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1.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-311480

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccines are being developed urgently worldwide, among which single-shot adenovirus vectored vaccines represent a major approach. Here, we constructed two novel adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine candidates on simian adenovirus serotype 23 (Sad23L) and human adenovirus serotype 49 vectors (Ad49L) carrying the full-length gene of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S), designated Sad23L-nCoV-S and Ad49L-nCoV-S vaccines, respectively. The immunogenicity elicited by these two vaccine strains was individually evaluated in mice. Specific humoral and cellular immune responses were proportionally observed in a dose-dependent manner, and stronger response was obtained by boosting. Furthermore, five rhesus macaques were intramuscularly injected with a dose of 5x109 PFU Sad23L-nCoV-S vaccine for prime vaccination, followed by boosting with 5x109 PFU of Ad49L-nCoV-S vaccine at 4-week interval. Three macaques were injected with Sad23L-GFP and Ad49L-GFP vectorial viruses as negative controls. Both mice and macaques tolerated well the vaccine inoculations without detectable clinical or pathologic changes. In macaques, prime-boost vaccination regimen induced high titers of 103.16 S-binding antibody (S-BAb), 102.75 cell receptor binding domain (RBD)-BAb and 102.38 neutralizing antibody (NAb) to pseudovirus a week after boosting injection, followed by sustained high levels over 10 weeks of observation. Robust IFN-{gamma} secreting T-cell response (712.6 SFCs/106 cells), IL-2 secreting T-cell response (334 SFCs/106 cells) and intracellular IFN-{gamma} expressing CD4+/CD8+ T cell response (0.39%/0.55%) to S peptides were detected in the vaccinated macaques. It was concluded that prime-boost immunization with Sad23L-nCoV-S and Ad49L-nCoV-S vaccines can safely elicit strong immunity in animals in preparation of clinical phase 1/2 trials.

2.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20153106

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesThe prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in China remains unknown. To reveal the missing information, we investigated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in the cities of Wuhan, Shenzhen, and Shijiazhuang of China. DesignCross-sectional study SettingThree blood centers, located in the central, south and north China, respectively, recruiting from January to April 2020. Participants38,144 healthy blood donors donated in Wuhan, Shenzhen and Shijiazhuang were enrolled, who were all met the criteria for blood donation during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Main outcome measuresSpecific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 including total antibody (TAb), IgG antibody against receptor-binding domain of spike protein (IgG-RBD) and nucleoprotein (IgG-N), and IgM. Pseudotype lentivirus-based neutralization test was performed on all TAb-positive samples. In addition, anonymous personal demographic information, including gender, age, ethnicity, occupation and educational level, and blood type were collected. ResultsA total of 519 samples from 410 donors were confirmed by neutralization tests. The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among blood donors was 2.29% (407/17,794, 95%CI: 2.08% to 2.52%) in Wuhan, 0.029% (2/6,810, 95%CI: 0.0081% to 0.11%) in Shenzhen, and 0.0074% (1/13,540, 95%CI: 0.0013% to 0.042%) in Shijiazhuang, respectively. The earliest emergence of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in blood donors was identified on January 20, 2020 in Wuhan. The weekly prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Wuhans blood donors changed dynamically and were 0.08% (95%CI: 0.02% to 0.28%) during January 15 to 22 (before city lockdown), 3.08% (95%CI: 2.67% to 3.55%) during January 23 to April 7 (city quarantine period) and 2.33% (95%CI: 2.06% to 2.63%) during April 8 to 30 (after lockdown easing). Female and older-age were identified to be independent risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among donors in Wuhan. ConclusionsThe prevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 among blood donors in China was low, even in Wuhan city. According to our data, the earliest emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhans donors should not earlier than January, 2020. As most of the population of China remained uninfected during the early wave of COVID-19 pandemic, effective public health measures are still certainly required to block viral spread before a vaccine is widely available.

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