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1.
Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. ; 7(52): 1263-20201001.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-751803
2.
Zool Res ; 41(5): 503-516, 2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709116

ABSTRACT

As of June 2020, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has killed an estimated 440 000 people worldwide, 74% of whom were aged ≥65 years, making age the most significant risk factor for death caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To examine the effect of age on death, we established a SARS-CoV-2 infection model in Chinese rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) of varied ages. Results indicated that infected young macaques manifested impaired respiratory function, active viral replication, severe lung damage, and infiltration of CD11b + and CD8 + cells in lungs at one-week post infection (wpi), but also recovered rapidly at 2 wpi. In contrast, aged macaques demonstrated delayed immune responses with a more severe cytokine storm, increased infiltration of CD11b + cells, and persistent infiltration of CD8 + cells in the lungs at 2 wpi. In addition, peripheral blood T cells from aged macaques showed greater inflammation and chemotaxis, but weaker antiviral functions than that in cells from young macaques. Thus, the delayed but more severe cytokine storm and higher immune cell infiltration may explain the poorer prognosis of older aged patients suffering SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Age Factors , Aging/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/veterinary , Inflammation/virology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Monkey Diseases/immunology , Monkey Diseases/virology , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/veterinary , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Viral Load/immunology , Viral Load/veterinary , Virus Replication/immunology
3.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2020 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703968
4.
Hepatology ; 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696157

ABSTRACT

First, the authors believed that elevated levels of liver injury markers, particularly aspartate aminotransferase (AST), may reflect true hepatic injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it should be noted that AST is usually considered a less specific marker for liver injury than alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 129: 110500, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)2 has emerged as a global pandemic. However, as effective treatments for this disease are still unclear, safe and efficient therapies are urgently needed. Qingfei Paidu decoction (QPD)3 is strongly recommended in the Chinese Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan (Provisional 6th Edition). However, clinical research data on the effects of QPD on COVID-19 are scarce. Our study aimed to explore the effects of combined treatment with QPD and Western medicine on COVID-19. METHODS: In this study, 63 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. During the first 14 days of hospitalization, patients with deteriorating symptoms were administered QPD along with Western medicine therapy (the antiviral medicine selected from interferon, lopinavir, or arbidol). The clinical characteristics and blood laboratory indices (blood routine, inflammatory factors, and multi-organ biochemical indices) were examined, and the total lung severity scores were evaluated in each patient by reviewing chest computed tomography before treatment and at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Before QPD treatment, the combined treatment group showed higher blood C-reactive protein levels and more severe pulmonary inflammation and clinical symptoms than the Western medicine treatment group. Both groups met the discharge criteria after a similar length of hospitalization. At the end of treatment, circulating white blood cells, total lymphocyte count, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase levels improved dramatically in both groups (P <  0.05). In contrast, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels were improved only in the combined treatment group (P <  0.05), and C-reactive protein and creatine kinase were the most pronounced (P <  0.01). Compared with baseline, at the end of treatment, the proportion of patients with normal values of C-reactive protein, total lymphocyte count, and lactate dehydrogenase were increased in the combined treatment group (P < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was observed in the Western medicine treatment group (P >  0.05). CONCLUSION: The combination of QPD with Western medicine demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory effects compared with those of only Western medicine in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19; however, neither mortality nor length of hospitalization was affected. Moreover, the combined treatment tended to mitigate the extent of multi-organ impairment. Long-term randomized controlled trials with follow-up evaluations are required to confirm the results presented here.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Interferons/administration & dosage , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20613, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease has caused a global pandemic with substantial morbidity and mortality. Chinese medicine has been extensively employed in the coronavirus-related pandemic in China. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine in treatment of coronavirus-related pneumonia with the updated results of relevant clinical trials. METHODS: Six electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP, and SinoMed will be searched to identify randomized controlled trials up to May 2020. Patients diagnosed with coronavirus-related pneumonia including severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and 2019 novel coronavirus disease and administrated with Chinese medicine will be included. The primary outcome is the all cause mortality at the longest follow up available. The second outcomes include the length of stay in hospital and intensive care units, the duration of mechanical ventilation, and adverse events. The pooled effects will be analyzed and reported as risk ratios for dichotomous data using the Mantel-Haenszel method or mean differences for continuous data using the inverse-variance method. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses will be performed to test the robustness of the results and to explore the potential sources of heterogeneities. The Egger test and/or funnel plots will be used for the examination of publication bias. The grades of recommendation assessment, development, and evaluation methodology will be used to summarize the quality of evidence. The trial sequential analysis will be conducted to test whether the meta-analysis has a sufficient sample size after adjustment of the increased type I and II error risks. RESULTS: The evidence to date of Chinese medicine in treatment of coronavirus-related pneumonia will be systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. CONCLUSION: The relevant studies will be summarized and further evidence will be provided.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020178879.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Phytotherapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(9): 107622, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260050

