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1.
International journal of biological sciences ; 18(7):3066-3081, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1823884

ABSTRACT

During the development of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection from mild disease to severe disease, it can trigger a series of complications and stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immune response. However, the precise identification of blood immune cell response dynamics and the relevance to disease progression in COVID-19 patients remains unclear. We propose for the first time to use changes in cell numbers to establish new subgroups, which were divided into four groups: first from high to low cell number (H_L_Group), first from low to high (L_H_Group), continuously high (H_Group), and continuously low (L_Group). It was found that in the course of disease development. In the T cell subgroup, the immune response is mainly concentrated in the H_L_Group cell type, and the complications are mainly in the L_H_Group cell type. In the NK cell subgroup, the moderate patients are mainly related to cellular immunity, and the severe patients are mainly caused by the disease, while severe patients are mainly related to complications caused by diseases. Our study provides a dynamic response of immune cells in human blood during SARS-CoV-2 infection and the first subgroup analysis using dynamic changes in cell numbers, providing a new reference for clinical treatment of COVID-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332766

ABSTRACT

Background: Existing clinical studies supported the potential efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells as well as derived exosomes in the treatment of COVID-19. We aimed to explore the safety and efficiency of aerosol inhalation of the exosomes derived from human adipose-derived MSCs (haMSC-Exos) in patients with COVID-19. Methods: The MEXCOVID trial is a phase 2a single-arm, open-labelled, interventional trial and patients were enrolled in Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China. Eligible 7 patients were assigned to receive the daily dose of haMSCs-Exos (2.0×10 8 nano vesicles) for consecutively 5 days. The primary outcomes included the incidence of prespecified inhalation-associated events and serious adverse events. We also observed the demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory results including lymphocyte count, levels of D-dimer and IL-6 as well as chest imaging. Results: Seven severe COVID-19 related pneumonia patients (4 males and 3 females) were enrolled and received nebulized haMSC-Exos. The median age was 57 year (IQR, 43 year to 70 year). The median time from onset of symptoms to hospital admission and administration of nebulized haMSC-Exos was 30 days (IQR, 15 days to 40 days) and 54 d (IQR, 34 d to 69 d), respectively. All COVID-19 patients tolerated the haMSC-Exos nebulization well, with no evidence of prespecified adverse events or clinical instability during the nebulization or during the immediate post-nebulization period. All patients presented a slight increase of serum lymphocyte counts (median as 1.61×10 9 /L vs. 1.78×10 9 /L). Different degrees of resolution of pulmonary lesions after aerosol inhalation of haMSC-Exos were observed among all patients, more obviously in 4 of 7 patients. Conclusions: Our trial shows that a consecutive 5 days inhalation dose of clinical grade haMSC-Exos up to a total amount of 2.0×10 9 nano vesicles was feasible and well tolerated in seven COVID-19 patients, with no evidence of prespecified adverse events, immediate clinical instability, or dose-relevant toxicity at any of the doses tested. This safety profile is seemingly followed by CT imaging improvement within 7 days. Further trials will have to confirm the long-term safety or efficacy in larger population. Trial Registration MEXCOVID, NCT04276987

3.
Education Sciences ; 12(4):245, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762431

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many college students in developing countries to engage in online learning for the first time, and the sudden transit has raised concerns regarding students' competencies for, perception of, and attitude towards online learning. To address those concerns, this study measured three essential constructs of online learning (self-regulated learning, perceived presences, and learning motivation) based on a national survey in China (N = 12,826) and employed structural equation modeling to investigate their intertwined relationship. The study results reveal that (1) college students' academic achievement cannot effectively predict their self-regulated learning in an online learning context;(2) self-regulation can be further differentiated into general and task-specific strategies with a varying impact on three types of presences;(3) online learning motivation is best predicted by cognitive presence, followed by social presence and teaching presence;and (4) the path of task-specific self-regulated learning →cognitive presence →online learning motivation generates the largest positive compound effect. Implications for online teaching and learning practice are also discussed through the stakeholder perspectives of students, teachers, and platform developers.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325367

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a serious threat to global public health, including a wide range of metal health problems. Current research focuses mainly on mental health status and related factors among Chinese university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: : Data from 11133 participants was obtained through an online survey of university students in mainland China. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), respectively. Results: : In total, 37.0% of the subjects were experiencing depressive symptoms, 24.9% anxiety symptoms, 20.9% comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, and 7.3% suicidal ideation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed an increased presence of mental health problems in female students, graduate students, and those with personal COVID-19 exposure. Living with family and awareness of COVID-19 were protective factors against depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition, male, depressive and anxiety symptoms were risk factors for suicidal ideation. Living with family, graduate students, prevention and control measures and projections of COVID-19 trends were protective factors against suicidal ideation. Conclusions: : The findings underlined that the mental health of university students should be monitored, and provided important information for healthcare planning during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325346

