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1.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334805

ABSTRACT

Omicron sub-lineage BA.2 has rapidly surged globally, accounting for over 60% of recent SARS-CoV-2 infections. Newly acquired RBD mutations and high transmission advantage over BA.1 urge the investigation of BA.2's immune evasion capability. Here, we show that BA.2 causes strong neutralization resistance, comparable to BA.1, in vaccinated individuals' plasma. However, BA.2 displays more severe antibody evasion in BA.1 convalescents, and most prominently, in vaccinated SARS convalescents' plasma, suggesting a substantial antigenicity difference between BA.2 and BA.1. To specify, we determined the escaping mutation profiles1,2 of 714 SARS-CoV-2 RBD neutralizing antibodies, including 241 broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies isolated from SARS convalescents, and measured their neutralization efficacy against BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2. Importantly, BA.2 specifically induces large-scale escape of BA.1/BA.1.1effective broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies via novel mutations T376A, D405N, and R408S. These sites were highly conserved across sarbecoviruses, suggesting that Omicron BA.2 arose from immune pressure selection instead of zoonotic spillover. Moreover, BA.2 reduces the efficacy of S309 (Sotrovimab)3,4 and broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies targeting the similar epitope region, including BD55-5840. Structural comparisons of BD55-5840 in complexes with BA.1 and BA.2 spike suggest that BA.2 could hinder antibody binding through S371F-induced N343-glycan displacement. Intriguingly, the absence of G446S mutation in BA.2 enabled a proportion of 440-449 linear epitope targeting antibodies to retain neutralizing efficacy, including COV2-2130 (Cilgavimab)5. Together, we showed that BA.2 exhibits distinct antigenicity compared to BA.1 and provided a comprehensive profile of SARS-CoV-2 antibody escaping mutations. Our study offers critical insights into the humoral immune evading mechanism of current and future variants.

2.
Chinese Management Studies ; : 23, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1769472

ABSTRACT

Purpose The rising uncertainties in the macroeconomic environment exacerbate the challenges firms face in the export market. This study aims to explore which strategy is suitable for export enterprises to develop sustainably under COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach Based on the sample data of China's A-stock listed manufacturing firms from 2010 to 2020, this study applies a survival analysis method to explore the impact of strategic flexibility on export firm survival. Furthermore, this study uses the difference-in-difference model to test the relationship between strategic flexibility and firms' profits in the context of the pandemic. Findings The results show that strategic flexibility can increase firms' survival time, improving dynamic production and innovation capabilities, which is favorable for their sustainable development. Meanwhile, after the spread of COVID-19, firms with strategic flexibility have higher profits than those without. This influence mechanism mainly involves exploring new markets that can improve the company revenue and the coordination capabilities of the supply chain;this reduces corporate costs. Originality/value This study expands relevant research on the factors affecting the survival of export enterprises and supplements research on the economic consequences of firms' strategic flexibility;this also enriches the dynamic capability theory. Additionally, it provides important implications for firms to enhance strategic flexibility and recommends government implementation of policies that encourage the domestic sales of commodities originally produced for exports under COVID-19.

3.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326764

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant (Omicron) contains 15 mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). How Omicron would evade RBD neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) requires immediate investigation. Here, we used high-throughput yeast display screening1,2 to determine the RBD escaping mutation profiles for 247 human anti-RBD NAbs and showed that the NAbs could be unsupervised clustered into six epitope groups (A-F), which is highly concordant with knowledge-based structural classifications3-5. Strikingly, various single mutations of Omicron could impair NAbs of different epitope groups. Specifically, NAbs in Group A-D, whose epitope overlap with ACE2-binding motif, are largely escaped by K417N, G446S, E484A, and Q493R. Group E (S309 site)6 and F (CR3022 site)7 NAbs, which often exhibit broad sarbecovirus neutralizing activity, are less affected by Omicron, but still, a subset of NAbs are escaped by G339D, N440K, and S371L. Furthermore, Omicron pseudovirus neutralization showed that single mutation tolerating NAbs could also be escaped due to multiple synergetic mutations on their epitopes. In total, over 85% of the tested NAbs are escaped by Omicron. Regarding NAb drugs, the neutralization potency of LYCoV016/LY-CoV555, REGN10933/REGN10987, AZD1061/AZD8895, and BRII-196 were greatly reduced by Omicron, while VIR-7831 and DXP-604 still function at reduced efficacy. Together, data suggest Omicron would cause significant humoral immune evasion, while NAbs targeting the sarbecovirus conserved region remain most effective. Our results offer instructions for developing NAb drugs and vaccines against Omicron and future variants.

