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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324969

ABSTRACT

Purposes: Currently, most researchers mainly analyzed COVID-19 pneumonia visually or qualitatively, probably somewhat time-consuming and not precise enough. This study aimed to excavate more information, such as differences in distribution, density, and severity of pneumonia lesions between males and females in a specific age group using artificial intelligence (AI)-based CT metrics. Besides, these metrics were incorporated into a clinical regression model to predict the short-term outcome. Methods: The clinical, laboratory information and a series of HRCT images from 49 patients, aged from 20 to 50 years and confirmed with COVID-19, were collected. The volumes and percentages of infection (POI) among bilateral lungs and each bronchopulmonary segment were extracted using uAI-Discover-NCP software (version R001). The POI in three HU ranges, (i.e. <-300, -300~49 and ≥50 HU representing ground-glass opacity (GGO), mixed opacity and consolidation), were also extracted. Hospital stay was predicted with several POIs after adjusting days from illness onset to admission, leucocytes, lymphocytes, c-reactive protein, age and gender using a multiple linear regression model. Results: Right lower lobes had the highest POI, followed by left lower lobes, right upper lobes, middle lobes and left upper lobes. The distributions in lung lobes and segments were different between the sexes. Men had a higher total POI and GGO of the lungs, but less consolidation than women in initial CT (all p<0.05). The total POI, percentage of consolidation on initial CT and changed POI were positively correlated with hospital stay in the model. Conclusion: Both men and women had characteristic distributions in lung lobes and bronchopulmonary segments. AI-based CT quantitative metrics can provide more precise information regarding lesion distribution and severity to predict clinical outcome.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315847

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic progresses, identifying effective antiviral agents to treat the COVID-19 is of most urgency. Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in patients with COVID-19 still are debated. Because high-quality randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on the use of corticosteroids for patients with COVID-19 recently were published recently, we aim to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs on corticosteroids therapy in patients with different disease severity to ascertain the effect on survival. Methods: : We will undertake a comprehensive literature search among PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, medRxiv, and bioRxiv from their inception onwards to identify relevant RCTs. Two reviewers will independently extract data and conduct risk of bias assessments. The primary outcome is all-cause mortality, mortality of mechanically ventilated patients and patients who did not receive oxygen therapy. Secondary outcomes include need for mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy and incidence of adverse outcomes. Heterogeneity of the estimates across studies will be assessed. Outcomes will be analyzed to pooled risk ratio and pertinent 95% confidence interval. A subgroup analysis will be conducted by disease severity to explore the source of heterogeneity. The systematic review and meta-analysis will be presented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses. Discussion: This systematic review will provide an overview of the current state of evidence concerning the effect of corticosteroids on survival of patients with COVID-19 depended on the disease severity. Also, this systematic review will show the limitations and strengths of the studies available in the literature, as well as recommendations for future avenues of research will be given. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020227740.

4.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-467182

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to significant public health, economic and social problems. Development of effective vaccines is still a priority to contain the virus and end the global pandemic. In this study, we reported that ReCOV, a recombinant trimeric NTD and RBD two-component SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine adjuvanted with BFA03 (an AS03-like squalene adjuvant), induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and the circulating variants in mice, rabbits and rhesus macaques. Notably, two-dose immunizations of ReCOV provided complete protection against challenge with SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 transgenic mice and rhesus macaques, without observable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. These results support further clinical development of ReCOV and the vaccine is currently being evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in New Zealand (NCT04818801).

