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1.
iScience ; 25(12): 105479, 2022 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095532

ABSTRACT

The repetitive applications of vaccine boosters have been brought up in face of continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with neutralization escape mutations, but their protective efficacy and potential adverse effects remain largely unknown. Here, we compared the humoral and cellular immune responses of an extended course of recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD) vaccine boosters with those from conventional immunization strategy in a Balb/c mice model. Multiple vaccine boosters after the conventional vaccination course significantly decreased RBD-specific antibody titers and serum neutralizing efficacy against the Delta and Omicron variants, and profoundly impaired CD4+ and CD8+T cell activation and increased PD-1 and LAG-3 expressions in these T cells. Mechanistically, we confirmed that extended vaccination with RBD boosters overturned the protective immune memories by promoting adaptive immune tolerance. Our findings demonstrate potential risks with the continuous use of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine boosters, providing immediate implications for the global COVID-19 vaccination enhancement strategies.

2.
Science & Technology Review ; 39(15):135-141, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2055556

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, COVID-19 outbroke in many countries around the world. Governments of various countries have since adopted diversified prevention and control measures to control the epidemic. Among them, AI has been an important auxiliary means that plays a unique role in prevention and control of COVID-19. The practical scenarios of AI assisting the prevention and control of COVID-19 have been focused on research field, mainly including epidemic monitoring and early warning, medical diagnosis, virus and drug research and development. The application of AI technology has significant effects on controlling the spread of the epidemic, alleviating the pressure of diagnosis and treatment and improving the efficiency of research and development. At the same time, AI is still facing practical problems such as regulations and ethics, data security, and algorithmic bias. Based on this, suggestions such as perfecting laws and regulations, ensuring data security, and strengthening talent training are proposed.

3.
Ocean Coast Manag ; 229: 106338, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004391

ABSTRACT

A container shipping network connects coastal countries with each other and facilitates most of the world merchandise trade. Reliable maritime connectivity ensures the availability of commodities and economic growth. The global spread of COVID-19 has led to port failures and service cancellations, resulting in decreased connectivity level of container ports. To mitigate the impact of the pandemic, a graph theory approach is proposed to strength the container shipping network connectivity by considering topology and the possibility of opening new shipping links between ports. It is designed to maximize network connectivity with limited addable routes. The network connectivity is measured by algebraic connectivity, and the possibility of opening new shipping links is estimated by an extended gravity model. A heuristic algorithm based on Fiedler vector is introduced to obtain the optimal solutions. The performance of the proposed model and algorithm are verified by testing on a real-world container shipping network based on the Alphaliner database. Experimental results illustrate that the presented model is efficient and effective for strengthening the connectivity. Policy makers can refer to the suggested optimal shipping links to facilitate better shipping network connectivity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1950-1958, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937611

ABSTRACT

Using a three-prefecture, two-variant COVID-19 outbreak in Henan province in January 2022, we evaluated the associations of primary and booster immunization with China-produced COVID-19 vaccines and COVID-19 pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 viral load among persons infected by Delta or Omicron variant. We obtained demographic, clinical, vaccination, and multiple Ct values of infections ≥3 years of age. Vaccination status was either primary series ≥180 days prior to infection; primary series <180 days prior to infection, or booster dose recipient. We used logistic regression to determine odds ratios (OR) of Delta and Omicron COVID-19 pneumonia by vaccination status. We analysed minimum Ct values by vaccination status, age, and variant. Of 826 eligible cases, 405 were Delta and 421 were Omicron cases; 48.9% of Delta and 19.0% of Omicron cases had COVID-19 pneumonia. Compared with full primary vaccination ≥180 days before infection, the aOR of pneumonia was 0.48 among those completing primary vaccination <180 days and 0.18 among booster recipients among these Delta infections. Among Omicron infections, the corresponding aOR was 0.34 among those completing primary vaccination <180 days. There were too few (ten) Omicron cases among booster dose recipients to calculate a reliable OR. There were no differences in minimum Ct values by vaccination status among the 356 Delta cases or 70 Omicron cases. COVID-19 pneumonia was less common among Omicron cases than Delta cases. Full primary vaccination reduced pneumonia effectively for 6 months; boosting six months after primary vaccination resulted in further reduction. We recommend accelerating the pace of booster dose administration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
5.
Ann Tour Res ; 94: 103402, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889199

