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1.
Zool Res ; 43(3): 457-468, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836354

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, the combination of anti-inflammatory and antiviral therapy is predicted to provide clinical benefits. We recently demonstrated that mast cells (MCs) are an essential mediator of SARS-CoV-2-initiated hyperinflammation. We also showed that spike protein-induced MC degranulation initiates alveolar epithelial inflammation for barrier disruption and suggested an off-label use of antihistamines as MC stabilizers to block degranulation and consequently suppress inflammation and prevent lung injury. In this study, we emphasized the essential role of MCs in SARS-CoV-2-induced lung lesions in vivo, and demonstrated the benefits of co-administration of antihistamines and antiviral drug remdesivir in SARS-CoV-2-infected mice. Specifically, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced MC degranulation resulted in alveolar-capillary injury, while pretreatment of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells with antihistamines prevented adhesion junction disruption; predictably, the combination of antiviral drug remdesivir with the antihistamine loratadine, a histamine receptor 1 (HR1) antagonist, dampened viral replication and inflammation, thereby greatly reducing lung injury. Our findings emphasize the crucial role of MCs in SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation and lung injury and provide a feasible combination antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Rodent Diseases , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/veterinary , Endothelial Cells , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/veterinary , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Lung Injury/veterinary , Mice , Rodent Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332110

ABSTRACT

Background: Nursing-patient conflict is a worldwide medical dispute problem. Over the years, nursing-patient conflict has not been effectively alleviated. However, the contradiction between medical staffs and COVID-19 patients of China has almost completely disappeared. Objectives To explore factors alleviating contradiction between nurses and COVID-19 patients, which might provide an efficient way to improve medical staffs and patients relationship. Methods Semi-structured online interviews were conducted with 10 nurses who personally cared for patients in COVID-19 from the Chongqing medical rescue team to Hubei province. The whole interview was videotaped and transcribed to word, which return to the interviewee within 24 hours to confirm. Data were analyzed using NVivo11 coding by more than two researchers. Results Economy, expectation, emotion, communication, and media are the main factors that alleviating contradiction between nurses and COVID-19 patients. Conclusion Under the influence of certain factors, there is a high probability that the conflict between nurses and patients can be alleviated under daily circumstances. Free medical care, emphasis on online communication, uniform and publicly publicized disease guideline pairs, positive health care provider coverage, and increased nurse-patient trust may be important factors in improving the nurse-patient relationship in COVID-19.Further population-based intervention studies in the five areas are recommended.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330833

ABSTRACT

Wastewater surveillance serves as a promising approach to elucidate the silent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a given community by detecting the virus in wastewater treatment facilities. This study monitored the viral RNA abundance at one WWTP and three communities during the COVID-19 outbreak in the Yanta district of Xi’an city from December 2021 to January 2022. To further understand the decay of the coronavirus in sewage pipes, avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was seeded in two recirculating water systems and operated for 90 days. Based on the viral abundance in the wastewater of Xi’an and the above data regarding the decay of coronavirus in sewage pipes, Monte Carol simulations were performed to estimate the infectious cases in Xi’an. The results suggested that the delta variant was first detected on Dec-10, five days earlier than the reported date of clinical samples. SARS-CoV-2 was detected on Dec 18 in the monitored community two days earlier than the first case and was consecutively detected in the following two sampling times. In pipelines without biofilms, the results showed that high temperature significantly reduced the viral RNA abundance by 3.1 log 10 GC/ml after experiencing 20 km travel distance, while only a 1.6 log 10 GC/L reduction was observed in the pipeline with a low water temperature. After 90 days of operation, the biofilm matured in the pipeline in both systems. Reductions of 2.14 and 4.79 log 10 GC/L were observed in high- and low-temperature systems, respectively. Based on the above results, we adjusted the input parameters for Monte Carol simulation and estimated 23.3, 50.1, 127.3 and 524.2 infected persons in December 14, 18, 22 and 26, respectively, which is largely consistent with the clinical reports. This work highlights the viability of wastewater surveillance for the early warning of COVID-19 at both the community and city levels, which represents a valuable complement to clinical approaches.

