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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evaluate pre-vaccine pandemic period COVID-19 death risk factors among nursing home (NH) residents. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study covering Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries ages ≥65 residing in U.S. NHs. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions. RESULTS: Among 608,251 elderly NH residents, 57,398 (9.4%) died of COVID-related illness April 1 to December 22, 2020. About 46.9% (26,893) of these COVID-19 deaths occurred without prior COVID-19 hospitalizations. We observed a consistently increasing age trend for COVID-19 deaths. Racial/ethnic minorities generally shared a similarly high risk of NH COVID-19 deaths with Whites. NH facility characteristics including for-profit ownership and low health inspection ratings were associated with higher death risk. Resident characteristics, including male (HR 1.69), end-stage renal disease (HR 1.42), cognitive impairment (HR 1.34), and immunocompromised status (HR 1.20) were important death risk factors. Other individual-level characteristics were less predictive of death than they were in community-dwelling population. CONCLUSIONS: Low NH health inspection ratings and private ownership contributed to COVID-19 death risks. Nearly half of NH COVID-19 deaths occurred without prior COVID-19 hospitalization and older residents were less likely to get hospitalized with COVID-19. No substantial differences were observed by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status for NH COVID-19 deaths.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 223(6): 945-956, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to evaluate risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries during the pandemic's early phase. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study covering Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, we separated out elderly residents in nursing homes (NHs) and those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from the primary study population of individuals age ≥65 years. Outcomes included COVID-19 hospital encounters and COVID-19-associated deaths. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression. RESULTS: We analyzed 25 333 329 elderly non-NH beneficiaries without ESRD, 653 966 elderly NH residents, and 292 302 patients with ESRD. COVID-related death rates (per 10 000) were much higher among elderly NH residents (275.7) and patients with ESRD (60.8) than in the primary study population (5.0). Regression-adjusted clinical predictors of death among the primary population included immunocompromised status (OR, 1.43), frailty index conditions such as cognitive impairment (3.16), and other comorbid conditions, including congestive heart failure (1.30). Demographic-related risk factors included male sex (OR, 1.77), older age (3.09 for 80- vs 65-year-olds), Medicaid dual-eligibility status (2.17), and racial/ethnic minority. Compared with whites, ORs were higher for blacks (2.47), Hispanics (3.11), and Native Americans (5.82). Results for COVID-19 hospital encounters were consistent. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty, comorbid conditions, and race/ethnicity were strong risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization and death among the US elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
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