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and differences in etiology, clinical manifestations, and psychological activity of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) among patients. Results We recruited 90 subjects, 30 were healthy controls, 30 were patients with moderate infection, and 30 were patients with severe/critical infections. No significant differences were noted in the sex ratio, mean age, body mass index, or blood type;however, the history of exposure of the patients with COVID-19 compared with healthy controls was noteworthy. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, as well as the levels of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A (SAA) were all increased. In terms of mental health, there were significant differences in the worry scores between severely and moderately infected patients and healthy controls. There was a significant difference in depression scores between patients with moderate infection and healthy hypertension, and there was also a significant difference in dream worry scores. Analysis of the Mini-Mental State Examination scores showed that for patients with moderate infection, the depression score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety score. For patients with severe infection, the anxiety score was positively correlated with the dream anxiety score, and the depression score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety score. Conclusion Patients with severe infection showed increased pain and sputum in the pharyngeal area compared with patients with moderate infection. Patients with blood type A may be more susceptible to COVID-19, and lymphopenia may indicate worsening of COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308309

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a viral respiratory disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with this disease may be more prone to venous or arterial thrombosis because of the activation of many factors involved in it, including inflammation, platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Interferon gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP1α) are cytokines related to thrombosis. Therefore, this study focused on these three indicators in COVID-19, with the hope to find biomarkers that are associated with patients’ outcome. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center study involving 74 severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients recruited from the ICU department of the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. The patients were divided into two groups: severe patients and critically ill patients. The serum IP-10, MCP-1 and MIP1α level in both groups was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and the outcome of COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The serum IP-10 and MCP-1 level in critically ill patients was significantly higher than that in severe patients ( P <0.001). However, no statistical difference in MIP1α between the two groups was found. The analysis of dynamic changes showed that these indicators remarkably increased in patients with poor prognosis. Since the selected patients were severe or critically ill, no significant difference was observed between survival and death. Conclusions: IP-10 and MCP-1 are biomarkers associated with the severity of COVID-19 disease and can be related to the risk of death in COVID-19 patients.

7.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652322

ABSTRACT

Brain organoids, or brainoids, have shown great promise in the study of central nervous system (CNS) infection. Modeling Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in brain organoids may help elucidate the relationship between ZIKV infection and microcephaly. Brain organoids have been used to study the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HSV-1, and other viral infections of the CNS. In this review, we summarize the advances in the development of viral infection models in brain organoids and their potential application for exploring mechanisms of viral infections of the CNS and in new drug development. The existing limitations are further discussed and the prospects for the development and application of brain organs are prospected.

8.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268553

ABSTRACT

The whole genomic sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 has been performed extensively and is playing a crucial role in fighting against COVID-19 pandemic. Obtaining sufficient WGS data from clinical samples is often challenging especially from the samples with low viral load. We evaluated two SARS-CoV-2 sequencing protocols for their efficiency/accuracy and limitations. Sequence coverage of >95% was obtained by Swift normalase amplicon SARS-CoV-2 panels (SNAP) protocol for all the samples with Ct [≤] 35 and by COVIDSeq protocol for 97% of samples with Ct [≤] 30. Sample RNA quantitation obtained using digital PCR provided more precise cutoff values. The quantitative digital PCR cutoff values for obtaining 95% coverage are 10.5 copies/L for SNAP protocol and 147 copies/L for COVIDSeq protocol. Combining FASTQ files obtained from 2 protocols improved the outcome of sequence analysis by compensating for missing amplicon regions. This process resulted in an increase of sequencing coverage and lineage call precision.

9.
《国际护理与健康》 ; 2021.
Article in Chinese | Omniscient | ID: covidwho-1411125

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: To know the effect of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) on residents exercise behavior and provide reference for resident when exercising at home during isolation. Methods: Taking WeChat as the media for distributing questionnaires and using self-designed questionnaires, we investigated the situation of residents exercise behavior during NCP and compared with the situation before NCP. Results: The research investigated 468 residents totally (aging from 18-71). During the NCP, the proportion of residents participating in exercise decreased significantly (88.4% vs. 73.9%, P < 0.05). The exercise time changed from 30-60 min / time before the NCP to < 30 min / time;during the NCP, the main purpose of exercise was to improve immunity and prevent diseases, and the place of exercise was still courtyard or indoor, but the proportion increased by 4.9% and 23.4% respectively (P < 0.05);the main obstacle factors were self inertia (21.1%) and lack of time (12.0%). Conclusion: To a certain extent, home isolation has changed the exercise behavior of residents, including exercise mode, frequency, intensity and location.