4.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 28(4): 470-483, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745958

ABSTRACT

Postoperative neurological disorders, including postoperative delirium (POD), postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), postoperative covert ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke, are challenging clinical problems in the emerging aged surgical population. These disorders can deteriorate functional outcomes and long-term quality of life after surgery, resulting in a substantial social and financial burden to the family and society. Understanding predisposing and precipitating factors may promote individualized preventive treatment for each disorder, as several risk factors are modifiable. Besides prevention, timely identification and treatment of etiologies and symptoms can contribute to better recovery from postoperative neurological disorders and lower risk of long-term cognitive impairment, disability, and even death. Herein, we summarize the diagnosis, risk factors, prevention, and treatment of these postoperative complications, with emphasis on recent advances and perspectives.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Delirium , Postoperative Cognitive Complications , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Risk Factors
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725799

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become a major global public health burden, currently causing a rapidly growing number of infections and significant morbidity and mortality around the world. Early detection with fast and sensitive assays and timely intervention are crucial for interrupting the spread of the COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2). Using a mismatch-tolerant amplification technique, we developed a simple, rapid, sensitive and visual reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection based on its N gene. The assay has a high specificity and sensitivity, and robust reproducibility, and its results can be monitored using a real-time PCR machine or visualized via colorimetric change from red to yellow. The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay is 118.6 copies of SARS-CoV-2 RNA per 25 µL reaction. The reaction can be completed within 30 min for real-time fluorescence monitoring, or 40 min for visual detection when the template input is more than 200 copies per 25 µL reaction. To evaluate the viability of the assay, a comparison between the RT-LAMP and a commercial RT-qPCR assay was made using 56 clinical samples. The SARS-CoV-2 RT-LAMP assay showed perfect agreement in detection with the RT-qPCR assay. The newly-developed SARS-CoV-2 RT-LAMP assay is a simple and rapid method for COVID-19 surveillance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biological Assay , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
J Genet Genomics ; 48(9): 803-814, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720312

ABSTRACT

Children are less susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and they have manifested lower morbidity and mortality after infection, for which a multitude of mechanisms may be considered. Whether the normal development of the gut-airway microbiome in children is affected by COVID-19 has not been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection alters the upper respiratory tract and the gut microbiomes in nine children. The alteration of the microbiome is dominated by the genus Pseudomonas, and it sustains for up to 25-58 days in different individuals. Moreover, the patterns of alternation are different between the upper respiratory tract and the gut. Longitudinal investigation shows that the upper respiratory tract and the gut microbiomes are extremely variable among children during the course of COVID-19. The dysbiosis of microbiome persists in 7 of 8 children for at least 19-24 days after discharge from the hospital. Disturbed development of both the gut and the upper respiratory microbiomes and prolonged dysbiosis in these nine children imply possible long-term complications after clinical recovery from COVID-19, such as predisposition to the increased health risk in the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Dysbiosis/pathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of SARS-CoV-2 in the pathogenesis of testicular damage is uncertain. METHODS: We investigated the virological, pathological, and immunological changes in testes of hamsters challenged by SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and its variants by intranasal or direct testicular inoculation using influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 as control. RESULTS: Besides self-limiting respiratory tract infection, intranasal SARS-CoV-2 challenge caused acute decrease in sperm count, and serum testosterone and inhibin B at 4 to 7 days post-infection (dpi), and subsequently reduced testicular size and weight, and serum sex hormone level at 42 to 120 dpi. Acute histopathological damage with varying degree of testicular inflammation, haemorrhage, and necrosis, degeneration of seminiferous tubules and disruption of orderly spermatogenesis were seen with increasing virus inoculum. Degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli and Leydig cells were found. Though viral loads and SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapid (N) protein expression were markedly lower in testicular than lung tissues, direct intra-testicular injection showed N expressing interstitial cells and epididymal epithelial cells. Control intranasal or intra-testicular challenge by A(H1N1)pdm09 showed no testicular infection or damage. From 7 to 120 dpi, degeneration and apoptosis of seminiferous tubules, immune complex deposition and depletion of spermatogenic cell and spermatozoa persisted. Intranasal challenge with Omicron and Delta variants could also induce similar testicular changes. These testicular damages can be prevented by vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 can cause acute testicular damage with subsequent chronic asymmetric testicular atrophy and associated hormonal changes despite a self-limiting pneumonia in hamsters. Awareness of possible hypogonadism and subfertility is important in managing convalescent COVID-19 males.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325065

