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IJID Reg ; 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966636


Objectives: : Through April 2021, sixteen months into the pandemic and four months after availability of COVID-19 vaccines, estimate the proportion infected by SARS-CoV-2 in Canada. Methods: : We searched publication databases, preprint servers, public health databases and the grey literature for seroprevalence surveys conducted in Canada from November 1, 2019, to July 10, 2021. Studies were assessed for bias using the Joanna Briggs Checklist. Number infections derived from seroprevalence estimates were compared to reported cases to estimate under-ascertainment ratios. Results: : We identified 12 serosurveys with 210,321 participants. Three (25%) serosurveys were conducted at the national level, 1 (8.3%) at the provincial level, and 8 (66.7%) at the local level. All 12 serosurveys had moderate or high risk of bias. The proportion infected by April 2021 was low (2.6%). The proportion infected were higher in surveys of residents of long-term care facilities (43.0% - 86%), workers at long-term care facilities (22.4%-32.4%), and workers in healthcare institutions (1.4% - 14%). Conclusions: : As of April 2021, the proportion of the Canadians infected by SARS-CoV-2 was low in the overall population but high in healthcare facilities, particularly long-term care facilities, supporting the need for vaccines.

Front Public Health ; 9: 788581, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648288


Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen (Ag) tests have been widely employed to identify patients for a rapid diagnosis and pandemic control. Rapid lateral-flow techniques are currently the most used, but automated technologies have emerged as another viable alternative to molecular methods. We aimed to evaluate the analytical performance of the DiaSorin Liaison SARS-CoV-2 Ag test in asymptomatic population and close contacts, for its use as a tool in pandemic control efforts. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. A total of 861 samples were included, 291 (34%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 with cycle threshold (Ct) <40, and 570 (66%) were negative. Results: A strong correlation was observed between reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) Ct and Ag 50% Tissue Culture Infectious Dose per milliliter (TCID50/ml; r = 0.6486; p < 0.0001) and all RT-PCR negative samples tested negative for the 200 TCID50/ml SARS-Cov-2 Ag cutoff, i.e., a specificity of 100% was reached (95% CI: 99.4-100.0%). Samples with <25 Ct and/or >106 extrapolated copies/ml were reached a sensitivity of 100% (95% IC 97.0-100.0%). For intermediate viral loads (>105 extrapolated copies/ml or <30 Ct), the sensitivity value still exceeded 80%. As with other Ag methods, samples between 30 and 40 Ct could not be detected with a reliable sensitivity. Conclusions: The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 Ag assay displays an acceptable sensitivity and a very high specificity that is useful for detecting the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in nasal swabs (NPS) of asymptomatic population or to regular monitoring of risk groups in controlled settings. Additionally, the flexibility in processing different samples and in the sampling preparation process makes this test an option for its use in high throughput laboratories. Automated tests may facilitate result reporting and yield consistent data, while avoiding some of the pitfalls of rapid lateral-flow techniques, such as observer variability.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e051400, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462963


INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of childhood obesity has risen dramatically in recent years. A proportion of this burden has been attributed to factors that occur during the first 1000 days of life such as genetic predisposition, breast feeding and complementary feeding. Although the mechanisms by which these factors affect weight and adiposity are less well understood, appetite and satiety regulation may be a key to understanding them. This cohort study aims to investigate the role of appetite and satiety regulation as a mediator in the association between infant feeding practices and genetic polymorphisms with children's growth, adiposity and metabolic risk factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 'MAS-Lactancia' (the first word means 'more' and is also an acronym in Spanish for 'Appetite and Satiety Mechanisms', the second word is 'breastfeeding') is an open, ongoing, prospective birth cohort that began the enrolment in 2016 of mother-child pairs affiliated to the Mexican Social Security Institute and that live in the city of Cuernavaca, Mexico. Pregnant women between 16-week and 22-week gestation are followed during the second half of their pregnancies, at birth and throughout their infant's first 48 months of life (at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, 24 months, 36 months and 48 months) at the clinic and at-home visits that include questionnaires, anthropometric measurements and biospecimen collection. The main exposure variables are infant feeding (breast feeding and complementary feeding) and genetic polymorphisms (fat mass and obesity-associated, leptin and adiponectin genes). Outcome variables include infant's growth, adiposity and metabolic risk factors. We will conduct longitudinal models and path analyses to identify the potential mediating role of satiety and appetite indicators (leptin, adiponectin, insulin concentrations, appetite and satiety perception). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol, data collection instruments, consent forms and procedures were approved by the institutional review boards of the National Institute of Public Health and the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through conferences, peer-reviewed publications and meetings with stakeholders.

