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1.
J Adv Res ; 39: 147-156, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921031

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Face masks are regarded as effective Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the dominant polypropylene (PP)-based masks are devoid of antiviral/antibacterial activities and create enormous environmental burdens after disposal. OBJECTIVES: Here we report a facile and potentially scalable method to fabricate biodegradable, breathable, and biocidal cellulose nonwovens (BCNWs) to address both environmental and hygienic problems of commercially available face masks. METHODS: TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nonwovens are rendered antiviral/antibacterial via covalent bonding with disinfecting polyhexamethylene guanidine or neomycin sulfate through carbodiimide coupling chemistry. RESULTS: The obtained results showed that the BCNWs have virucidal rate of >99.14%, bactericidal efficiency of >99.51%, no leaching-out effect, and excellent air permeability of >1111.5 mm s-1. More importantly, the as-prepared BCNWs can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 instantly. CONCLUSIONS: This strategy provides a new platform for the green fabrication of multifunctional cellulose nonwovens as scalable bio-protective layers with superior performance for various PPE in fighting COVID-19 or future pandemics. Additionally, replacing the non-biodegradable non-antimicrobial PP-based masks with the cellulose-based masks can reduce the plastic wastes and lower the greenhouse gas production from the incineration of disposed masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cellulose , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Anal Chem ; 94(6): 2926-2933, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721378

ABSTRACT

Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a useful pathogen identification method. Several label-free detection methods for RPA amplicons have been developed in recent years. However, these methods still lack sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, or simplicity. In this study, we propose a rapid, highly sensitive, and label-free pathogen assay system based on a solid-phase self-interference RPA chip (SiSA-chip) and hyperspectral interferometry. The SiSA-chips amplify and capture RPA amplicons on the chips, rather than irrelevant amplicons such as primer dimers, and the SiSA-chips are then analysed by hyperspectral interferometry. Optical length increases of SiSA-chips are used to demonstrate RPA detection results, with a limit of detection of 1.90 nm. This assay system can detect as few as six copies of the target 18S rRNA gene of Plasmodium falciparum within 20 min, with a good linear relationship between the detection results and the concentration of target genes (R2 = 0.9903). Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of the dhfr gene of Plasmodium falciparum is also possible using the SiSA-chip, with as little as 1% of mutant gene distinguished from wild-type loci (m/wt). This system offers a high-efficiency (20 min), high-sensitivity (6 copies/reaction), high-specificity (1% m/wt), and low-cost (∼1/50 of fluorescence assays for RPA) diagnosis method for pathogen DNA identification. Therefore, this system is promising for fast identification of pathogens to help diagnose infectious diseases, including SNP genotyping.


Subject(s)
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Recombinases , Interferometry , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleotidyltransferases , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(12)2021 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580576

ABSTRACT

A two-stage isothermal amplification method, which consists of a first-stage basic recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a second-stage fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), as well as a microfluidic-chip-based portable system, were developed in this study; these enabled parallel detection of multiplex targets in real time in around one hour, with high sensitivity and specificity, without cross-contamination. The consumption of the sample and the reagent was 2.1 µL and 10.6 µL per reaction for RPA and LAMP, respectively. The lowest detection limit (LOD) was about 10 copies. The clinical amplification of about 40 nasopharyngeal swab samples, containing 17 SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) and 23 measles viruses (MV), were parallel tested by using the microfluidic chip. Both clinical specificity and sensitivity were 100% for MV, and the clinical specificity and sensitivity were 94.12% and 95.83% for SARS-CoV-2, respectively. This two-stage isothermal amplification method based on the microfluidic chip format offers a convenient, clinically parallel molecular diagnostic method, which can identify different nucleic acid samples simultaneously and in a timely manner, and with a low cost of the reaction reagent. It is especially suitable for resource-limited areas and point-of-care testing (POCT).

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127391, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446842

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment (PPE) such as face masks is vital in battling the COVID-19 crisis, but the dominant polypropylene-based PPE are lack of antiviral/antibacterial activities and environmental friendliness, and have hazardous impact on the soil and aquatic ecosystems. The work presented herein focused on developing biodegradable, antiviral, and antibacterial cellulose nonwovens (AVAB-CNWs) as a multi-functional bioprotective layer for better protection against coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and addressing environmental concerns raised by the piling of COVID-19 related wastes. Both guanidine-based polymer and neomycin sulfate (NEO) were reactive-modified and covalently grafted onto the surface of cellulose nonwovens, thereby conferring outstanding antiviral and antibacterial activities to the nonwovens without deteriorating the microstructure and biodegradability. Through adjusting the grafting amount of active components and selecting appropriate reagents for pretreatment, the antimicrobial activity and hydrophobicity for self-cleaning of the nonwovens can be tuned. More importantly, we demonstrated for the first time that such multi-functional nonwovens are capable of inactivating SARS-CoV-2 instantly, leading to high virucidal activity (> 99.35%), which is unachievable by conventional masks used nowadays. Meanwhile, the robust breathability and biodegradability of AVAB-CNWs were well maintained. The applications of the as-prepared nonwovens as high-performance textile can be readily extended to other areas in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cellulose , Ecosystem , Humans , Microplastics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2
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