ABSTRACT

Background: Many Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users have difficulty attending the quarterly facility-based HIV testing, which leads to the potential risk of drug resistance in the context of breakthrough infection with low drug compliance. We explored the acceptance of HIV self-testing (HIVST) service among PrEP recipients. Methods: : MSM were recruited for the PrEP demonstration in four major cities in China from December 2018 to September 2019, provided with regimens of both daily and on-demand PrEP. Facility-based HIV testing was provided quarterly at clinic visits. Previous HIV testing history and acceptance of free HIVST kits to use between each quarterly clinic visit was collected. Correlates of levels of acceptance were analysed using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Results: : We recruited 1,222 MSM. among which 48.5% preferred daily PrEP and 51.5% preferred on-demand PrEP. There was 26.8% (321/1222) had never been to any facility-based HIV testing previously, and the self-reported major reason was that they had already routinely used HIVST. A quarter of the participants (74.5%, 910/1222) had used HIVST previously. There were 1184 MSM (96.9%) accepted to use HIVST between each quarterly clinic visits during PrEP usage, composing 947 ( 77.5%) very willing to, 237(19.4%)willing to, 29 (2.4%) unwilling to, and 9 (0.7%) very unwilling to. Participants preferred daily PrEP (vs. on-demand PrEP, aOR=1.8, 95% CI:1.3-2.4) and had less than 2 times of facility-based HIV testing in the past year (vs. ³2, aOR=1.4,95% CI:1.1-1.9) were more likely to have higher level of acceptance of HIVST. Conclusions: : MSM had high acceptance of HIVST, especially among those preferred daily PrEP and with less facility-based HIV testing in the previous year. Offering HIVST services PrEP recipients is feasible and necessary. Above result is of great significance for promoting HIVST among PrEP users during COVID-19, improving awareness of their HIV infection status and ensuring compliance with medication. Future study should exam the impact of HIVST on HIV testing frequency among PrEP users. Trial registration: ChiCTR1800020374 on 27 th Dec 2018. http://www.chictr.org.cn/searchproj.aspx

9.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667345

ABSTRACT

This study compared the immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines between people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-negative individuals. We recruited 120 PLWH and 53 HIV-negative individuals aged 18-59 years who had received an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in two Chinese cities between April and June 2021. Blood samples were tested for immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The prevalence and severity of adverse events associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were similar between PLWH and HIV-negative individuals. The seropositivity of neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2, of the total amount of antibody (total antibody) and of S-IgG were 71.3%, 81.9%, and 92.6%, respectively, among fully vaccinated PLWH. Among all participants, PLWH had lower neutralizing activity, total antibody, S-IgG, and T-cell-specific immune response levels, compared to HIV-negative individuals, after controlling for types of vaccine, time interval between first and second dose, time after receiving the second dose, and sociodemographic factors. PLWH with a longer interval since HIV diagnosis, who received their second dose 15-28 days prior to study commencement, and who had an interval of ≥21 days between first and second dose had higher neutralizing activity levels. The immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was lower among PLWH as compared to HIV-negative individuals. Vaccination guideline specific for PLWH should be developed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(4): 1225-1241, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic and contagious coronavirus that caused a global pandemic with 5.2 million fatalities to date. Questions concerning serologic features of long-term immunity, especially dominant epitopes mediating durable antibody responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection, remain to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to dissect the kinetics and longevity of immune responses in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, as well as the epitopes responsible for sustained long-term humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We assessed SARS-CoV-2 immune dynamics up to 180 to 220 days after disease onset in 31 individuals who predominantly experienced moderate symptoms of COVID-19, then performed a proteome-wide profiling of dominant epitopes responsible for persistent humoral immune responses. RESULTS: Longitudinal analysis revealed sustained SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 patients, along with activation of cytokine production at early stages after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Highly reactive epitopes that were capable of mediating long-term antibody responses were shown to be located at the spike and ORF1ab proteins. Key epitopes of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were mapped to the N-terminal domain of the S1 subunit and the S2 subunit, with varying degrees of sequence homology among endemic human coronaviruses and high sequence identity between the early SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan-Hu-1) and current circulating variants. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces persistent humoral immunity in COVID-19-convalescent individuals by targeting dominant epitopes located at the spike and ORF1ab proteins that mediate long-term immune responses. Our findings provide a path to aid rational vaccine design and diagnostic development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 428, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585884

