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1.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 309, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850296

ABSTRACT

Blood clot formation induced by dysfunctional coagulation is a frequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a high-risk factor for severe illness and death. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in COVID-19-induced immunothrombosis. Furthermore, human cathelicidin, a NET component, can perturb the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its ACE2 receptor, which mediates viral entry into cells. At present, however, the levels of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides after SARS-CoV-2 infection and their role in COVID-19 thrombosis formation remain unclear. In the current study, we analyzed coagulation function and found a decrease in thrombin time but an increase in fibrinogen level, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time in COVID-19 patients. In addition, the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 was upregulated by the spike protein and significantly elevated in the plasma of patients. Furthermore, LL-37 levels were negatively correlated with thrombin time but positively correlated with fibrinogen level. In addition to platelet activation, cathelicidin peptides enhanced the activity of coagulation factors, such as factor Xa (FXa) and thrombin, which may induce hypercoagulation in diseases with high cathelicidin peptide levels. Injection of cathelicidin peptides promoted the formation of thrombosis, whereas deletion of cathelicidin inhibited thrombosis in vivo. These results suggest that cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is elevated during SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may induce hypercoagulation in COVID-19 patients by activating coagulation factors.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation Factors , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinogen , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Thrombosis/virology
2.
Epidemiologia ; 3(2):199-217, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1785595

ABSTRACT

Despite loose restrictions and a low mortality rate due to COVID-19, Japan faced the challenge of stabilizing its economy during the pandemic. Here, we analyzed how the Japanese government attempted to maintain a balance between the health of the population and the health of the economy. We used a mix of quantitative data, information from policy documents, and news agency publications. Features of the Japanese government's handling of the pandemic include the lack of constitutional authority to enforce a lockdown, the laxer restrictions compared with other countries in which citizens were advised only to exercise self-restraint and avoid close social contact, and the existence of expert panels that had only an advisory role. Our findings address the slow initial response of the government, which feared that the 2020 Tokyo Olympics would be canceled, and the increased testing when the Olympics were postponed, as well as the expansion of vaccination efforts after the Olympics. In addition, there was a targeted campaign to promote national travel to increase economic revenue in the tourism sector, but this led to an increase in COVID-19 cases.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319498

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro or 3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 virus is a cysteine enzyme critical for viral replication and transcription, thus indicating a potential target for antiviral therapy. A recent repurposing effort has identified ebselen, a multifunctional drug candidate, as an inhibitor of Mpro. Our docking of ebselen to crystal structure of Mpro catalytic pocket reveals a better fit of “tail-to-head” mode through noncovalent binding, suggesting modification of ebselen for its improvement of potency, antiviral activity and selectivity. To test this hypothesis, we designed and synthesized ebselen derivatives aimed at enhancing their non-covalent bonds within Mpro and reducing steric hindrance. The inhibition of Mpro by ebselen derivatives (0.3 μM) was screened in both HPLC and FRET assays. Nine ebselen derivatives exhibited stronger inhibitory effect on Mpro with IC50 of 0.07 to 0.38 μM. Further evaluation of three derivatives showed the inhibition on SARS-CoV-2 viral replication with their IC50 values from 4.08 to 19.93 µM in HPAepiC cells, as compared to prototype ebselen at 24.61 μM. Taken together, our identification of ebselen derivatives with improved antiviral activity may lead to developmental potential for treatment of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
Biophys J ; 120(14): 2766-2770, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603998

ABSTRACT

Understanding the structure of messenger RNA (mRNA) lipid nanoparticles, and specifically the microenvironment of the mRNA molecules within these entities, is fundamental to advancing their biomedical potential. Here, we show that a permeating cationic dye, thionine, can serve as a cryogenic electron microscopy contrasting agent by binding selectively to encapsulated mRNA without disturbing lipid nanoparticle morphology. Cryo-electron microscopy images identify the mRNA location, revealing that mRNA may exist within solvent-filled cavities or may be substantially lipid associated.


Subject(s)
Lipids , Nanoparticles , Cryoelectron Microscopy , RNA, Messenger/genetics
5.
Bioorg Chem ; 117: 105455, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487613

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro or 3CLpro) of SARS-CoV-2 virus is a cysteine enzyme critical for viral replication and transcription, thus indicating a potential target for antiviral therapy. A recent repurposing effort has identified ebselen, a multifunctional drug candidate as an inhibitor of Mpro. Our docking of ebselen to the binding pocket of Mpro crystal structure suggests a noncovalent interaction for improvement of potency, antiviral activity and selectivity. To test this hypothesis, we designed and synthesized ebselen derivatives aimed at enhancing their non-covalent bonds within Mpro. The inhibition of Mpro by ebselen derivatives (0.3 µM) was screened in both HPLC and FRET assays. Nine ebselen derivatives (EBs) exhibited stronger inhibitory effect on Mpro with IC50 of 0.07-0.38 µM. Further evaluation of three derivatives showed that EB2-7 exhibited the most potent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 viral replication with an IC50 value of 4.08 µM in HPAepiC cells, as compared to the prototype ebselen at 24.61 µM. Mechanistically, EB2-7 functions as a noncovalent Mpro inhibitor in LC-MS/MS assay. Taken together, our identification of ebselen derivatives with improved antiviral activity may lead to developmental potential for treatment of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Isoindoles/chemistry , Organoselenium Compounds/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Design , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Humans , Isoindoles/metabolism , Isoindoles/pharmacology , Isoindoles/therapeutic use , Molecular Docking Simulation , Organoselenium Compounds/metabolism , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , Organoselenium Compounds/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Structure-Activity Relationship , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
N Engl J Med ; 382(18): 1708-1720, 2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 847-860, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387284