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes a new foresight approach to estimate the impact of public health emergencies on hotel demand. The forecasting-based influence evaluation consists of four modules: decomposing hotel demand before an emergency, matching each decomposed component to a forecasting model, combining the predictions as the expected demand after the emergency, and estimating the impact by comparing actual demand against that predicted. The method is applied to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on Macao's hotel industry. The empirical results show that: 1) the new approach accurately estimates COVID-19's impact on hotel demand; 2) the seasonal and industry development components contribute significantly to the estimate of expected demand; 3) COVID-19's impact is heterogeneous across hotel services.

6.
Phytochemistry ; 201: 113284, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886026

ABSTRACT

In this work, a bioassay-guided fractionation strategy was used to isolate 26 phenolic compounds from the ethyl acetate partition of an ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC. Among them, 8 prenylated phenolic compounds (glycyuralins Q-X) were described for the first time. The two enantiomers of glycyuralin Q were purified and their absolute configurations were established by ECD spectral calculations. (1″R, 2″S)-glycyuralin Q and (1″S, 2″R)-glycyuralin Q showed significant inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2 virus proteases 3CLpro with IC50 values of 1.5 ± 1.0 and 4.0 ± 0.3 µM, and PLpro with IC50 values of 2.4 ± 0.2 and 1.9 ± 0.1 µM, respectively. Four compounds showed potent cytotoxic activities against A549, Huh-7, and HepG2 human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 µM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Glycyrrhiza , Humans , Phenols/pharmacology , Plant Components, Aerial , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 2266023, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794383

ABSTRACT

Objective: Zuojin pill (ZJP) is used as the classical prescription for a wide variety of digestive diseases. However, there is a lack of direct evidence for its use in the treatment of chronic nonatrophic gastritis (CNG). In particular, there is a lack of rigorous trials of randomized controlled designs. In this study, a randomized active-controlled clinical trial was performed to verify the efficacy and safety of ZJP in detail. Methods: Patients with CNG were divided into the ZJP group and the Marzulene-S granule group. Patients were enrolled from September 2019 to February 2021 (ChiCTR2000040549). Endoscopy and histology scores were evaluated as the primary outcome measure. The Helicobacter pylori positive rate and the disappearance rate of symptoms were also measured to reflect the outcomes. Finally, adverse events were also calculated as the index of safety. Results: A total of 68 eligible patients were enrolled in this trial and randomly divided into two groups with baseline comparability. ZJP was able to improve the red plaques as well as bile reflux scores compared with Marzulene-S granule (P=0.043 and P=0.019, respectively). Moreover, it also remarkably alleviated the active chronic inflammation score (P=0.043). However, there was no difference between the Helicobacter pylori positivity rate (P=0.752). The symptom scores of abdominal distension (P=0.004), belching (P=0.010), and loss of appetite (P=0.019) were alleviated by ZJP, but nausea and vomiting were not (P=0.616). ZJP can also be considered safe with no obvious adverse effects. Conclusion: ZJP might decrease mucosal injury and alleviate symptoms in CNG. In addition, more large-scale clinical trials should be carried out to further confirm its clinical efficacy and safety.

