sought to investigate the epidemiology of M. pneumoniae among outpatient children with mild respiratory tract infections (RTIs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Eligible patients were prospectively enrolled from January 2020 to June 2021. Throat swabs were tested for M. pneumoniae RNA. M. pneumoniae IgM was tested by a colloidal gold assay. Macrolide resistance and the effect of the COVID-19 countermeasures on M. pneumoniae prevalence were assessed. Symptom scores, treatments, and outcomes were evaluated. Eight hundred sixty-two eligible children at 15 centers in China were enrolled. M. pneumoniae was detected in 78 (9.0%) patients. Seasonally, M. pneumoniae peaked in the first spring and dropped dramatically to extremely low levels over time until the next summer. Decreases in COVID-19 prevalence were significantly associated with decreases in M. pneumoniae prevalence (r = 0.76, P = 0.001). The macrolide resistance rate was 7.7%. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the colloidal gold assay used in determining M. pneumoniae infection were 32.1% and 77.9%, respectively. No more benefits for improving the severity of symptoms and outcomes were observed in M. pneumoniae-infected patients treated with a macrolide than in those not treated with a macrolide during follow-up. The prevalences of M. pneumoniae and macrolide resistance in outpatient children with mild RTIs were at low levels in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic but may have rebounded recently. The colloidal gold assay for M. pneumoniae IgM may be not appropriate for diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection. Macrolides should be used with caution among outpatients with mild RTIs. IMPORTANCE This is the first and largest prospective, multicenter, active, population-based surveillance study of the epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae among outpatient children with mild respiratory tract infections (RTIs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nationwide measures like strict face mask wearing and restrictions on population movement implemented to prevent the spread of COVID-19 might also effectively prevent the spread of M. pneumoniae. The prevalence of M. pneumoniae and the proportion of drug-resistant M. pneumoniae isolates in outpatient children with mild RTIs were at low levels in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic but may have rebounded recently. The colloidal gold assay for M. pneumoniae IgM may be not appropriate for screening and diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection. Macrolides should be used with caution among outpatients with mild RTIs.


Subject(s)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Infant , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/physiology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 15: 61-84, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642571

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic since early 2020. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has already caused more than three million deaths worldwide and affected people's physical and mental health. COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms are generally required to self-isolate and monitor for symptoms at least for 14 days in the case the disease turns towards severe complications. In this work, we overviewed the impact of COVID-19 on the patients' general health with a focus on their cardiovascular, respiratory and mental health, and investigated several existing patient monitoring systems. We addressed the limitations of these systems and proposed a wearable telehealth solution for monitoring a set of physiological parameters that are critical for COVID-19 patients such as body temperature, heart rate, heart rate variability, blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and cough. This physiological information can be further combined to potentially estimate the lung function using artificial intelligence (AI) and sensor fusion techniques. The prototype, which includes the hardware and a smartphone app, showed promising results with performance comparable to or better than similar commercial devices, thus potentially making the proposed system an ideal wearable solution for long-term monitoring of COVID-19 patients and other chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wearable Electronic Devices , Artificial Intelligence , Chronic Disease , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Nat Prod ; 84(8): 2385-2389, 2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634670

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 inspires the development of effective inhibitors to block the SARS-CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interaction. A chemical investigation on the fruiting bodies of Phellinus pini led to the isolation of five aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids including four new ones, named piniterpenoids A-D (1-4), as well as three known lignans. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HRMS and 1D and 2D NMR. All of the aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 spike-ACE2 interaction, with IC50 values ranging from 64.5 to 99.1 µM. A molecular docking study showed the disruption of the interaction of compound 1 via hydrogen interactions with Arg403, Asp405, and Arg408 of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and Arg393 and His34 residues of ACE2. These results suggested that aromatic cadinane sesquiterpenoids might be useful in developing agents for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Fruiting Bodies, Fungal/chemistry , Phellinus/chemistry , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Polycyclic Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Docking Simulation
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 102: 108392, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608746