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm and multi-organ failure are the main causes of SARS-CoV-2-related death. However, the origin of excessive damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (2-E) protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like damages in vitro and in vivo. 2-E proteins were found to form a type of pH-sensitive cation channels in bilayer lipid membranes. As observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, heterologous expression of 2-E channels induced rapid cell death in various susceptible cell types and robust secretion of cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. Intravenous administration of purified 2-E protein into mice caused ARDS-like pathological damages in lung and spleen. A dominant negative mutation lowering 2-E channel activity attenuated cell death and SARS-CoV-2 production. Newly identified channel inhibitors exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and excellent cell protective activity in vitro and these activities were positively correlated with inhibition of 2-E channel. Importantly, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of the channel inhibitor effectively reduced both the viral load and secretion of inflammation cytokines in lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2). Our study supports that 2-E is a promising drug target against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Half-Life , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spleen/metabolism , Spleen/pathology , Viral Load , Virulence
8.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(10): 2153, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357673
10.
Gut ; 71(1): 229, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276976
11.
Cell Res ; 31(8): 847-860, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265947

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm and multi-organ failure are the main causes of SARS-CoV-2-related death. However, the origin of excessive damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unknown. Here we show that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope (2-E) protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like damages in vitro and in vivo. 2-E proteins were found to form a type of pH-sensitive cation channels in bilayer lipid membranes. As observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, heterologous expression of 2-E channels induced rapid cell death in various susceptible cell types and robust secretion of cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. Intravenous administration of purified 2-E protein into mice caused ARDS-like pathological damages in lung and spleen. A dominant negative mutation lowering 2-E channel activity attenuated cell death and SARS-CoV-2 production. Newly identified channel inhibitors exhibited potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity and excellent cell protective activity in vitro and these activities were positively correlated with inhibition of 2-E channel. Importantly, prophylactic and therapeutic administration of the channel inhibitor effectively reduced both the viral load and secretion of inflammation cytokines in lungs of SARS-CoV-2-infected transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2). Our study supports that 2-E is a promising drug target against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Half-Life , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spleen/metabolism , Spleen/pathology , Viral Load , Virulence
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 194, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232064

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence suggests that CD147 serves as a novel receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Blocking CD147 via anti-CD147 antibody could suppress the in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication. Meplazumab is a humanized anti-CD147 IgG2 monoclonal antibody, which may effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Here, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of meplazumab in healthy subjects, and an open-labeled, concurrent controlled add-on exploratory phase 2 study to determine the efficacy in COVID-19 patients. In phase 1 study, 59 subjects were enrolled and assigned to eight cohorts, and no serious treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) or TEAE grade ≥3 was observed. The serum and peripheral blood Cmax and area under the curve showed non-linear pharmacokinetic characteristics. No obvious relation between the incidence or titer of positive anti-drug antibody and dosage was observed in each cohort. The biodistribution study indicated that meplazumab reached lung tissue and maintained >14 days stable with the lung tissue/cardiac blood-pool ratio ranging from 0.41 to 0.32. In the exploratory phase 2 study, 17 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, and 11 hospitalized patients were involved as concurrent control. The meplazumab treatment significantly improved the discharged (P = 0.005) and case severity (P = 0.021), and reduced the time to virus negative (P = 0.045) in comparison to the control group. These results show a sound safety and tolerance of meplazumab in healthy volunteers and suggest that meplazumab could accelerate the recovery of patients from COVID-19 pneumonia with a favorable safety profile.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/pathology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Zool Res ; 42(3): 335-338, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231642

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as of 8 May 2021, has surpassed 150 700 000 infections and 3 279 000 deaths worldwide. Evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected on particulate matter (PM), and COVID-19 cases are correlated with levels of air pollutants. However, the mechanisms of PM involvement in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 remain poorly understood. Here, we found that PM exposure increased the expression level of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in several epithelial cells and increased the adsorption of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Instillation of PM in a hACE2 mouse model significantly increased the expression of ACE2 and Tmprss2 and viral replication in the lungs. Furthermore, PM exacerbated the pulmonary lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection in the hACE2 mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that PM is an epidemiological factor of COVID-19, emphasizing the necessity of wearing anti-PM masks to cope with this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/chemically induced , COVID-19/immunology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adsorption/drug effects , Animals , Disease Susceptibility/chemically induced , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Particulate Matter/chemistry , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
14.
Zool Res ; 42(3): 350-353, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231641