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced hyper-inflammation links to the acute lung injury and COVID-19 severity. Identifying the primary mediators that initiate the uncontrolled hypercytokinemia is essential for treatments. Mast cells (MCs) are strategically located at the mucosa and beneficially or detrimentally regulate immune inflammations. In this study, we showed that SARS-CoV-2-triggered MC degranulation initiated alveolar epithelial inflammation and lung injury. SARS-CoV-2 challenge induced MC degranulation in ACE-2 humanized mice and rhesus macaques, and a rapid MC degranulation could be recapitulated with Spike-RBD binding to ACE2 in cells; MC degranulation altered various signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells, particularly, the induction of pro-inflammatory factors and consequential disruption of tight junctions. Importantly, the administration of clinical MC stabilizers for blocking degranulation dampened SARS-CoV-2-induced production of pro-inflammatory factors and prevented lung injury. These findings uncover a novel mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 initiating lung inflammation, and suggest an off-label use of MC stabilizer as immunomodulators for COVID-19 treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Degranulation , Lung Injury/metabolism , Mast Cells/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/genetics , Lung Injury/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e31125, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV infection is a significant independent risk factor for both severe COVID-19 presentation at hospital admission and in-hospital mortality. Available information has suggested that people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) could benefit from COVID-19 vaccination. However, there is a dearth of evidence on willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among a national sample of PLWHA in China. METHODS: This cross-sectional online survey investigated factors associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination among PLWHA aged 18 to 65 years living in eight conveniently selected Chinese metropolitan cities between January and February 2021. Eight community-based organizations (CBOs) providing services to PLWHA facilitated the recruitment. Eligible PLWHA completed an online survey developed using a widely used encrypted web-based survey platform in China. We fitted a single logistic regression model to obtain adjusted odds ratios (aORs), which involved one of the independent variables of interest and all significant background variables. Path analysis was also used in the data analysis. RESULTS: Out of 10,845 PLWHA approached by the CBOs, 2740 completed the survey, and 170 had received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. This analysis was performed among 2570 participants who had never received COVID-19 vaccination. Over half of the participants reported willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination (1470/2570, 57.2%). Perceptions related to COVID-19 vaccination were significantly associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination, including positive attitudes (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 1.09-1.12; P<.001), negative attitudes (aOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.97; P<.001), perceived support from significant others (perceived subjective norm; aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.46-1.61; P<.001), and perceived behavioral control (aOR 1.13, 95% CI 1.11-1.14; P<.001). At the interpersonal level, receiving advice supportive of COVID-19 vaccination from doctors (aOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.65-2.40; P<.001), CBO staff (aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.51-2.36; P<.001), friends and/or family members (aOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.93-5.35; P<.001), and PLWHA peers (aOR 2.38, 95% CI 1.85-3.08; P<.001) was associated with higher willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The overall opinion supporting COVID-19 vaccination for PLWHA on the internet or social media was also positively associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.31-1.94; P<.001). Path analysis indicated that interpersonal-level variables were indirectly associated with willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination through perceptions (ß=.43, 95% CI .37-.51; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to PLWHA in other countries and the general population in most parts of the world, PLWHA in China reported a relatively low willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. The internet and social media as well as interpersonal communications may be major sources of influence on PLWHA's perceptions and willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e719-e734, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing amidst widespread transmission during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Disease phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2 exposure occurring around the time of vaccine administration have not been described. METHODS: Two-dose (14 days apart) vaccination regimen with formalin-inactivated whole virion SARS-CoV-2 in golden Syrian hamster model was established. To investigate the disease phenotypes of a 1-dose regimen given 3 days prior (D-3), 1 (D1) or 2 (D2) days after, or on the day (D0) of virus challenge, we monitored the serial clinical severity, tissue histopathology, virus burden, and antibody response of the vaccinated hamsters. RESULTS: The 1-dose vaccinated hamsters had significantly lower clinical disease severity score, body weight loss, lung histology score, nucleocapsid protein expression in lung, infectious virus titers in the lung and nasal turbinate, inflammatory changes in intestines, and a higher serum neutralizing antibody or IgG titer against the spike receptor-binding domain or nucleocapsid protein when compared to unvaccinated controls. These improvements were particularly noticeable in D-3, but also in D0, D1, and even D2 vaccinated hamsters to varying degrees. No increased eosinophilic infiltration was found in the nasal turbinate, lung, and intestine after virus challenge. Significantly higher serum titer of fluorescent foci microneutralization inhibition antibody was detected in D1 and D2 vaccinated hamsters at day 4 post-challenge compared to controls despite undetectable neutralizing antibody titer. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination just before or soon after exposure to SARS-CoV-2 does not worsen disease phenotypes and may even ameliorate infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , Vaccines, Inactivated
16.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(12): 2731-2738, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging infectious diseases are a constant threat to the public's health and health care systems around the world. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019), which was defined by the World Health Organization as pandemic, has rapidly emerged as a global health threat. Outbreak evolution and prevention of international implications require substantial flexibility of frontline health care facilities in their response. AIM: To explore the effect of the implementation and management strategy of pre-screening triage in children during COVID-19. METHODS: The standardized triage screening procedures included a standardized triage screening questionnaire, setup of pre-screening triage station, multi-point temperature monitoring, extensive screenings, and two-way protection. In order to ensure the implementation of the pre-screening triage, the prevention and control management strategies included training, emergency exercise, and staff protection. Statistical analysis was performed on the data from all the children hospitalized from January 20, 2020 to March 20, 2020 at solstice during the pandemic period. Data were obtained from questionnaires and electronic medical record systems. RESULTS: A total of 17561 children, including 2652 who met the criteria for screening, 192 suspected cases, and two confirmed cases without omission, were screened from January 20, 2020 to March 20, 2020 at solstice during the pandemic period. There was zero transmission of the infection to any medical staff. CONCLUSION: The effective strategies for pre-screening triage have an essential role in the prevention and control of hospital infection.