4.
Radiotherapy and Oncology ; 163:S54, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1612123

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Cancer patients are increasingly using the Internet to educate themselves about COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that cancer patients are at risk of more serious outcomes of COVID-19 compared to the general population. Some cancer treatments such as chemotherapy can impact the immune system, which may make COVID-19 infection more dangerous. This study looks to systematically examine the quality of web resources available for cancer patients about COVID-19. Materials and Methods: The term “COVID-19 Risk and Cancer” was searched in Google and metasearch engines Yippy and Dogpile. URLs were recorded from each search and inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The results from the three lists were combined to come up with a final list based on overall average rank order. This list was analyzed using a previously validated structured rating tool with respect to accountability, currency, interactivity, readability, and content coverage and accuracy. Results: Three hundred ninety-eight websites were identified prior (this includes overlap between the three search sites used), 37 websites were included for analysis. Out of 37 websites, only 43% disclosed authorship and 24% cited sources. Most websites (76%) revealed date of creation, and 32% were updated less than three months before the date of search. Sixty-eight percent of websites enabled questions to be sent to the author or webmaster regarding COVID-19 risk queries. Fifty-four percent of websites had high school readability (8.0-12.0), 43% were at university level or above, and only one website demonstrated the recommended reading level for general public (below 8.0). Topics most commonly discussed were special consideration for cancer patients in COVID-19 (84%), COVID-19 risk factors (73%), and infection prevention (62%), while topics least covered were COVID-19 incidence/prevalence (5%), prognosis (8%), and treatment (16%). Conclusions: There is some COVID-19 in cancer risk information available online, but quality is variable. The total number of sites with relevant information related to COVID-19 and cancer was relatively low and many sites lacked markers for accountability. Some information may not be up to date and content may be difficult to comprehend. Healthcare professionals may direct cancer patients to the most reliable online resources about COVID-19 and cancer shown in this study. In addition, this may be helpful to consider when designing comprehensive web resources regarding COVID-19.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6):S-430, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1594492

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: In addition to pulmonary and thrombotic sequalae, gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations of COVID-19 are common. Although enterocytes express ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the proteins that determine SARS-CoV-2 tropism, prior studies have suggested that the virus is inactivated by gastric acid and other luminal fluids as it transits the gastrointestinal tract. However, we reason here that individuals with intestinal metaplasia of the esophagus and stomach might have ectopic, proximal SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression that would predispose them to infection from ingested oral secretions or respiratory sputum. Methods: Histology, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were performed on human tissue and organoid cultures derived from biopsied human Barrett’s esophagus. Organoid cultures were infected with a chimeric virus expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (rVSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2). Both fixed and live cells were imaged by light, epifluorescence, and live confocal microscopy. Results: Unlike normal esophagus and stomach, Barrett’s esophagus and gastric intestinal metaplasia both strongly express apical ACE2 and TMPRSS2 at the protein level. Organoids derived from Barrett’s esophagus are readily infected by the chimeric rVSV-eGFP-SARSCoV- 2 virus as demonstrated by the GFP fluorescence observed in both epifluorescence as well as three-dimensional, time-lapse confocal imaging of live infected organoids. We observed that fluorescence persisted for greater than 2 weeks in culture suggesting ongoing viral infection and intestinal identity correlated with increased viral entry. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 has a previously undescribed tropism for Barrett’s esophagus and gastric intestinal metaplasia, placing these individuals at higher risk of infection via the orogastric route.

6.
Radiotherapy and Oncology ; 163:S54-S54, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1548369
7.
37th Annual Association of Researchers in Construction Management Conference, ARCOM 2021 ; : 563-572, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1507347

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has driven the teaching and learning provisions more towards virtual platforms, exposing lack of resilience and technology preparedness. This study aims to provide a critical appraisal of existing pedagogical studies on built environment (e.g., Building Information Modelling or BIM) challenging the opportunism and agency theories in response towards remote education provision provoked by the pandemic. The study consists of critical review of two literature samples, namely how the education sector as a whole has been responding to the pandemic, and the digitalisation-based pedagogy in built environment especially how the pedagogy addresses the pandemic. The review of the second literature sample evaluates longitudinally how BIM-based built environment education had evolved. A conceptual framework incorporating multiple factors from the review of the two literature samples is finally proposed. These factors include educational theories (e.g., Bloom's Taxonomy), curriculum development addressing assessment, student experience, collaborative learning, delivery approaches, and teaching methods. This review-based study not only provides an overview of the digital built environment pedagogical work in higher education, but also contests the opportunism response to remote or blended learning and how the post-pandemic era could embrace the remote delivery-platforms to engender a variety of pedagogical principles, for example, cross-disciplinary team-based information sharing, experiential learning, and projectbased learning. The findings of this study represent a barometer and roadmap for measuring the resilience of higher education and built environment programmes towards pandemic and technological disruptions. © 2021 Proceedings of the 37th Annual ARCOM Conference, ARCOM 2021. All Rights Reserved.

