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2.
Aging Dis ; 13(1): 24-28, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667758

ABSTRACT

There has been a surge of mucormycosis cases in India in the wake of the second wave of COVID-19 with more than 40000 cases reported. Mucormycosis in patients of COVID-19 in India is at variance to other countries where Aspergillus, Pneumocystis, and Candida have been reported to be the major secondary fungal pathogens. We discuss the probable causes of the mucormycosis epidemic in India. Whereas dysglycaemia and inappropriate steroid use have been widely suggested as tentative reasons, we explore other biological, iatrogenic, and environmental factors. The likelihood of a two-hit pathogenesis remains strong. We propose that COVID-19 itself provides the predisposition to invasive mucormycosis (first hit), through upregulation of GRP78 and downregulation of spleen tyrosine kinase involved in anti-fungal defense, as also through inhibition of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity. The other iatrogenic and environmental factors may provide the second hit which may have resulted in the surge.

4.
Aging Dis ; 12(5): 1162-1168, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339730

ABSTRACT

Though disciplines in the same field, modern medicine (Western medicine) and traditional medicine (Traditional Chinese medicine, TCM) have been viewed as two distinct and divergent fields of medicine and thus differ greatly in their ways of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease. In brief, Western medicine is primarily an evidence (laboratory)-based science, whereas TCM is more of a healing art based on the theory of Yin and Yang and the five elements in the human body. Therefore, whether TCM and Western medicine could use similar philosophical approaches to treat disease remains unclear. It is well-known that vitamin D enhances immune function and reduces the spread of some viruses. Indeed, recent evidence shows that the blood calcium level is strongly associated with COVID-19 severity, and vitamin D supplementation has shown favorable effects in viral infections. According to TCM theory, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is closely associated with cold-dampness, an etiological factor in TCM. Cold-dampness could be attenuated by sun exposure and Wenyang herbs, both of which can restore the vitamin D level in the blood in Western medicine. Therefore, TCM and Western medicine could share similar philosophical methods to fight COVID-19 and understanding their philosophical theories could achieve the maximum benefits for treatment of COVID-19 and other diseases.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(8): 2020, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203638
7.
Aging Dis ; 11(2): 216-228, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102674

ABSTRACT

A coronavirus (HCoV-19) has caused the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China. Preventing and reversing the cytokine storm may be the key to save the patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess a comprehensive powerful immunomodulatory function. This study aims to investigate whether MSC transplantation improves the outcome of 7 enrolled patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Beijing YouAn Hospital, China, from Jan 23, 2020 to Feb 16, 2020. The clinical outcomes, as well as changes of inflammatory and immune function levels and adverse effects of 7 enrolled patients were assessed for 14 days after MSC injection. MSCs could cure or significantly improve the functional outcomes of seven patients without observed adverse effects. The pulmonary function and symptoms of these seven patients were significantly improved in 2 days after MSC transplantation. Among them, two common and one severe patient were recovered and discharged in 10 days after treatment. After treatment, the peripheral lymphocytes were increased, the C-reactive protein decreased, and the overactivated cytokine-secreting immune cells CXCR3+CD4+ T cells, CXCR3+CD8+ T cells, and CXCR3+ NK cells disappeared in 3-6 days. In addition, a group of CD14+CD11c+CD11bmid regulatory DC cell population dramatically increased. Meanwhile, the level of TNF-α was significantly decreased, while IL-10 increased in MSC treatment group compared to the placebo control group. Furthermore, the gene expression profile showed MSCs were ACE2- and TMPRSS2- which indicated MSCs are free from COVID-19 infection. Thus, the intravenous transplantation of MSCs was safe and effective for treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, especially for the patients in critically severe condition.

8.
Aging Dis ; 12(1): 155-191, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061115

ABSTRACT

Currently, the world is challenged by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Epidemiologists and researchers worldwide are invariably trying to understand and combat this precarious new disease. Scrutinizing available drug options and developing potential new drugs are urgent needs to subdue this pandemic. Several intervention strategies are being considered and handled worldwide with limited success, and many drug candidates are yet in the trial phase. Despite these limitations, the development of COVID-19 treatment strategies has been accelerated to improve the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19, and some countries have efficiently kept it under control. Recently, the use of natural and traditional medicine has also set the trend in coronavirus treatment. This review aimed to discuss the prevailing COVID-19 treatment strategies available globally by examining their efficacy, potential mechanisms, limitations, and challenges in predicting a future potential treatment candidate and bridging them with the effective traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The findings might enrich the knowledge on traditional alternative medication and its complementary role with Western medicine in managing the COVID-19 epidemic.

9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 627414, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038607
11.
Aging Dis ; 11(6): 1339-1344, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955203

ABSTRACT

India has witnessed a high number of COVID-19 cases, but mortality has been quite low, and most cases have been asymptomatic or mild. In early April, we had hypothesized a low COVID-19 mortality in India, based on the concept of cross-immunity. The presence of cross-immunity is presumed to lead to a milder course of disease and allow the time necessary for the development of adaptive immunity by the body to eliminate the virus. Evidence supporting our hypothesis has started showing up. Multiple studies have shown the generation of different T cell subsets and B cells responding to epitopes of viral proteins, especially of the spike protein, as a part of adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Cross-reactive T-cells have been demonstrated in patients who have been previously exposed to endemic coronaviruses. The interplay of cross-immunity and herd immunity is apparent in the COVID-19 scenario in India from the presence of a large number of asymptomatic or mild cases, a low infection-fatality ratio and a generally flat curve of percentage positivity of cases with respect to total testing, both in periods of strict lock-down and step-wise unlocking. It seems that cross-immunity resulted in faster generation of herd immunity. Although the initial restrictive measures such as lockdown prevented the rapid spread of the outbreak, further extension of such measures and overly expensive ones such as enhanced testing in India will result in a huge burden on the health economics as well as the society. Hence, we propose a restructuring of the health services and approach to COVID-19. The restructured health services should move away from indiscriminate testing, isolation and quarantine, and instead, the emphasis should be on improving facilities for testing and management of only critical COVID cases and the replacement of complete lockdowns by the selective isolation and quarantine of susceptible persons such as the aged and those with co-morbidities. In the process of describing India-specific plans, we emphasize why the development of country-specific plans for tackling epidemics is important, instead of adopting a "one policy fits all" approach.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 866-869, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719216

ABSTRACT

As the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally, determining how to prevent the spread is of paramount importance. We reported the effectiveness of different responses of 4 affected cities in preventing the COVID-19 spread. We expect the Wenzhou anti-COVID-19 measures may provide information for cities around the world that are experiencing this epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Aging Dis ; 11(3): 480-488, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459276

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic has witnessed global political responses of unimaginable proportions. Many nations have implemented lockdowns that involve mandating citizens not to leave their residences for non-essential work. The Indian government has taken appropriate and commendable steps to curtail the community spread of COVID-19. While this may be extremely beneficial, this perspective discusses the other reasons why COVID-19 may have a lesser impact on India. We analyze the current pattern of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, testing, and mortality in India with an emphasis on the importance of mortality as a marker of the clinical relevance of COVID-19 disease. We also analyze the environmental and biological factors which may lessen the impact of COVID-19 in India. The importance of cross-immunity, innate immune responses, ACE polymorphism, and viral genetic mutations are discussed.

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