10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 669833, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369711

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has seriously threatened the global public health security and caused a series of mental health problem. Current research focuses mainly on mental health status and related factors in the COVID-19 pandemic among Chinese university students. Data from 11133 participants was obtained through an online survey. The Patient Health Question-9 (PHQ-9) was used to assess depressive symptoms, the Social Support Rate Scale (SSRS) was used to assess social support. We also used 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) to assess anxiety symptoms. Totally, 37.0% of the subjects were experiencing depressive symptoms, 24.9% anxiety symptoms, 20.9% comorbid depressive and anxiety symptoms, and 7.3% suicidal ideation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed an increased presence of mental health problems in female students, graduate students, and those with personal COVID-19 exposure. Awareness of COVID-19, living with family were protective factors that reduced anxiety and depression symptoms. In addition, male, personal COVID-19 exposure, depressive and anxiety symptoms were risk factors for suicidal ideation. Social support, COVID-19 preventive and control measures, prediction of COVID-19 trends, living with family and graduate students are protective factors for reducing suicidal ideation.

11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21260122

ABSTRACT

We report the first local transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in mainland China. All 167 infections could be traced back to the first index case. Daily sequential PCR testing of the quarantined subjects indicated that the viral loads of Delta infections, when they first become PCR+, were on average [~]1000 times greater compared to A/B lineage infections during initial epidemic wave in China in early 2020, suggesting potentially faster viral replication and greater infectiousness of Delta during early infection. We performed high-quality sequencing on samples from 126 individuals. Reliable epidemiological data meant that, for 111 transmission events, the donor and recipient cases were known. The estimated transmission bottleneck size was 1-3 virions with most minor intra-host single nucleotide variants (iSNVs) failing to transmit to the recipients. However, transmission heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 was also observed. The transmission of minor iSNVs resulted in at least 4 of the 30 substitutions identified in the outbreak, highlighting the contribution of intra-host variants to population level viral diversity during rapid spread. Disease control activities, such as the frequency of population testing, quarantine during pre-symptomatic infection, and level of virus genomic surveillance should be adjusted in order to account for the increasing prevalence of the Delta variant worldwide.

12.
Emerging Markets Finance and Trade ; : 1-13, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1272890
13.
Heliyon ; 7(5): e07134, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240373

ABSTRACT

Most COVID-19 victims are old and die from unrelated causes. Here we present twelve complete autopsies, including two rapid autopsies of young patients where the cause of death was COVID-19 ARDS. The main virus induced pathology was in the lung parenchyma and not in the airways. Most coagulation events occurred in the intra-alveolar and not in the intra-vascular space and the few thrombi were mainly composed of aggregated thrombocytes. The dominant inflammatory response was the massive accumulation of CD163 + macrophages and the disappearance of T killer, NK and B-cells. The virus was replicating in the pneumocytes and macrophages but not in bronchial epithelium, endothelium, pericytes or stromal cells. The lung consolidations were produced by a massive regenerative response, stromal and epithelial proliferation and neovascularization. We suggest that thrombocyte aggregation inhibition, angiogenesis inhibition and general proliferation inhibition may have a roll in the treatment of advanced COVID-19 ARDS.

14.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(1):16-22, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1190522

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads rapidly and widely in the world, which is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets and contact with contaminated media. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 was found to have a similar stability to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) by analyzing its survival time on different subject surfaces and main influencing factors in related research. SARS-CoV-2 can survive for several days at various subject surfaces or media at room temperature (stainless steel: 2 days, plastic: 3 days, glass: 4 days, etc.), and SARS-CoV-2 can persist for longer time at low temperature and low relative humidity, which has caused severe threat to public health and has posed severe challenges to the prevention and control of COVID-19. According to available data, SARS-CoV-2 has the characteristics of high infectiousness and high covertness, similar to influenza A virus. By understanding the survival potential and infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2 in environment, targeted disinfection and effective protection can be implemented to reduce the incidence of COVID-19.