8.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 36(18):1368-1372, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1481061

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)infection is still worldwide.As a vulnerable group, severe and dead pediatric cases are also reported.Under this severe epidemic situation, children should be well protected.With the widespread vaccination of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in adults, the infection rate have decreased.Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 vaccine inoculation for children groups step by step is of great significance to the protection of children and the prevention and control of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) as a whole.But the safety of children vaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is a main concern of parents.Therefore, in order to ensure the safety of vaccination and the implementation of vaccination work, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Center for Children's Health and the Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association organized experts to interpret the main issue of parents about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for children, in order to answer the doubts of parents. Copyright © 2021 by the Chinese Medical Association.

9.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 36(18):1361-1367, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1481060

ABSTRACT

At present, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)infection is still rampant worldwide.As of September 10, 2021, there were about 222 million confirmed cases of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19)and more than 4.6 million deaths worldwide.With the development of COVID-19 vaccines and the gradual vaccination worldwide, the increasing number of cases in children and unvaccinated young people has drawn attention.According to World Health Organization surveillance data, the proportion of COVID-19 infection cases in children gradually increased, and the proportion of cases in the age groups of under 5 years and 5-14 years increased from 1.0% and 2.5% in January 2020 to 2.0% and 8.7% in July 2021, respectively.At present, billions of adults have been vaccinated with various COVID-19 vaccines worldwide, and their protective effects including reducing infection and transmission, reducing severe disease and hospitalization, and reducing death, as well as high safety have been confirmed.Canada, the United States, Europe and other countries have approved the emergency COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, and China has also approved the phased vaccination of COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years. For smooth advancement and implementation of COVID-19 vaccination in children, academic institutions, including National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Center for Children's Health, and The Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association organized relevant experts to reach this consensus on COVID-19 vaccination in children. Copyright © 2021 by the Chinese Medical Association.

10.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics ; 111(3):e358-e359, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1433390

ABSTRACT

Purpose/Objective(s): Cancer patients are increasingly using the Internet to educate themselves about COVID-19. Recent studies have shown that cancer patients are at risk of more serious outcomes of COVID-19 compared to the general population. Some cancer treatments such as chemotherapy can impact the immune system, which may make COVID-19 infection more dangerous. This study looks to systematically examine the quality of web resources available for cancer patients about COVID-19. Materials/Methods: The term “COVID-19 Risk and Cancer” was searched in Google and metasearch engines Yippy and Dogpile. URLs were recorded from each search and inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The results from the 3 lists were combined to come up with a final list based on overall average rank order. This list was analyzed using a previously validated structured rating tool with respect to accountability, currency, interactivity, readability, and content coverage and accuracy. Results: 398 websites were identified prior (this includes overlap between the three search sites used), 37 websites were included for analysis. Out of 37 websites, only 43% disclosed authorship and 24% cited sources. Most websites (76%) revealed date of creation, and 32% were updated less than 3 months before the date of search. 68% of websites enabled questions to be sent to the author or webmaster regarding COVID-19 risk queries. 54% of websites had high school readability (8.0-12.0), 43% were at university level or above, and only one website demonstrated the recommended reading level for general public (below 8.0). Topics most commonly discussed were special consideration for cancer patients in COVID-19 (84%), COVID-19 risk factors (73%), and infection prevention (62%), while topics least covered were COVID-19 incidence/prevalence (5%), prognosis (8%), and treatment (16%). Conclusion: There is some COVID-19 in cancer risk information available online, but quality is variable. The total number of sites with relevant information related to COVID-19 and cancer was relatively low and many sites lacked markers for accountability. Some information may not be up to date and content may be difficult to comprehend. Healthcare professionals may direct cancer patients to the most reliable online resources about COVID-19 and cancer shown in this study. In addition, this may be helpful to consider when designing comprehensive web resources regarding COVID-19.