ABSTRACT

Diabetic foot ulcers are among the most serious complications of diabetes. If left untreated, these ulcers can lead to severe infection and gangrene; in some instances, they may result in death. Thus, timely treatment of diabetic foot ulcers is extremely important. However, timely patient treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic is particularly challenging, because of the higher volume of patients and the need to ensure safety of medical personnel. This article describes a proposed strategy for diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, based on experiences with infection and control strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in China.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetic Foot/therapy , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
8.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2020 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-202563
9.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20040691

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel human coronavirus, there is no specific antiviral drugs. It has been proved that host-cell-expressed CD147 could bind spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and involve in host cell invasion. Antibody against CD147 could block the infection of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of meplazumab, a humanized anti-CD147 antibody, as add-on therapy in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: All patients received recommended strategy from Diagnosis and Treatment for 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases released by National Health Commission of China. Eligible patients were add-on administered 10 mg meplazumab intravenously at days 1, 2, and 5. Patients hospitalized in the same period were observed as concurrent control. The endpoints include virological clearance rate, case severity, chest radiographic, and laboratory test. This trial was approved by the Ethics Committee of Institution at the Tangdu hospital, and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 04275245. Findings:17 patients were enrolled and assigned to meplazumab group between Feb 3, 2020 and Feb 10, 2020. 11 hospitalized patients served as concurrent control. Baseline characteristics were generally balanced across two groups. Compared to control group, meplazumab treatment significantly improved the discharged (p=0.006) and case severity (p=0.021) in critical and severe patients. The time to virus negative in meplazumab group was reduced than that in control group (median 3, 95%CI[1.5-4.5] vs. 13, [6.5-19.5]; p=0.014, HR=0.37, 95%CI[0.155-0.833]). The percentages of patients recovered to the normal lymphocyte count and CRP concentration were also increased remarkably and rapidly in meplazumab group. No adverse effect was found in meplazumab-treated patients. Interpretation:Meplazumab efficiently improved the recovery of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with a favorable safety profile. Our results support to carry out a large-scale investigation of meplazumab as a treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia. Funding:National Science and Technology Major Project.

10.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-988345

ABSTRACT

Currently, COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been widely spread around the world; nevertheless, so far there exist no specific antiviral drugs for treatment of the disease, which poses great challenge to control and contain the virus. Here, we reported a research finding that SARS-CoV-2 invaded host cells via a novel route of CD147-spike protein (SP). SP bound to CD147, a receptor on the host cells, thereby mediating the viral invasion. Our further research confirmed this finding. First, in vitro antiviral tests indicated Meplazumab, an anti-CD147 humanized antibody, significantly inhibited the viruses from invading host cells, with an EC50 of 24.86 g/mL and IC50 of 15.16 g/mL. Second, we validated the interaction between CD147 and SP, with an affinity constant of 1.85x10-7M. Co-Immunoprecipitation and ELISA also confirmed the binding of the two proteins. Finally, the localization of CD147 and SP was observed in SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero E6 cells by immuno-electron microscope. Therefore, the discovery of the new route CD147-SP for SARS-CoV-2 invading host cells provides a critical target for development of specific antiviral drugs.

11.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-989186

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a member of the coronavirus family, has caused a global public health emergency.1 Based on our analysis of hepatitis C virus and coronavirus replication, and the molecular structures and activities of viral inhibitors, we previously reasoned that the FDA-approved heptatitis C drug EPCLUSA (Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir) should inhibit coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.2 Here, using model polymerase extension experiments, we demonstrate that the activated triphosphate form of Sofosbuvir is incorporated by low-fidelity polymerases and SARS-CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and blocks further incorporation by these polymerases; the activated triphosphate form of Sofosbuvir is not incorporated by a host-like high-fidelity DNA polymerase. Using the same molecular insight, we selected two other anti-viral agents, Alovudine and AZT (an FDA approved HIV/AIDS drug) for evaluation as inhibitors of SARS-CoV RdRp. We demonstrate the ability of two HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 3-fluoro-3-deoxythymidine triphosphate and 3-azido-3-deoxythymidine triphosphate (the active triphosphate forms of Alovudine and AZT), to be incorporated by SARS-CoV RdRp where they also terminate further polymerase extension. Given the 98% amino acid similarity of the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 RdRps, we expect these nucleotide analogues would also inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 polymerase. These results offer guidance to further modify these nucleotide analogues to generate more potent broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus agents.