9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332712

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare thromboembolic complication of adenoviral-vectored SARS-CoV2 vaccines, mediated by antibodies directed against platelet factor 4 (PF4). Given their causal role in VITT, identification of the molecular composition of anti-PF4 antibodies is crucial for developing better diagnostics and treatments. Here, we utilised a novel proteomic workflow to analyse the immunoglobulin variable (IgV) region composition of anti-PF4 antibodies at the level of the secreted proteome. Serum anti-PF4 IgG antibodies from five patients with VITT triggered by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination were affinity purified by PF4-coupled magnetic beads and sequenced by mass spectrometry. We revealed a single IgG heavy (H)-chain species paired with a single lambda light (L)-chain species in all five unrelated patients. Remarkably, all L-chains were encoded by the identical IGLV3-21*02 gene subfamily with identical L-chain third complementarity determining region (LCDR3) lengths. Moreover, striking stereotypic features were also identified in heavy-chains anti-PF4 antibodies characterised by identical HCDR3 length and homologous sequences. In summary, we unravelled the molecular signature of highly stereotyped clonotypic anti-PF4 antibodies, indicating shared pathways of antibody production in VITT patients. These discoveries are critical to understand the molecular basis of this serious condition and develop novel therapies aimed at removing pathogenic clones.

10.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22272975

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare thromboembolic complication of adenoviral-vectored SARS-CoV2 vaccines, mediated by antibodies directed against platelet factor 4 (PF4). Given their causal role in VITT, identification of the molecular composition of anti-PF4 antibodies is crucial for developing better diagnostics and treatments. Here, we utilised a novel proteomic workflow to analyse the immunoglobulin variable (IgV) region composition of anti-PF4 antibodies at the level of the secreted proteome. Serum anti-PF4 IgG antibodies from five patients with VITT triggered by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination were affinity purified by PF4-coupled magnetic beads and sequenced by mass spectrometry. We revealed a single IgG heavy (H)-chain species paired with a single lambda light (L)-chain species in all five unrelated patients. Remarkably, all L-chains were encoded by the identical IGLV3-21*02 gene subfamily with identical L-chain third complementarity determining region (LCDR3) lengths. Moreover, striking stereotypic features were also identified in heavy-chains anti-PF4 antibodies characterised by identical HCDR3 length and homologous sequences. In summary, we unravelled the molecular signature of highly stereotyped clonotypic anti-PF4 antibodies, indicating shared pathways of antibody production in VITT patients. These discoveries are critical to understand the molecular basis of this serious condition and develop novel therapies aimed at removing pathogenic clones. KEY POINTSO_LIAnti-PF4 antibodies in VITT comprise highly stereotyped clonotype C_LIO_LIA single IGLV3-21*02 encoded light chain is found in unrelated patients C_LI

11.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(6): 847-858, 2021 Dec 25.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729047

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of this century, three types of coronavirus have widely transmitted and caused severe diseases and deaths, which strongly indicates that severe infectious diseases caused by coronavirus infection are not accidental events. Coronavirus-infected diseases are mainly manifested by respiratory symptoms, with multiple organ dysfunctions. Precisely investigating the pathological process, characteristics and pathogenesis of coronavirus-infected diseases will be beneficial for us to understand clinical manifestations and provide targeted suggestions on prophylaxis and treatment. This paper briefly reviews the pathological findings of three known coronavirus-infected diseases, and attempts to construct the pathological spectrum of coronavirus-infected diseases, aiming to provide reference and thinking for autopsy, histopathological examination and animal infection model study of coronavirus-infected diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Autopsy , Forensic Pathology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329378