15.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21251940

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impose a significant burden on global health infrastructure. While identification and containment of new cases remains important, laboratories must now pivot and consider assessment of SARS-CoV-2 immunity in the setting of the recent availability of multiple COVID-19 vaccines. Here we have utilized the latest Abbott Alinity semi-quantitative IgM and quantitative IgG spike protein (SP) serology assays (IgMSP and IgGSP) in combination with Abbott Alinity IgG nucleocapsid (NC) antibody test (IgGNC) to assess antibody responses in a cohort of 1236 unique participants comprised of naive, SARS-CoV-2 infected, and vaccinated (including both naive and recovered) individuals. The IgMSP and IgGSP assays were highly specific (100%) with no cross-reactivity to archived samples recovered prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, including those from individuals with seasonal coronavirus infections. Clinical sensitivity was 96% after 15 days for both IgMSP and IgGSP assays individually. When considered together, the sensitivity was 100%. A combination of NC- and SP-specific serologic assays clearly differentiated naive, SARS-CoV-2-infected, and vaccine-related immune responses. Vaccination resulted in a significant increase in IgGSP and IgMSP titers, with a major rise in IgGSP following the booster (second) dose in the naive group. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 recovered individuals had several fold higher IgGSP responses than naive following the primary dose, with a comparatively dampened response following the booster. This work illustrates the strong clinical performance of these new serological assays and their utility in evaluating and distinguishing serological responses to infection and vaccination.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 814, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065864

ABSTRACT

On the basis of Covid-19-induced pulmonary pathological and vascular changes, we hypothesize that the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug bevacizumab might be beneficial for treating Covid-19 patients. From Feb 15 to April 5, 2020, we conducted a single-arm trial (NCT04275414) and recruited 26 patients from 2-centers (China and Italy) with severe Covid-19, with respiratory rate ≥30 times/min, oxygen saturation ≤93% with ambient air, or partial arterial oxygen pressure to fraction of inspiration O2 ratio (PaO2/FiO2) >100 mmHg and ≤300 mmHg, and diffuse pneumonia confirmed by chest imaging. Followed up for 28 days. Among these, bevacizumab plus standard care markedly improves the PaO2/FiO2 ratios at days 1 and 7. By day 28, 24 (92%) patients show improvement in oxygen-support status, 17 (65%) patients are discharged, and none show worsen oxygen-support status nor die. Significant reduction of lesion areas/ratios are shown in chest computed tomography (CT) or X-ray within 7 days. Of 14 patients with fever, body temperature normalizes within 72 h in 13 (93%) patients. Relative to comparable controls, bevacizumab shows clinical efficacy by improving oxygenation and shortening oxygen-support duration. Our findings suggest bevacizumab plus standard care is highly beneficial for patients with severe Covid-19. Randomized controlled trial is warranted.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Body Temperature/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Fever/prevention & control , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
17.
Front Psychol ; 11: 576515, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902442

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the medical staff was facing severe work pressure, which led to a negative emotional state. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the family environment and the emotional state of the medical staff members during the COVID-19 outbreak. Due to the importance of self-efficacy in regulating mental health, the mediating role of self-efficacy in the association between family environment and emotional state was also explored. A cross-sectional survey was performed, using an online questionnaire, on 645 medical staff who participated in the epidemic prevention and control tasks during the COVID-19 outbreak in Beijing. Family environment, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were measured by the Family Environment Scale-Chinese Version (FES-CV), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7), and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), respectively. Correlation analysis and mediating effect analysis were used to explore the relationships between them. First, a higher prevalence of anxiety (39%) and depressive (33%) symptoms were confirmed among the medical staff. Second, the symptoms of anxiety and depression were negatively correlated with the dimensions of cohesion and expressiveness and positively correlated with the dimensions of conflict in the FES-CV scale. Third, self-efficacy significantly mediated the association between the family environment and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001) as well as the family environment and depressive symptoms (P < 0.001). These findings show that a negative family environment was the main predictor of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the medical staff during the COVID-19 outbreak. Furthermore, we found that self-efficacy played a critical mediating role between the family environment and the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Our study also indicates that improvements in the family environment benefit the mental health care of the medical staff, and high self-efficacy enhances this effect.

18.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1730

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a viral respiratory disease caused by the severe acute respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with this disea

20.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(4): 514-518, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-785841

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak impacts physical and mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the levels of social support and mental health among Chinese adolescents during the outbreak. METHODS: A total of 7,202 adolescents aged 14-18 years completed online survceys from March 8 to 15, 2020, in China. Researchers assessed the associations between depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety symptoms (Chinese version of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale), and social support (Social Support Rate Scale). RESULTS: COVID-19 exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of depression symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.66) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.04-1.52). Only 24.6% of adolescents reported high levels of social support. Most adolescents (70%) reported medium levels of support, and 5.4% reported low support. Low support was associated with higher prevalence of depression (OR = 4.24, 95% CI: 3.38-5.33) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.18, 95% CI: 2.54-3.98), while controlling for gender, grade, living situation, and COVID-19 exposure; similarly, medium support was associated with higher prevalence of depression (OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 2.48-3.15) and anxiety (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.94-2.48) symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates there is a higher prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents with medium and low levels of social support in China during the outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychology, Adolescent , Social Support , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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