Appetite , Pediatric Obesity , Adiposity , Breast Feeding , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/genetics , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302330


One of the micronutrients that has attracted the most attention in relation to COVID-19 is vitamin D. Although several factors affect its sufficiency; it has been argued that an optimal diet can ensure the intake of micronutrients with effects on immune response. Therefore, in this work we aimed to evaluate the food intake quality of SARS-CoV-2 positive Mexican patients and some of the common factors related to vitamin D deficiency. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 40 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Serum samples and clinical parameters were collected. Micronutrient intake and food intake quality were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall and the Mini-ECCA v.2, respectively. Thirty-eight percent of the sample had a healthy food intake. The median 25(OH)D concentration was 22.7 ng/mL. A considerable insufficient intake of micronutrients with immunomodulatory effects such as vitamin D (p < 0.0001), vitamin E (p < 0.0001), and zinc (p < 0.0001) was shown. Patients with 25(OH)D sufficiency, defined as a concentration >30 ng/mL, had better food intake quality (p = 0.02) and an intense physical activity (p = 0.03). In conclusion, a better level of food intake quality and intense physical activity are associated with 25(OH)D sufficiency in SARS-CoV-2 positive Mexican patients.

COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eating , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Micronutrients , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3454, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1288722


Objective: to describe the perception of musculoskeletal pain in the population and how the state of confinement (adopted as a measure to control contagion by COVID-19) has interfered with it, as well as identifying the sociodemographic, occupational, physical, and psychosocial factors involved. Method: an observational, cross-sectional and analytical study, with simple random probabilistic sampling, aimed at residents in Spain over 18 years old during the confinement period. An ad hoc survey was conducted, consisting in 59 items. Results: a total of 3,247 surveys were answered. Persistent musculoskeletal pain or significant episodes thereof increased 22.2% during confinement. The main location was the spine (49.5%). The related factors were decreased physical activity, increased seated position, and use of electronic devices. The psychological impact of confinement was also related to the perception of musculoskeletal pain. Conclusion: the state of confinement causes an increase in the perception of musculoskeletal pain. The identification of a particularly sensitive population profile, as well as that of the related factors, allows establishing multidisciplinary approaches in health promotion.

Objetivo: descrever a percepção da dor musculoesquelética na população e como o estado de confinamento (adotado como medida de controle do contágio pela COVID-19) tem interferido na mesma, bem como identificar os fatores sociodemográficos, ocupacionais, físicos e psicossociais envolvidos. Método: estudo observacional, transversal e analítico, com amostragem probabilística aleatória simples, realizado com residentes na Espanha, maiores de 18 anos, durante o período de confinamento, para tanto, foi realizada uma enquete ad-hoc com 59 itens. Resultados: foram recebidas 3.247 respostas. Dor musculoesquelética persistente ou episódios significativos da mesma aumentaram em 22,2% durante o confinamento. A localização principal foi a coluna vertebral (49,5%). Os fatores relacionados foram a diminuição da atividade física, o aumento da posição sentada e o uso de dispositivos eletrônicos. O impacto psicológico do confinamento também esteve relacionado à percepção de dor musculoesquelética. Conclusão: o estado de confinamento acarreta aumento na percepção da dor musculoesquelética. A identificação de um perfil populacional particularmente sensível, bem como dos fatores relacionados, permite estabelecer abordagens multidisciplinares na promoção da saúde.