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a great stress to frontline medical workers. Our previous study indicated that immune cells in the peripheral blood of frontline medical workers changed significantly. However, the dynamic changes of immune cells of frontline medical workers remain unclear. Here, we reported the dynamic changes of lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of 51 frontline medical worker. The frontline medical workers struggling with COVID-19 from February 8 to March 31, 2020. Demographic and clinical data, including routine blood test data were extracted from the electronic health examination record and retrospectively analyzed. The lymphocyte (LYM) count and LYM ratio increased while the monocyte (MONO) ratio, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and neutrophil (NEUT) ratio in the peripheral blood of frontline medical workers decreased 10 days after struggling with COVID-19. Interestingly, the differences of LYM count, LYM ratio, MONO ratio, NLR, NEUT ratio were more significantly in nurse than doctor. The differences of LYM ratio, NLR and NEUT ratio were more significantly in female than male. However, the changes of LYM count, LYM ratio, MONO ratio, NLR, MLR, NEUT ratio returned to the baseline 10 months after struggling with COVID-19. Together, these data indicated that immune cells in the peripheral blood changed significantly 10 days after struggling with COVID-19, but returned to normal after 10 months. Those maybe caused by psychological stress and we recommend to pay more attention to mental health and immune response of frontline medical workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunity, Cellular , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Workload/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Male , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Occupational Exposure , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Factors , Stress, Psychological/blood , Workload/statistics & numerical data
11.
Membranes (Basel) ; 12(1)2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580578

ABSTRACT

Environmentally friendly face masks with high filtration efficiency are in urgent need to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as other airborne viruses, bacteria and particulate matters. In this study, coaxial electrospinning was employed to fabricate a lithium chloride enhanced cellulose acetate/thermoplastic polyurethanes (CA/TPU-LiCl) face mask nanofiber filtration membrane, which was biodegradable and reusable. The analysis results show that the CA/TPU-LiCl membrane had an excellent filtration performance: when the filtration efficiency reached 99.8%, the pressure drop was only 52 Pa. The membrane also had an outstanding reusability. The filtration performance maintained at 98.2% after 10 test cycles, and an alcohol immersion disinfection treatment showed no effect on its filtration performance. In summary, the CA/TPU-LiCl nanofiber membrane made in this work is a promising biodegradable and reusable filtration material with a wide range of potential applications, including high-performance face mask.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295059

ABSTRACT

The paper studies static and dynamic connectedness among carbon, traditional (oil and coal) /new energy and material (iron, aluminum, cement and plastic) markets based on the Diebold Yilmaz (2012) method and the Barunik and Kˇrehlik (2018) method. Firstly, total connectedness is larger in short-term and enhanced after the COVID-19 outbreak. Secondly, material markets exhibit higher explanatory power. Especially, plastic price plays a leading role during the pandemic crisis according to the networks. Thirdly, the spillover of China’s carbon markets after the outbreak is about twice as great as that of pre-COVID-19 outbreak. It has positive net connectedness in the medium- and long-term. China’s carbon markets’ spillover is relatively small and mainly contributes to new energy. Finally, the results of rolling window demonstrate that the positive and negative values of time-varying total and net connectedness peak due to economic shocks or global emergencies. High connectedness with longer duration may be caused by sudden emergency instead of anticipated events. These findings can offer great benefits for policymakers, high-carbon businesses and investors to make appropriate strategies with heterogeneous frequency horizons.

14.
National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series ; No. 28493, 2021.
Article in English | NBER, Grey literature | ID: grc-748632

ABSTRACT

Using a survey of AFA members, we analyze how demographics, time allocation, production mechanisms, and institutional factors affect research production during the pandemic. Consistent with the literature, research productivity falls more for women and faculty with young children. Independently and novel, extra time spent teaching (much more likely for women) negatively affects research productivity. Also novel are the results that concerns about feedback, isolation, and health have large negative research effects, disproportionately affecting junior faculty and PhD students. Finally, faculty facing greater concerns about employers’ finances report larger negative research effects and more concerns about feedback, isolation and health.