17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 240, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091448

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of COVID-19. It infects multiple organs including the respiratory tract and gut. Dynamic changes of regional microbiomes in infected adults are largely unknown. Here, we performed longitudinal analyses of throat and anal swabs from 35 COVID-19 and 19 healthy adult controls, as well as 10 non-COVID-19 patients with other diseases, by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed a partitioning of the patients into 3-4 categories based on microbial community types (I-IV) in both sites. The bacterial diversity was lower in COVID-19 patients than healthy controls and decreased gradually from community type I to III/IV. Although the dynamic change of microbiome was complex during COVID-19, a synchronous restoration of both the upper respiratory and gut microbiomes from early dysbiosis towards late more diverse status was observed in 6/8 mild COVID-19 adult patients. These findings reveal previously unknown interactions between upper respiratory and gut microbiomes during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Microbiota , Respiratory System/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , Male , Microbiota/genetics , Middle Aged , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Young Adult
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2936, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062770

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemics. To facilitate the detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, various RT-LAMP assays using 19 sets of primers had been developed, but never been compared. We performed comparative evaluation of the 19 sets of primers using 4 RNA standards and 29 clinical samples from COVID-19 patients. Six of 15 sets of primers were firstly identified to have faster amplification when tested with four RNA standards, and were further subjected to parallel comparison with the remaining four primer sets using 29 clinical samples. Among these 10 primer sets, Set-4 had the highest positive detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 (82.8%), followed by Set-10, Set-11, and Set-13 and Set-17 (75.9%). Set-14 showed the fastest amplification speed (Tt value < 8.5 min), followed by Set-17 (Tt value < 12.5 min). Based on the overall detection performance, Set-4, Set-10, Set-11, Set-13, Set-14 and Set-17 that target Nsp3, S, S, E, N and N gene regions of SARS-CoV-2, respectively, were determined to be better than the other primer sets. Two RT-LAMP assays with the Set-4 primers in combination with any one of four other primer sets (Set-14, Set-10, Set-11, and Set-13) were recommended to be used in the COVID-19 surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Vaccine ; 38(35): 5653-5658, 2020 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612504

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has become a global pandemic responsible for over 2,000,000 confirmed cases and over 126,000 deaths worldwide. In this study, we examined the immunogenicity of CHO-expressed recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S1-Fc fusion protein in mice, rabbits, and monkeys as a potential candidate for a COVID-19 vaccine. We demonstrate that the S1-Fc fusion protein is extremely immunogenic, as evidenced by strong antibody titers observed by day 7. Strong virus neutralizing activity was observed on day 14 in rabbits immunized with the S1-Fc fusion protein using a pseudovirus neutralization assay. Most importantly, in <20 days and three injections of the S1-Fc fusion protein, two monkeys developed higher virus neutralizing titers than a recovered COVID-19 patient in a live SARS-CoV-2 infection assay. Our data strongly suggests that the CHO-expressed SARS-CoV-2 S1-Fc recombinant protein could be a strong candidate for vaccine development against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/chemistry , Macaca/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , CHO Cells , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cricetulus , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Mice , Pandemics , Rabbits
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