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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 487-497, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease; however, it is infrequently considered for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributable to infectious causes. We aimed to describe the course of disease and early post-transplantation outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19 who failed to show lung recovery despite optimal medical management and were deemed to be at imminent risk of dying due to pulmonary complications. METHODS: We established a multi-institutional case series that included the first consecutive transplants for severe COVID-19-associated ARDS known to us in the USA, Italy, Austria, and India. De-identified data from participating centres-including information relating to patient demographics and pre-COVID-19 characteristics, pretransplantation disease course, perioperative challenges, pathology of explanted lungs, and post-transplantation outcomes-were collected by Northwestern University (Chicago, IL, USA) and analysed. FINDINGS: Between May 1 and Sept 30, 2020, 12 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS underwent bilateral lung transplantation at six high-volume transplant centres in the USA (eight recipients at three centres), Italy (two recipients at one centre), Austria (one recipient), and India (one recipient). The median age of recipients was 48 years (IQR 41-51); three of the 12 patients were female. Chest imaging before transplantation showed severe lung damage that did not improve despite prolonged mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The lung transplant procedure was technically challenging, with severe pleural adhesions, hilar lymphadenopathy, and increased intraoperative transfusion requirements. Pathology of the explanted lungs showed extensive, ongoing acute lung injury with features of lung fibrosis. There was no recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in the allografts. All patients with COVID-19 could be weaned off extracorporeal support and showed short-term survival similar to that of transplant recipients without COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: The findings from our report show that lung transplantation is the only option for survival in some patients with severe, unresolving COVID-19-associated ARDS, and that the procedure can be done successfully, with good early post-transplantation outcomes, in carefully selected patients. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Lung Transplantation/methods , Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Blood Transfusion/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/surgery , Critical Care/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Intraoperative Care/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Sleep Vigil ; : 1-12, 2020 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630722

ABSTRACT

Background: Sleep services are assigned a non-essential status during COVID-19. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine strongly urges sleep clinicians to continue postponing non-urgent care until a later date, if such a recommendation is made by state officials due to local conditions. At the same time, one cannot ignore the fact that sleep is important for people's health and wellbeing. Therefore, to protect the health of the population, it is essential to find ways and means to continue the practice of sleep medicine even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Social environment and work ethics in sleep clinics and sleep laboratories in Asia, Africa, and Latin America are different from those in the US. Under these circumstances, the Indian Society for Sleep Research (ISSR) created a task force to develop guidelines for the practice of sleep medicine, not only for the Indian environment but also for other countries that are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The task force examined documents regarding practice of sleep medicine and associated specialities  during COVID-19 by various professional organizations and governmental authorities. The recommendations were examined for their applicability. Wherever gaps were identified, consensus was reached keeping in view the available evidences. Outcome and Recommendations: The emphasis of the guidelines is on avoiding doctor to patient contact during the pandemic. Teleconsultation and other modes of audio-visuals can be used as modes for medical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in addition to the patient, the presence of a family member, or a reliable informant is recommended. Patients of most sleep disorders can be provided tele-aftercare service. ISSR guidelines also give a list of medications allowed to be prescribed during the first and the follow-up teleconsultation. Hospitals and clinics are slowly opening in India and many other countries. As sleep services resume operations, there is a need to find innovative ways to reduce contact with COVID-19 patients, follow personal protection guidelines, as well as social distancing. This article does discuss strategies for the safe conduct of Level 1 sleep studies. Home sleep testing, which had greater acceptance during the last few years, should be given more attention during the COVID-19 period. Once the decision to reopen the sleep laboratory and resume operations is made, the safety of the patients and office staff should become the major priority. The ISSR recommendation is to postpone and reschedule in-laboratory positive pressure therapy, but it mentions the considerations to be followed in emergency situations. At the same time, high clinical risk patients may be diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings, and without performing polysomnography or home sleep testing. However, at some point, there is a need to reinitiate the in-lab testing. In addition, daily assessment of the COVID-19 situation in the community, along with a review of the situation with local public health and the state health department is advised.

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