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has become an unprecedented global health emergency. At present, SARS-CoV-2-infected nonhuman primates are considered the gold standard animal model for COVID-19 research. Here, we showed that northern pig-tailed macaques ( Macaca leonina, NPMs) supported SARS-CoV-2 replication. Furthermore, compared with rhesus macaques, NPMs showed rapid viral clearance in lung tissues, nose swabs, throat swabs, and rectal swabs, which may be due to higher expression of interferon (IFN)-α in lung tissue. However, the rapid viral clearance was not associated with good outcome. In the second week post infection, NPMs developed persistent or even more severe inflammation and body injury compared with rhesus macaques. These results suggest that viral clearance may have no relationship with COVID-19 progression and SARS-CoV-2-infected NPMs could be considered as a critically ill animal model in COVID-19 research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Macaca nemestrina , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Interferon-alpha/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Nose/virology , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rectum/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(12): 1042, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969908

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is an acute and rapidly developing pandemic, which leads to a global health crisis. SARS-CoV-2 primarily attacks human alveoli and causes severe lung infection and damage. To better understand the molecular basis of this disease, we sought to characterize the responses of alveolar epithelium and its adjacent microvascular endothelium to viral infection under a co-culture system. SARS-CoV-2 infection caused massive virus replication and dramatic organelles remodeling in alveolar epithelial cells, alone. While, viral infection affected endothelial cells in an indirect manner, which was mediated by infected alveolar epithelium. Proteomics analysis and TEM examinations showed viral infection caused global proteomic modulations and marked ultrastructural changes in both epithelial cells and endothelial cells under the co-culture system. In particular, viral infection elicited global protein changes and structural reorganizations across many sub-cellular compartments in epithelial cells. Among the affected organelles, mitochondrion seems to be a primary target organelle. Besides, according to EM and proteomic results, we identified Daurisoline, a potent autophagy inhibitor, could inhibit virus replication effectively in host cells. Collectively, our study revealed an unrecognized cross-talk between epithelium and endothelium, which contributed to alveolar-capillary injury during SARS-CoV-2 infection. These new findings will expand our understanding of COVID-19 and may also be helpful for targeted drug development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cell Communication/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Coculture Techniques , Down-Regulation , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Mitochondria/pathology , Mitochondria/virology , Proteome/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Pulmonary Alveoli/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Up-Regulation
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 283, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957563

ABSTRACT

In face of the everlasting battle toward COVID-19 and the rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2, no specific and effective drugs for treating this disease have been reported until today. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, mediates the virus infection by binding to spike protein. Although ACE2 is expressed in the lung, kidney, and intestine, its expressing levels are rather low, especially in the lung. Considering the great infectivity of COVID-19, we speculate that SARS-CoV-2 may depend on other routes to facilitate its infection. Here, we first discover an interaction between host cell receptor CD147 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The loss of CD147 or blocking CD147 in Vero E6 and BEAS-2B cell lines by anti-CD147 antibody, Meplazumab, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 amplification. Expression of human CD147 allows virus entry into non-susceptible BHK-21 cells, which can be neutralized by CD147 extracellular fragment. Viral loads are detectable in the lungs of human CD147 (hCD147) mice infected with SARS-CoV-2, but not in those of virus-infected wild type mice. Interestingly, virions are observed in lymphocytes of lung tissue from a COVID-19 patient. Human T cells with a property of ACE2 natural deficiency can be infected with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in a dose-dependent manner, which is specifically inhibited by Meplazumab. Furthermore, CD147 mediates virus entering host cells by endocytosis. Together, our study reveals a novel virus entry route, CD147-spike protein, which provides an important target for developing specific and effective drug against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Basigin/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Pandemics , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
19.
Cell Res ; 31(1): 17-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953056

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic worldwide. Currently, however, no effective drug or vaccine is available to treat or prevent the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we report our discovery of a promising anti-COVID-19 drug candidate, the lipoglycopeptide antibiotic dalbavancin, based on virtual screening of the FDA-approved peptide drug library combined with in vitro and in vivo functional antiviral assays. Our results showed that dalbavancin directly binds to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with high affinity, thereby blocking its interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Furthermore, dalbavancin effectively prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells with an EC50 of ~12 nM. In both mouse and rhesus macaque models, viral replication and histopathological injuries caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are significantly inhibited by dalbavancin administration. Given its high safety and long plasma half-life (8-10 days) shown in previous clinical trials, our data indicate that dalbavancin is a promising anti-COVID-19 drug candidate.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Binding/drug effects , Teicoplanin/pharmacokinetics , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Vero Cells
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