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the accuracy of clusters of regularly spaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPR) technology and chest CT in the diagnosis of Corona Virus Disease2019(COVID-19). Methods: The term "Corona Virus Disease " "clustered regularly spaced short palindromic repeats" "CRISPR", "chest CT", "sensitivity and specificity" as the subject words or keywords were searched in databases such as Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wiley and Scopus and Chinese academic databases (such as CNKI, Wanfang and Chongqing VIP data) for relevant literature on the use of CRISPR technology and chest CT for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Meta-analysis was performed after literature screening, quality assessment and data extraction . Results: A total of 418 articles were retrieved, and 17 articles were finally included. The results showed that the combined sensitivity of CRISPR technology for diagnosing new coronary pneumonia infection was 0.96 [95% CI (0.93, 0.98)], and the combined specificity was 1.00 [95% CI (0.92, 1.00)], the combined positive likelihood ratio is 458.69 [95%CI (11.51, 18280.8)], the combined negative likelihood ratio is 0.04 [95% CI (0.02, 0.07)], the area under the SROC curve is 0.99 [95%CI(0.97,0.99)]. The combined sensitivity of chest CT in diagnosing new coronary pneumonia infection was 0.94 [95%CI (0.83, 0.98)], combined specificity was 0.55 [95% CI (0.22, 0.83)], combined diagnostic odds ratio was 19.90 [95% CI (7.88, 50.25)], the combined positive likelihood ratio is 2.08 [95%CI (1.00, 4.32)], the combined negative likelihood ratio is 0.10 [95% CI (0.05, 0.23)], the area under the SROC curve is 0.91 [95% CI (0.88, 0.93)]. The Deek funnel chart indicates that there is no potential publication bias among the included studies (PCRISPR = 0.03, P chest CT = 0.55). Conclusion: CRISPR technology has a better ability to detect infections in patients with COVID-19, and is better than chest CT in disease diagnosis. CRISPR technology, especially non-SHERLOCK type and multi-target gene detection, can be used to diagnose COVID-19 with higher accuracy ,and can be used for large-scale population screening.

13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2029257, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692309

ABSTRACT

This study is conducted to explore the association between health behaviors and the COVID-19 vaccination based on the risk compensation concept among health-care workers in Taizhou, China. We conducted a self-administered online survey to estimate the health behaviors among the staff in a tertiary hospital in Taizhou, China, from May 18 to 21 May 2021. A total of 592 out of 660 subjects (89.7%) responded to the questionnaire after receiving an e-poster on WeChat. Subjects who had been inoculated with the COVID-19 vaccine were asked to mention the differences in their health behaviors before and after the vaccination. The results showed that there were no statistical differences in health behaviors between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, except in terms of the type of gloves they used (62.8% in the vaccinated group and 49.2% in the unvaccinated group, p = .048). Subjects who received earlier COVID-19 vaccinations exhibited better health behaviors (22.40% increased for duration of wearing masks (P = .007), 25.40% increased for times of washing hands (P = .01), and 20.90% increased for times of wearing gloves (P = .01)). Subjects also revealed better health behaviors (washing hands, wearing gloves, and wearing masks) after vaccination compared to that before. In conclusion, concept of risk compensation was not applied in our findings. The health behaviors did not reduce after the COVID-19 vaccination, which even may improve health behaviors among health-care workers in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325346

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and differences in etiology, clinical manifestations, and psychological activity of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) among patients. Results We recruited 90 subjects, 30 were healthy controls, 30 were patients with moderate infection, and 30 were patients with severe/critical infections. No significant differences were noted in the sex ratio, mean age, body mass index, or blood type;however, the history of exposure of the patients with COVID-19 compared with healthy controls was noteworthy. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, as well as the levels of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A (SAA) were all increased. In terms of mental health, there were significant differences in the worry scores between severely and moderately infected patients and healthy controls. There was a significant difference in depression scores between patients with moderate infection and healthy hypertension, and there was also a significant difference in dream worry scores. Analysis of the Mini-Mental State Examination scores showed that for patients with moderate infection, the depression score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety score. For patients with severe infection, the anxiety score was positively correlated with the dream anxiety score, and the depression score was moderately and positively correlated with the dream anxiety score. Conclusion Patients with severe infection showed increased pain and sputum in the pharyngeal area compared with patients with moderate infection. Patients with blood type A may be more susceptible to COVID-19, and lymphopenia may indicate worsening of COVID-19.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325344