12.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-990598

ABSTRACT

Recently emerged coronavirus designated as SARS-CoV-2 (also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or Wuhan coronavirus) is a causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is rapidly spreading throughout the world now. More than 9,00,000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and more than 47,000 COVID-19-associated mortalities have been reported worldwide till the writing of this article, and these numbers are increasing every passing hour. World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the SARS-CoV-2 spread as a global public health emergency and admitted that the COVID-19 is a pandemic now. The multiple sequence alignment data correlated with the already published reports on the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and indicated that this virus is closely related to the bat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-like coronavirus (bat SARS-like CoV) and the well-studied Human SARS coronavirus (SARS CoV). The disordered regions in viral proteins are associated with the viral infectivity and pathogenicity. Therefore, in this study, we have exploited a set of complementary computational approaches to examine the dark proteomes of SARS-CoV-2, bat SARS-like, and human SARS CoVs by analysing the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in their proteins. According to our findings, SARS-CoV-2 proteome contains very significant levels of structural order. In fact, except for Nucleocapsid, Nsp8, and ORF6, the vast majority of SARS-CoV-2 proteins are mostly ordered proteins containing less intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs). However, IDPRs found in SARS-CoV-2 proteins are functionally important. For example, cleavage sites in its replicase 1ab polyprotein are found to be highly disordered, and almost all SARS-CoV-2 proteins were shown to contain molecular recognition features (MoRFs), which are intrinsic disorder-based protein-protein interaction sites that are commonly utilized by proteins for interaction with specific partners. The results of our extensive investigation of the dark side of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome will have important implications for the structural and non-structural biology of SARS or SARS-like coronaviruses. SignificanceThe infection caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes severe respiratory disease with pneumonia-like symptoms in humans is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic. No in-depth information on structures and functions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins is currently available in the public domain, and no effective anti-viral drugs and/or vaccines are designed for the treatment of this infection. Our study provides the first comparative analysis of the order- and disorder-based features of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome relative to human SARS and bat CoV that may be useful for structure-based drug discovery.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 382(18): 1708-1720, 2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Young Adult
14.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20020974

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, acute respiratory disease (ARD) due to 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China. We sought to delineate the clinical characteristics of these cases. Methods: We extracted the data on 1,099 patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV ARD from 552 hospitals in 31 provinces/provincial municipalities through January 29th, 2020. Results: The median age was 47.0 years, and 41.90% were females. Only 1.18% of patients had a direct contact with wildlife, whereas 31.30% had been to Wuhan and 71.80% had contacted with people from Wuhan. Fever (87.9%) and cough (67.7%) were the most common symptoms. Diarrhea is uncommon. The median incubation period was 3.0 days (range, 0 to 24.0 days). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the typical radiological finding on chest computed tomography (50.00%). Significantly more severe cases were diagnosed by symptoms plus reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction without abnormal radiological findings than non-severe cases (23.87% vs. 5.20%, P<0.001). Lymphopenia was observed in 82.1% of patients. 55 patients (5.00%) were admitted to intensive care unit and 15 (1.36%) succumbed. Severe pneumonia was independently associated with either the admission to intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, or death in multivariate competing-risk model (sub-distribution hazards ratio, 9.80; 95% confidence interval, 4.06 to 23.67). Conclusions: The 2019-nCoV epidemic spreads rapidly by human-to-human transmission. Normal radiologic findings are present among some patients with 2019-nCoV infection. The disease severity (including oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, blood leukocyte/lymphocyte count and chest X-ray/CT manifestations) predict poor clinical outcomes.

