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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(8): ofac382, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018037

ABSTRACT

Persistent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is difficult to treat. Here, we report a case of 5-month persistent coronavirus disease 2019 in an immunocompromised patient who was successfully treated with 30 consecutive days of remdesivir. Prolonged remdesivir infusion with concurrent cycle threshold monitoring might provide a potential solution to cure these patients with difficult-to-treat infections.

2.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999094

ABSTRACT

Persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection patients are difficult to treat. Here, we report a case of 5-month persistent COVID-19 in an immunocompromised patient who was successfully treated with 30 consecutive days of Remdesivir. Prolonged remdesivir infusion with concurrent cycle threshold monitoring might provide a potential solution to cure these difficult patients.

3.
Environ Chem Lett ; 18(4): 993-996, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906115
4.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 103(3): 115699, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800113

ABSTRACT

The Cepheid Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay is 1 of the several real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays that received Emergency Use Authorization from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Here we report 4 SARS-CoV-2 samples that were reported as presumptive positives on the Cepheid platform while reported as positives on alternative RT-PCR platforms. Whole genome sequencing indicated that the samples were Delta variants and had point mutations in the N gene which potentially interfered with SARS-CoV-2 detection. Two types of point mutations were found in these samples in the US CDC 2019-nCoV Real time PCR N2 Probe region: C29203T and C29200T. C29203T is a novel point mutation, and C29200T has not been previously reported in the Delta variants. This underlines the fact that mutations in the real-time RT-PCR assay target region could hinder accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , United States
6.
Environ Chem Lett ; 20(3): 1539-1544, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408890

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues with emergence of new variants of concerns. These variants are fueling the third and fourth waves of pandemic across many nations. Here we describe the new emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 and why they have enhanced infectivity and possess the ability to evade immunity.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab328, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health care personnel and patients are at risk to acquire severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in health care settings, including in outpatient clinics and ancillary care areas. METHODS: Between May 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021, we identified clusters of 3 or more coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in which nosocomial transmission was suspected in a Veterans Affairs health care system. Asymptomatic employees and patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 if they were identified as being at risk through contact tracing investigations; for 7 clusters, all personnel and/or patients in a shared work area were tested regardless of exposure history. Whole-genome sequencing was performed to determine the relatedness of SARS-CoV-2 samples from the clusters and from control employees and patients. RESULTS: Of 14 clusters investigated, 7 occurred in community-based outpatient clinics, 1 in the emergency department, 3 in ancillary care areas, and 3 on hospital medical/surgical wards that did not provide care for patients with known COVID-19 infection. Eighty-one of 82 (99%) symptomatic COVID-19 cases and 31 of 35 (89%) asymptomatic cases occurred in health care personnel. Sequencing analysis provided support for several transmission events between coworkers and in 2 cases supported transmission from health care personnel to patients. There were no documented transmissions from patients to personnel. CONCLUSIONS: Clusters of COVID-19 with nosocomial transmission predominantly involved health care personnel and often occurred in outpatient clinics and ancillary care areas. There is a need for improved measures to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by health care personnel in inpatient and outpatient settings.

8.
Environ Chem Lett ; 19(3): 1935-1944, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092692

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread across the world and was subsequently declared as a pandemic in 2020. To overcome this public health challenge, comprehensive understanding of the disease transmission is urgently needed. Recent evidences suggest that the most common route of transmission for SARS-CoV-2 is likely via droplet, aerosol, or direct contact in a person-to-person encounter, although the possibility of transmission via fomites from surfaces cannot be ruled out entirely. Environmental contamination in COVID-19 patient rooms is widely observed due to viral shedding from both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, and SARS-CoV-2 can survive on hospital surfaces for extended periods. Sequence of contact events can spread the virus from one surface to the other in a hospital setting. Here, we review the studies related to viral shedding by COVID-19 patients that can contaminate surfaces and survival of SARS-CoV-2 on different types of surfaces commonly found in healthcare settings, as well as evaluating the importance of surface to person transmission characteristics. Based on recent evidences from the literature, decontamination of hospital surfaces should constitute an important part of the infection control and prevention of COVID-19.

9.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(2): 127-130, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Prolonged survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on environmental surfaces and personal protective equipment may lead to these surfaces transmitting this pathogen to others. We sought to determine the effectiveness of a pulsed-xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) disinfection system in reducing the load of SARS-CoV-2 on hard surfaces and N95 respirators. METHODS: Chamber slides and N95 respirator material were directly inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 and were exposed to different durations of PX-UV. RESULTS: For hard surfaces, disinfection for 1, 2, and 5 minutes resulted in 3.53 log10, >4.54 log10, and >4.12 log10 reductions in viral load, respectively. For N95 respirators, disinfection for 5 minutes resulted in >4.79 log10 reduction in viral load. PX-UV significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 on hard surfaces and N95 respirators. CONCLUSION: With the potential to rapidly disinfectant environmental surfaces and N95 respirators, PX-UV devices are a promising technology to reduce environmental and personal protective equipment bioburden and to enhance both healthcare worker and patient safety by reducing the risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disinfection/instrumentation , Equipment Reuse/standards , Humans , N95 Respirators , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Xenon
10.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(1): 115334, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062310

ABSTRACT

Several real-time RT-PCR assays have received Emergency Use Authorization from the United States Food and Drug Administration. The BD MAX™ SARS-CoV-2 assay, run by the BD MAX™ system, is a qualitative test that detects the SARS-CoV-2 specific nucleocapsid phosphoprotein gene regions, N1 and N2. The human RNase P gene is used as the endogenous nucleic acid extraction control. The Cepheid Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay, run by the GeneXpert system, detects the pan-sarbecovirus E gene and the N2 region of the N gene. We evaluated the performance characteristics of the BD and Cepheid assays using matched patient samples. We also analyzed comparative Ct values for both assays using 183 positive samples tested at this facility. In addition, we mitigated reporting false positive results without relying on interpretive software. We found that both systems showed comparable sensitivity. We found an approximately 3.5% false positive rate from the BD MAX™ system results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , False Positive Reactions , Humans , Phosphoproteins/genetics
11.
12.
Environ Chem Lett ; 19(3): 1945-1951, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049674

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease COVID-19 has spread throughout the world and has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11th, 2020. The COVID-19 is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). One possible mode of virus transmission is through surfaces in the healthcare settings. This paper reviews currently used disinfection strategies to control SARS-CoV-2 at the healthcare facilities. Chemical disinfectants include hypochlorite, peroxymonosulfate, alcohols, quaternary ammonium compounds, and hydrogen peroxide. Advanced strategies include no-touch techniques such as engineered antimicrobial surfaces and automated room disinfection systems using hydrogen peroxide vapor or ultraviolet light.

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