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a cluster of coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. With the advent of the Chinese Spring Festival, this disease spread rapidly throughout the country. The information about the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients outside of Wuhan is limited. Methods All of the patients with confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to the First Hospital of Changsha City, the designated hospital for COVID-19 assigned by the Changsha City Government. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics, data of laboratory, radiological picture, treatment, and outcomes records of 201 COVID-19 patients were collected using electronic medical records. Results This study population consisted of 201 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Changsha by February 15, 2020. The median age of the patients was 45 years (IQR 34–59). About half (50.7%) of the patients were male, and most of the infected patients were staff (96 [47.8%]). Concerning the epidemiologic history, the number of patients linked to Wuhan was 92 (45.8%). The most common symptoms were fever (125 [62.2%]), dry cough (118 [58.7%]), fatigue (65 [32.3%]), and pharyngalgia (31 [15.4%]). One hundred and forty-four (71.6%) enrolled patients showed bilateral pneumonia. Fifty-four (26.9%) patients showed unilateral involvement, and three (1.5%) patients showed no abnormal signs or symptoms. The laboratory findings differed significantly between the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and non-ICU groups. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had depressed white blood cell (WBC), neutrocytes, lymphocytes, and prolonged prothrombin time (PT). Moreover, higher plasma levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), alanine aminotransferase (ALA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), creatinine (CREA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected in the ICU group. Conclusions In this single-center study of 201 COVID-19 patients in Changsha, China, 22.4% of patients were admitted to ICU. Based on our findings, we propose that the risk of cellular immune deficiency, hepatic injury, and kidney injury should be monitored. Previous reports focused on the clinical features of patients from Wuhan, China. With the global epidemic of COVID-19, we should pay more attention to the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients outside of Wuhan.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325343

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a cluster of coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. With the advent of the Chinese Spring Festival, this disease spread rapidly throughout the country. The information about the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients outside of Wuhan is limited. Methods: : All of the patients with confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to the First Hospital of Changsha City, the designated hospital for COVID-19 assigned by the Changsha City Government. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics, data of laboratory, radiological picture, treatment, and outcomes records of 201 COVID-19 patients were collected using electronic medical records. Results: : This study population consisted of 201 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Changsha by April 28, 2020. The median age of the patients was 45 years (IQR 34–59). About half (50.7%) of the patients were male, and most of the infected patients were staff (96 [47.8%]). Concerning the epidemiologic history, the number of patients linked to Wuhan was 92 (45.8%). The most common symptoms were fever (125 [62.2%]), dry cough (118 [58.7%]), fatigue (65 [32.3%]), and pharyngalgia (31 [15.4%]). One hundred and forty-four (71.6%) enrolled patients showed bilateral pneumonia. Fifty-four (26.9%) patients showed unilateral involvement, and three (1.5%) patients showed no abnormal signs or symptoms. The laboratory findings differed significantly between the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and non-ICU groups. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had depressed white blood cell (WBC), neutrocytes, lymphocytes, and prolonged prothrombin time (PT). Moreover, higher plasma levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), alanine aminotransferase (ALA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), creatinine (CREA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were detected in the ICU group. Conclusions: : In this single-center study of 201 COVID-19 patients in Changsha, China, 22.4% of patients were admitted to ICU. Based on our findings, we propose that the risk of cellular immune deficiency, hepatic injury, and kidney injury should be monitored. Previous reports focused on the clinical features of patients from Wuhan, China. With the global epidemic of COVID-19, we should pay more attention to the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients outside of Wuhan.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322242

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the correlations between serum calcium and clinical severity and outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: In this clinical retrospective study, the levels of serum calcium, hormone levels and clinical laboratory parameters of admission were recorded. The clinical severity and outcome variables were also recorded. Results: From February 10 to February 28 2020, 241 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 180 (74.7%) had hypocalcemia on admission. The median serum calcium levels were 2.12 (IQR, 2.04-2.20) mmol/L, median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were 55.27 (IQR, 42.73-73.15) pg/mL, median 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (VD) levels were 10.20 (IQR, 8.20-12.65) ng/mL. The serum calcium levels were significantly positive correlated with VD levels (P =0.004), whereas negative correlated with PTH levels (P = 0.048). Patients with lower serum calcium levels (especially ≤2.0 mmol/L) had worse clinical parameters, higher incidence of organ injury septic shock and higher 28-day mortality. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, septic shock, and 28-day mortality were 0.923 (P <0.001), 0.905 (P =0.001), and 0.929 (P <0.001), respectively. The overall mortality of COVID-19 was 4.1% (10/241), whereas the mortality of critical patients was up to 40.0% (10/25). Conclusions: Serum calcium was associated with clinical severity and prognosis of patients with COVID-19. Hypocalcemia may be associated with imbalanced VD and PTH.