15.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-933135

ABSTRACT

As the infection of 2019-nCoV coronavirus is quickly developing into a global pneumonia epidemic, careful analysis of its transmission and cellular mechanisms is sorely needed. In this report, we re-analyzed the computational approaches and findings presented in two recent manuscripts by Ji et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25682) and by Pradhan et al. (https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.30.927871), which concluded that snakes are the intermediate hosts of 2019-nCoV and that the 2019-nCoV spike protein insertions shared a unique similarity to HIV-1. Results from our re-implementation of the analyses, built on larger-scale datasets using state-of-the-art bioinformatics methods and databases, do not support the conclusions proposed by these manuscripts. Based on our analyses and existing data of coronaviruses, we concluded that the intermediate hosts of 2019-nCoV are more likely to be mammals and birds than snakes, and that the "novel insertions" observed in the spike protein are naturally evolved from bat coronaviruses.

16.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20020792

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) epidemic has spread to 23 countries from China. Local cycles of transmission already occurred in 7 countries following case importation. No African country has reported cases yet. The management and control of 2019-nCoV introductions heavily relies on the public health capacity of a country. Here we evaluate the preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against their risk of importation of 2019-nCoV. We used data on air travel volumes departing from airports in the infected provinces in China and directed to Africa to estimate the risk of introduction per country. We determined the countries capacity to detect and respond to cases with two indicators: preparedness, using the WHO International Health Regulation Monitoring and Evaluation Framework; and vulnerability, with the Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index. Countries were clustered according to the Chinese regions contributing the most to their risk. Findings: Countries at the highest importation risk (Egypt, Algeria, Republic of South Africa) have moderate to high capacity to respond to outbreaks. Countries at moderate risk (Nigeria, Ethiopia, Sudan, Angola, Tanzania, Ghana, Kenya) have variable capacity and high vulnerability. Three clusters of countries are identified that share the same exposure to the risk originating from the provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, and Beijing, respectively. Interpretation: Several countries in Africa are stepping up their preparedness to detect and cope with 2019-nCoV importations. Resources and intensified surveillance and capacity capacity should be urgently prioritized towards countries at moderate risk that may be ill-prepared to face the importation and to limit onward transmission.

17.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20020545

ABSTRACT

Respiratory disease caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia first emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and spread rapidly to other provinces and other countries. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV and has been suggested to be also the receptor for 2019-nCoV. Paradoxically, ACE2 expression in the lung protects mice from SARS-CoV spike protein induced lung injury by attenuating the renin-angiotensin system. In the intestine, ACE2 also suppresses intestinal inflammation by maintaining amino acid homeostasis, antimicrobial peptide expression and ecology of the gut microbiome. Upon analysis of single cell-RNA sequencing data from control subjects and those with colitis or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), we found that ACE2 expression in the colonocytes was positively associated with genes regulating viral infection, innate and cellular immunity, but was negatively associated with viral transcription, protein translation, humoral immunity, phagocytosis and complement activation. In summary, we suggest that ACE2 may play dual roles in mediating the susceptibility and immunity of 2019-nCoV infection.

18.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-920009

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of a new zoonotic origin Coronavirus has ring the bell for the potential spread of epidemic Coronavirus crossing the species. With the urgent needs to assist the control of the Coronavirus spread and to provide valuable scientific information, we developed a coronavirus database (CoVdb), an online genomics and proteomics analysis platform. Based on public available coronavirus genomic information, the database annotates the genome of every strain and identifies 780 possible ORFs of all strains available in Genebank. In addition, the comprehensive evaluation of all the published genomes of Coronavirus strains, including population genetics analysis, functional analysis and structural analysis on a historical and global scale were presented in the CoVdb. In the database, the researcher can easily obtain the basic information of a Coronavirus gene with the distribution of the gene among strains, conserved or high mutation regions, possible subcellular location and topology of the gene. Moreover, sliding windows for population genetics analysis results is provided, thereby facilitating genetics and evolutional analysis at the genomic level. CoVdb can be accessed freely at http://covdb.popgenetics.net.

19.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20020750

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 epidemic doubling time by Chinese province was increasing from January 20 through February 9, 2020. The harmonic mean of the arithmetic mean doubling time estimates ranged from 1.4 (Hunan, 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) to 3.1 (Xinjiang, 95% CI, 2.1-4.8), with an estimate of 2.5 days (95% CI, 2.4-2.6) for Hubei.

20.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20020495

ABSTRACT

Cases from the ongoing outbreak of atypical pneumonia caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) exported from mainland China can lead to self-sustained outbreaks in other populations. Internationally imported cases are currently being reported in several different locations. Early detection of imported cases is critical for containment of the virus. Based on air travel volume estimates from Wuhan to international destinations and using a generalized linear regression model we identify locations which may potentially have undetected internationally imported cases.

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