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Sustainability ; 14(5):2574, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1742635


This study explored the differences in the effects of collective intelligence and references on open innovation between open and closed access journals. This study analyzed the moderating effect of references on the motivation of collective intelligence on open innovation from 2003 to 2006 and 2013 to 2016, considered to be the digital transformation era. The Scopus database on open and closed access journals was used for ordinary regression analysis. During the 2003–2006 period, only papers in closed access journals demonstrated sufficient effect of collective intelligence and reference on open innovation and the effective moderating role of reference. However, between 2013 and 2016, papers in open and closed access journals demonstrated the incentive effects of collective intelligence and references on citation and the moderating role of references on the correlation between collective intelligence and citation. The increase in digital transformation strengthens the collective intelligence and references of open access journals, and citations of open access journals nearly surpass those of closed access journals.