15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(21): 23895-23912, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498164

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is presently the most pressing public health concern worldwide. Cytokine storm is an important factor leading to death of patients with COVID-19. This study aims to characterize serum cytokines of patients with severe or critical COVID-19. Clinical records were obtained from 149 patients who were tested at the Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital from 30 January to 30 March 2020. Data regarding the clinical features of the patients was collected and analyzed. Among the 149, 45 (30.2%) of them had severe conditions and 104 (69.8%) of that presented critical symptoms. In the meantime, 80 (53.7%) of that 149 died during hospitalization. Of all, male patients accounted for 94 (69.1%). Compared with patients in severe COVID-19, those who in critical COVID-19 had significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-10. Moreover, the passed-away patients had considerably higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 than those survived from it. Regression analysis revealed that serum TNF-α level was an independent risk factor for the death of patient with severe conditions. Among the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-6) analyzed herein, TNF-α was seen as a risk factor for the death of patients with severe or critical COVID-19. This study suggests that anti-TNF-α treatment allows patients with severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia to recover.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Interleukins/blood , Pneumonia, Viral , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunologic Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
16.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470806

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world, the use of chest X-ray (CXR) images as a complementary screening strategy to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing continues to grow owing to its routine clinical application to respiratory diseases. We performed extensive convolutional neural network (CNN) fine-tuning experiments and identified that models pretrained on larger out-of-domain datasets show an improved performance. This suggests that a priori knowledge of models from out-of-field training should also apply to X-ray images. With appropriate hyperparameters selection, we found that higher resolution images carry more clinical information, and the use of mixup in training improved the performance of the model. The experimental showed that our proposed transfer learning present state-of-the-art results. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of our model with a small amount of downstream training data and found that the model still performed well in COVID-19 identification. We also explored the mechanism of model detection using a gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) method for CXR imaging to interpret the detection of radiology images. The results helped us understand how the model detects COVID-19, which can be used to discover new visual features and assist radiologists in screening.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291229

ABSTRACT

Based on a survey of AFA members, we analyze how demographics, time allocation, production mechanisms, and institutional factors affect research production during the pandemic. Consistent with the literature, research productivity falls more for women and faculty with young children. Independently, and novel, extra time spent teaching (much more likely for women) negatively affects research productivity. Also novel, concerns about feedback, isolation, and health have large negative research effects, which disproportionately affect junior faculty and PhD students. Finally, faculty who express greater concerns about employers’ finances report larger negative research effects and more concerns about feedback, isolation, and health.

18.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(8): 1847-1860, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387308

ABSTRACT

CD4+ T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses via binding of antigens to their receptors through specific peptide/MHC-II complexes. To study these responses, it is essential to identify protein-derived MHC-II peptide ligands that constitute epitopes for T cell recognition. However, generating cells expressing single MHC-II alleles and isolating these proteins for use in peptide elution or binding studies is time consuming. Here, we express human MHC alleles (HLA-DR4 and HLA-DQ6) as native, noncovalent αß dimers on yeast cells for direct flow cytometry-based screening of peptide ligands from selected antigens. We demonstrate rapid, accurate identification of DQ6 ligands from pre-pro-hypocretin, a narcolepsy-related immunogenic target. We also identify 20 DR4-binding SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides homologous to SARS-CoV-1 epitopes, and one spike peptide overlapping with the reported SARS-CoV-2 epitope recognized by CD4+ T cells from unexposed individuals carrying DR4 subtypes. Our method is optimized for immediate application upon the emergence of novel pathogens.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , HLA-DQ Antigens/metabolism , HLA-DR4 Antigen/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Two-Hybrid System Techniques , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Flow Cytometry , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , HLA-DQ Antigens/immunology , HLA-DR4 Antigen/genetics , HLA-DR4 Antigen/immunology , Ligands , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
Chemistry of Natural Compounds ; 56(6):1072-1075, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1363752

ABSTRACT

A new monacolin derivative, namely (1S,2S,5'R,6R,8aR)-7-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-8-prenyl-1,2,6,8atetrahydronaphthalene-4',5'-dihydro-2H-pyran-1'-one (1), and five known monacolin derivatives (2-6) were separated from the highland barley Monascus purpureus Went. for the first time. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and relevant references. Compounds 1-6 were tested for their hypolipidemic activities by measuring the triglyceride content in HepG2 cells. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 (10 M) exhibited moderate hypolipidemic activity.

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