5.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263649

ABSTRACT

Single-cell sequencing is a biotechnology to sequence one layer of genomic information for individual cells in a tissue sample. For example, single-cell DNA sequencing is to sequence the DNA from every single cell. Increasing in complexity, single-cell multi-omics sequencing, or single-cell multimodal omics sequencing, is to profile in parallel multiple layers of omics information from a single cell. In practice, single-cell multi-omics sequencing actually detects multiple traits such as DNA, RNA, methylation information and/or protein profiles from the same cell for many individuals in a tissue sample. Multi-omics sequencing has been widely applied to systematically unravel interplay mechanisms of key components and pathways in cell. This survey overviews recent developments in single-cell multi-omics sequencing, and their applications to understand complex diseases in particular the COVID-19 pandemic. We also summarize machine learning and bioinformatics techniques used in the analysis of the intercorrelated multilayer heterogeneous data. We observed that variational inference and graph-based learning are popular approaches, and Seurat V3 is a commonly used tool to transfer the missing variables and labels. We also discussed two intensively studied issues relating to data consistency and diversity and commented on currently cared issues surrounding the error correction of data pairs and data imputation methods. The survey is concluded with some open questions and opportunities for this extraordinary field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Pandemics , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Algorithms , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology , Data Analysis , Genomics , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Single-Cell Analysis
6.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue = China Environmental Science ; 41(5):2028, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1257860

ABSTRACT

Based on hourly concentration of PM2.5 and O3 during the epidemic period(January 24, 2020 to May 31, 2020) in Changsha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan, the diurnal patterns, long-term persistence, multifractality and self-organization evolution dynamics of these two pollutants were studied to reveal the internal dynamic mechanism of the occurrence and evolution of heavy pollution events during the epidemic period. Firstly, the diurnal patterns of PM2.5 and O3 concentrations were investigated. It showed that O3 showed a single peak of high concentration in the daytime and low in the night, while PM2.5 showed a single lowest peak concentration in the day and high in the night, which was different from the pattern in non-epidemic periods. Furthermore, detrended fluctuation analysis(DFA), the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis(MFDFA) and probability statistical analysis were applied to study the long-term persistence, multi-fractal structure of PM2.5 and O3 series. The results showed that PM2.5 and O3 series had significant long-term persistence characteristics and strong multi-fractal structures for the three cities. Meanwhile, detrended cross-correlation analysis(DCCA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis(MFDCCA) were conducted to estimate the cross-correlations between PM2.5 and O3 series. Long-term persistence as well as multifractal features at different time scales was also observed in PM2.5-O3 cross-correlations. Next, nonlinear analysis results obtained during epidemic period were compared with those obtained in the same periods of non-epidemic years of 2019 and 2018. Finally, based on the self-organized criticality(SOC) theory, the internal dynamic law of spatial and temporal evolution of PM2.5 and O3 series was discussed. Combined with the typical regional meteorological characteristics, it was found that the intrinsic dynamic mechanism of SOC may be one of the leading mechanisms of heavy air pollution episodes during the COVID-19 lockdown period. During the epidemic period, PM2.5 and O3 concentrations did not evolve independently but remained complex interactions. Under the stable meteorological conditions, the nonlinear coupling effect inside the air combined pollution might reach the dynamic critical state, thus, lead to the risk of heavy air pollution in Greater Changsha Metropolitan Region during the epidemic period.

7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 169, 2021 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199270

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations are frequently reported in the COVID-19 patients. Neuromechanism of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism via our established non-human primate model of COVID-19. In rhesus monkey, SARS-CoV-2 invades the CNS primarily via the olfactory bulb. Thereafter, viruses rapidly spread to functional areas of the central nervous system, such as hippocampus, thalamus, and medulla oblongata. The infection of SARS-CoV-2 induces the inflammation possibly by targeting neurons, microglia, and astrocytes in the CNS. Consistently, SARS-CoV-2 infects neuro-derived SK-N-SH, glial-derived U251, and brain microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion in the NHP model, which provides important insights into the CNS-related pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Astrocytes/metabolism , Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Microglia/metabolism , Microglia/pathology , Microglia/virology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology
8.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; - (6):445, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1126081