Objetivo: describir la percepción de dolor musculoesquelético en la población y cómo el estado de confinamiento (adoptado como medida de control de contagio por COVID-19) ha interferido en la misma, así como identificar los factores sociodemográficos, laborales, físicos y psicosociales implicados. Método: estudio observacional, transversal y analítico, con muestreo probabilístico aleatorio simple, dirigido a residentes en España, mayores de 18 años durante el periodo de confinamiento. Se realizó una encuesta ad-hoc compuesta por 59 ítems. Resultados: se cumplimentaron 3247 encuestas. El dolor musculoesquelético persistente o los episodios significativos del mismo se incrementaron un 22,2% durante el confinamiento. La principal localización fue el raquis (49,5%). Los factores relacionados fueron la disminución de la actividad física, el aumento de la posición sentada y del uso de dispositivos electrónicos. El impacto psicológico del confinamiento también se relacionó con la percepción de dolor musculoesquelético. Conclusión: el estado de confinamiento provoca un incremento en la percepción de dolor musculoesquelético. La identificación de un perfil poblacional especialmente sensible, así como la identificación de los factores relacionados, permite establecer abordajes multidisciplinares en la promoción de la salud.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Perception , Spain , Quarantine , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Coronavirus Infections , Vulnerable Populations , Pain Perception , Musculoskeletal Pain , COVID-19
PeerJ ; 9: e10690, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029596


The Asian giant hornet (AGH, Vespa mandarinia) is the world's largest hornet, occurring naturally in the Indomalayan region, where it is a voracious predator of pollinating insects including honey bees. In September 2019, a nest of Asian giant hornets was detected outside of Vancouver, British Columbia; multiple individuals were detected in British Columbia and Washington state in 2020; and another nest was found and eradicated in Washington state in November 2020, indicating that the AGH may have successfully wintered in North America. Because hornets tend to spread rapidly and become pests, reliable estimates of the potential invasive range of V. mandarinia in North America are needed to assess likely human and economic impacts, and to guide future eradication attempts. Here, we assess climatic suitability for AGH in North America, and suggest that, without control, this species could establish populations across the Pacific Northwest and much of eastern North America. Predicted suitable areas for AGH in North America overlap broadly with areas where honey production is highest, as well as with species-rich areas for native bumble bees and stingless bees of the genus Melipona in Mexico, highlighting the economic and environmental necessity of controlling this nascent invasion.

Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(1): 25-33, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729150


BACKGROUND: There are scarce data about SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to analyze the incidence, clinical presentation, and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, observational study. We contacted all the patients being treated at our IBD unit to identify those patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, following the World Health Organization case definition. Data were obtained by patient electronical medical records and by phone interview. RESULTS: Eighty-two of 805 patients with IBD (10.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.3-12.5) were diagnosed as having confirmed (28 patients, 3.5%; 95% CI, 2.4-5.0) or suspected (54 patients, 6.7%) infection. Patient age was 46 ± 14 years, 44 patients were female (53.7%), 17.3% were smokers, 51.2% had Crohn disease (CD), and 39.0% had comorbidities. Digestive symptoms were reported in 41 patients (50.0%), with diarrhea as the most common (42.7%). One patient (1.2%) was diagnosed with IBD flare-up during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Twenty-two patients (26.8%) temporarily withdrew from their IBD treatment because of COVID-19. Most of the patients had mild disease (79.3%), and 1 patient died (1.2%). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of dyspnea was associated with moderate to severe infection (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6-17.7; P = 0.01) and myalgias (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-17.9; P = 0.02) were related to a milder clinical course. Immunosuppression was not related to severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with IBD is not rare. Dyspnea is associated with a more severe infection. Therapy for IBD, including immunomodulators and biologic therapy, is not related to a greater severity of COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 infections do not appear to be related to IBD flare-ups.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology