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1.
J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry ; 2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic dramatically increased the number of patients requiring treatment in an intensive care unit or invasive mechanical ventilation worldwide. Delirium is a well-known neuropsychiatric complication of patients with acute respiratory diseases, representing the most frequent clinical expression of acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients, especially in those undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation. Among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, delirium incidence ranges from 11% to 80%, depending on the studied population and hospital setting. OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors for the development of delirium in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: We retrospectively studied consecutive hospitalized adult (≥18 y) patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia from March 15 to July 15, 2020, in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico City. Delirium was assessed by the attending physician or trained nurse, with either the Confusion Assessment Method for the intensive care unit or the Confusion Assessment Method brief version, according to the appropriate diagnostic tool for each hospital setting. Consultation-liaison psychiatrists and neurologists confirmed all diagnoses. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using a Cox proportional-hazards regression model. RESULTS: We studied 1017 (64.2% men; median age, 54 y; interquartile range 44-64), of whom 166 (16.3%) developed delirium (hyperactive in 75.3%); 78.9% of our delirium cases were detected in patients under invasive mechanical ventilation. The median of days from admission to diagnosis was 14 (interquartile range 8-21) days. Unadjusted mortality rates between delirium and no delirium groups were similar (23.3% vs. 24.1; risk ratio 0.962, 95% CI 0.70-1.33). Age (aHR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.04; P = 0.006), an initial neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥9 (aHR 1.81, 95% CI 1.23-2.65; P = 0.003), and requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (aHR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47-7.84; P = 0.004) were independent risk factors for in-hospital delirium development. CONCLUSIONS: Delirium is a common in-hospital complication of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, associated with disease severity; given the extensive number of active COVID-19 cases worldwide, it is essential to detect patients who are most likely to develop delirium during hospitalization. Improving its preventive measures may reduce the risk of the long-term cognitive and functional sequelae associated with this neuropsychiatric complication.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0247433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic entity that frequently implies neurologic features at presentation and complications during the disease course. We aimed to describe the characteristics and predictors for developing in-hospital neurologic manifestations in a large cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Mexico City. METHODS: We analyzed records from consecutive adult patients hospitalized from March 15 to June 30, 2020, with moderate to severe COVID-19 confirmed by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Neurologic syndromes were actively searched by a standardized structured questionnaire and physical examination, confirmed by neuroimaging, neurophysiology of laboratory analyses, as applicable. RESULTS: We studied 1,072 cases (65% men, mean age 53.2±13 years), 71 patients had pre-existing neurologic diseases (diabetic neuropathy: 17, epilepsy: 15, history of ischemic stroke: eight, migraine: six, multiple sclerosis: one, Parkinson disease: one), and 163 (15.2%) developed a new neurologic complication. Headache (41.7%), myalgia (38.5%), dysgeusia (8%), and anosmia (7%) were the most common neurologic symptoms at hospital presentation. Delirium (13.1%), objective limb weakness (5.1%), and delayed recovery of mental status after sedation withdrawal (2.5%), were the most common new neurologic syndromes. Age, headache at presentation, preexisting neurologic disease, invasive mechanical ventilation, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio ≥9 were independent predictors of new in-hospital neurologic complications. CONCLUSIONS: Even after excluding initial clinical features and pre-existing comorbidities, new neurologic complications in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are frequent and can be predicted from clinical information at hospital admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Nervous System Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy
3.
Rev Invest Clin ; 2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068251

ABSTRACT

In severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), hypoxemia mechanisms differ from those observed in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Hypoxemia and respiratory failure in COVID- 19 are attributed to pulmonary angiopathy, increasing physiological pulmonary shunting1-3.

4.
Neurology ; 95(24): e3373-e3385, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050484

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that strokes occurring in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have distinctive features, we investigated stroke risk, clinical phenotypes, and outcomes in this population. METHODS: We performed a systematic search resulting in 10 studies reporting stroke frequency among patients with COVID-19, which were pooled with 1 unpublished series from Canada. We applied random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the proportion of stroke among COVID-19. We performed an additional systematic search for cases series of stroke in patients with COVID-19 (n = 125), and we pooled these data with 35 unpublished cases from Canada, the United States, and Iran. We analyzed clinical characteristics and in-hospital mortality stratified into age groups (<50, 50-70, >70 years). We applied cluster analyses to identify specific clinical phenotypes and their relationship with death. RESULTS: The proportions of patients with COVID-19 with stroke (1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9%-3.7%) and in-hospital mortality (34.4%, 95% CI 27.2%-42.4%) were exceedingly high. Mortality was 67% lower in patients <50 years of age relative to those >70 years of age (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.94, p = 0.039). Large vessel occlusion was twice as frequent (46.9%) as previously reported and was high across all age groups, even in the absence of risk factors or comorbid conditions. A clinical phenotype characterized by older age, a higher burden of comorbid conditions, and severe COVID-19 respiratory symptoms was associated with the highest in-hospital mortality (58.6%) and a 3 times higher risk of death than the rest of the cohort (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.53-8.09, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Stroke is relatively frequent among patients with COVID-19 and has devastating consequences across all ages. The interplay of older age, comorbid conditions, and severity of COVID-19 respiratory symptoms is associated with an extremely elevated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Phenotype , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Humans , Mortality/trends , Risk Factors
6.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(4)2020 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-269294

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, which started in China, has spread rapidly to affect the entire world in a matter of months. Main manifestations of the disease include a febrile syndrome accompanied by respiratory symptoms; however, cases of systemic involvement are increasingly being reported, including cardiac and central nervous system compromise. In the series by Ling M. et al., 214 patients with COVID-19 were studied; 78 (36.4 %) had neurologic manifestations, which were classified into four main groups: acute cerebrovascular disease, impaired consciousness, peripheral nervous system involvement and muscular manifestations. Another report published by Li et al. describes that, out of 221 patients with COVID-19, 13 developed acute cerebrovascular disease with cerebral infarction, venous thrombosis and intracerebral hemorrhage.

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