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an index system for comprehensive evaluation of public health risks of the coronavirus diseases 2019(COVID-19),and to evaluate the COVID-19 in different counties(districts) of Wenzhou, so as to provide scientific evidence for the implementation of targeted prevention and control measures. Methods Rank-sum ratio(RSR) was used to evaluate 12 quality indicators of 5 categories by brain storming method with data including the incidence of COVID-19 and public health risks of COVID-19 epidemic in Wenzhou during January and February, 2020.The regional public health risks of COVID-19 were ranked according to rank-sum ratio size. Results The top three counties(districts) with most reported cases were Yueqing,Rui′an and Lucheng,accounting for 61.90%(312/504) of the total number in Wenzhou.The ratio of import cases to indigenous cases was 1∶1.39.The top three counties(districts) reported most clustering epidemics were Yueqing,Rui′an and Lucheng,accounting for 62.03%(49/79) of the total number in Wenzhou.About 70.63%(356/504)of the cases were found before the medical visit.The time from onset to first medical visit was 2.39 d, and the time from medical visit to diagnosis was 4.49 d.The average number of close contacts for confirmed cases was 29,and the top three counties(districts)with most reported average number of close contacts were Jingkai(135 cases),Dongtou(59 cases)and Cangnan(50 cases).Among all13 counties(districts),Longgang,Wencheng and Jingkai were at lower level,Yueqing and Lucheng were at higher level,and the other counties(districts)were at the middle level of public health risks of COVID-19. Conclusions RSR method is flexible and simple.It has no specific requirements on samples,and can eliminate the effects of comprehensive assessment indexes of different dimension.It has high value in evaluating public health risks of the COVID-19.The evaluating of public health risks of COVID-19 should be strengthened.Targeted prevention and control measures should be taken to positively prevent the outbreak of COVID-19.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 160(5): 1647-1661, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been increasingly reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the roles of the GI tract in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are not fully understood. We investigated how the GI tract is involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection to elucidate the pathogenesis of COVID-19. METHODS: Our previously established nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 was modified in this study to test our hypothesis. Rhesus monkeys were infected with an intragastric or intranasal challenge with SARS-CoV-2. Clinical signs were recorded after infection. Viral genomic RNA was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated by examining inflammatory cytokines, macrophages, histopathology, and mucin barrier integrity. RESULTS: Intranasal inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 led to infections and pathologic changes not only in respiratory tissues but also in digestive tissues. Expectedly, intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the productive infection of digestive tissues and inflammation in both the lung and digestive tissues. Inflammatory cytokines were induced by both types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the increased expression of CD68. Immunohistochemistry and Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining showed decreased Ki67, increased cleaved caspase 3, and decreased numbers of mucin-containing goblet cells, suggesting that the inflammation induced by these 2 types of inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 impaired the GI barrier and caused severe infections. CONCLUSIONS: Both intranasal and intragastric inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 caused pneumonia and GI dysfunction in our rhesus monkey model. Inflammatory cytokines are possible connections for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 between the respiratory and digestive systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Gastroenteritis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung/pathology , Animals , Bronchi/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Gastric Mucosa , Gastroenteritis/metabolism , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Goblet Cells/pathology , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Intestine, Small/pathology , Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Nasal Mucosa , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rectum/metabolism , Rectum/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/metabolism , Trachea/pathology
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 157, 2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724972

ABSTRACT

Identification of a suitable nonhuman primate (NHP) model of COVID-19 remains challenging. Here, we characterized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in three NHP species: Old World monkeys Macaca mulatta (M. mulatta) and Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis) and New World monkey Callithrix jacchus (C. jacchus). Infected M. mulatta and M. fascicularis showed abnormal chest radiographs, an increased body temperature and a decreased body weight. Viral genomes were detected in swab and blood samples from all animals. Viral load was detected in the pulmonary tissues of M. mulatta and M. fascicularis but not C. jacchus. Furthermore, among the three animal species, M. mulatta showed the strongest response to SARS-CoV-2, including increased inflammatory cytokine expression and pathological changes in the pulmonary tissues. Collectively, these data revealed the different susceptibilities of Old World and New World monkeys to SARS-CoV-2 and identified M. mulatta as the most suitable for modeling COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Callithrix/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Models, Animal , Macaca fascicularis/virology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Body Temperature , Body Weight , COVID-19 , Callithrix/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/classification , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Species Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Load , Virus Replication
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