18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 757113, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648939

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Chinese female nurses during the controlled coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) period and explore its associated socio-demographic factors and job characteristics. Methods: With the multistage, stratified sampling method, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted from September to October 2020 in China. The survey tool included revised Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with 15 items, socio-demographic and job characteristics. Univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate factor logistic regression analysis were used to identify the risk factors for burnout of female nurses. Results: During controlled COVID-19 period in China, the overall prevalence of burnout symptoms among Chinese female nurses was 60.2% with a breakdown in severity as follows: 451 (39.8 %) mild, 163 (14.4%) moderate, and 68 (6.0%) severe burnout. Little variance was reported for burnout symptoms according to job tenure (Waldχ 2 = 14.828, P < 0.05,odds ratio [OR] <1), monthly salary income (Waldχ 2 = 12.460, P < 0.05, OR <1), and night shift (Waldχ 2 = 3.821, P < 0.05, OR > 1). Conclusion: Burnout symptoms among Chinese female nurses were prevalent and associated with job tenure, monthly salary income, and night shift. Female nurses who were with shorter job tenure, worked at night shifts, and had lower monthly salaries tended to exhibit increasing high-level burnout than their counterparts. This study serves as an implication for administrators and policy-makers to improve the work conditions of nurses for promoting overall healthcare service quality.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 130, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551216

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still spread and has made a severe public health threat around the world. To improve disease progression, emerging Chinese herbal compounds were used in clinical practice and some agents have proven beneficial in treating COVID-19. Here, the relevant literature from basic researches to clinical application were identified and comprehensively assessed. A variety of Chinese herbal compounds have been reported to be effective in improving symptoms and outcomes in patients with COVID-19, particularly together with routine treatment strategy. The pharmacological activities were mainly attributed to the relief of clinical symptoms, inhibition of cytokine storm, and improvement of organ function. Besides, the development of novel antiviral drugs from medicinal herbs were further discussed. The updated laboratory and clinical studies provided the evidence of Chinese herbal compounds such as Lianhua Qingwen prescription, Shufeng Jiedu prescription, and Qingfei Paidu Tang for the relief of COVID-19. However, both of the randomized controlled trials and real world researches need to be done for supporting the evidence including the efficacy and safety in fighting COVID-19.

20.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534188

ABSTRACT

Digital microfluidic (DMF) has been a unique tool for manipulating micro-droplets with high flexibility and accuracy. To extend the application of DMF for automatic and in-site detection, it is promising to introduce colorimetric sensing based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which have advantages including high sensitivity, label-free, biocompatibility, and easy surface modification. However, there is still a lack of studies for investigating the movement and stability of AuNPs for in-site detection on the electrowetting-based digital microfluidics. Herein, to demonstrate the ability of DMF for colorimetric sensing with AuNPs, we investigated the electrowetting property of the AuNPs droplets on the hydrophobic interface of the DMF chip and examined the stability of the AuNPs on DMF as well as the influence of evaporation to the colorimetric sensing. As a result, we found that the electrowetting of AuNPs fits to a modified Young-Lippmann equation, which suggests that a higher voltage is required to actuate AuNPs droplets compared with actuating water droplets. Moreover, the stability of AuNPs was maintained during the processing of electrowetting. We also proved that the evaporation of droplets has a limited influence on the detections that last several minutes. Finally, a model experiment for the detection of Hg2+ was carried out with similar results to the detections in bulk solution. The proposed method can be further extended to a wide range of AuNPs-based detection for label-free, automatic, and low-cost detection of small molecules, biomarkers, and metal ions.

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