11.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 36(10):721-732, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1278526

ABSTRACT

2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) outbreak is one of the public health emergency of international concern.Since the 2019-nCoV outbreak, China has been adopting strict prevention and control measures, and has achieved remarkable results in the initial stage of prevention and control.However, some imported cases and sporadic regional cases have been found, and even short-term regional epidemics have occurred, indicating that the preventing and control against the epidemic remains grim.With the change of the incidence proportion and the number of cases in children under 18 years old, some new special symptoms and complications have appeared in children patients.In addition, with the occurrence of virus mutation, it has not only attracted attention from all parties, but also proposed a new topic for the prevention and treatment of 2019-nCoV infection in children of China.Based on the second edition, the present consensus further summarizes the clinical characteristics and experience of children's cases, and puts forward recommendations on the diagnostic criteria, laboratory examination, treatment, prevention and control of children's cases for providing reference for further guidance of treatment of 2019-nCoV infection in children. © 2021 Chinese Medical Association

12.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(46): 3702-3705, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993612

ABSTRACT

Objective: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the electronic "questionnaire star" was employed to investigate the general situation, medication situation and pandemic impact of children diagnosed with asthma in our hospital and enrolled in the electronic platform of the Chinese Children's Asthma Action Plan (CCAAP). The internet technology and big data were used to grasp the trend and asthma control of children who had been at home for a long time due to the pandemic, so as to facilitate the management. Methods: By random cluster sampling survey method, according to the needs and medication adherence score, the electronic "questionnaire star" was designed to conduct a survey among children (0 to 14 years old) who diagnosed with asthma and joined the CCAAP on the basis of bronchial asthma medication adherence scale. Finally, the results of electronic questionnaire survey were analyzed. Results: A total of 423 questionnaires were sent out, 422 of which were valid, with an effective response rate of 99.7%. The results of questionnaire survey showed that 296 cases were male, accounting for 70.1%, and 126 cases were female, accounting for 29.9%, with an average age of (5.4±2.6) years old. The average age of males and females was (5.3±2.6) and (5.4±2.6) years old, respectively. There were more children aged ≥5 years than children who were younger than 5 years. Additionally, 13.95% of the parents thought that the pandemic had more than moderate impact on children with asthma, and 76.12% of the children were in the green zone and had no asthma attack. The proportion of green zone inhaled drugs (79.8%) was higher than yellow zone and red zone (49.8%). After using the CCAAP platform, the dissatisfaction rate was only 1.42%. Moreover, 71.87% of the children's medical expenses decreased, and the proportion of frequent use and intermittent use of antibiotics reduced, however, the proportion of occasional use and never use of antibiotics increased significantly (all P<0.05). The average score of drug compliance was 4.56, and the more frequently the platform was used, the higher the score of medication compliance was (P<0.05). Conclusions: After using CCAAP management with the aid of internet technology, children with asthma who had been isolated at home for a long time were less affected by COVID-19, with high medication compliance, generally lower medical expenses, significantly reduced use of antibiotics, and high satisfaction. This management mode provides a new idea for internet medicine.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(12): 1487-1490, 2020 Dec 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983955

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases are a common type of public health emergencies, which occur frequently around the world in recent years, seriously threatening the safety of human life and property. In the process of dealing with epidemic situation, medical laboratories have played an important role in disease diagnosis, treatment, efficacy evaluation and prognosis judgment and so on. Beijing Youan Hospital, as the designated hospital of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has set up an emergency laboratory in the capital for the prevention and control of the COVID-19 by carrying out routine tests and virus nucleic acid tests, it provides timely and effective evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. To provide ideas and references for the building of the Emergency Laboratory in infectious hospitals. This article discuss how to set up an independent emergency laboratory efficiently, strengthen the cooperation with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, make the best use of all resources, and share the enlightenment gained in the process of construction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Emergencies , Hospitals , Humans , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; 22(2):96-99, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-47109

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, a cluster of patients have been diagnosed to be infected with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. The epidemic has been spreading to other areas of the country and abroad. A few cases have progressed rapidly to acute respiratory distress syndrome and/or multiple organ function failure. The epidemiological survey has indicated that the general population is susceptible to 2019-nCoV. A total of 14 children (6 months to 14 years of age, including 5 cases in Wuhan) have been confirmed to be infected with 2019-nCoV in China so far. In order to further standardize and enhance the clinical management of 2019-nCoV infection in children, reduce the incidence, and decrease the number of severe cases, we have formulated this diagnosis and treatment recommendation according to the recent information at home and abroad.

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