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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 442, 2023 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186073

ABSTRACT

Non-invasive oxygen saturation (SpO2) is a central vital sign used to shape the management of COVID-19 patients. Yet, there have been no report quantitatively describing SpO2 dynamics and patterns in COVID-19 patients using continuous SpO2 recordings. We performed a retrospective observational analysis of the clinical information and 27 K hours of continuous SpO2 high-resolution (1 Hz) recordings of 367 critical and non-critical COVID-19 patients hospitalised at the Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel. An absolute SpO2 threshold of 93% most efficiently discriminated between critical and non-critical patients, regardless of oxygen support. Oximetry-derived digital biomarker (OBMs) computed per 1 h monitoring window showed significant differences between groups, notably the cumulative time below 93% SpO2 (CT93). Patients with CT93 above 60% during the first hour of monitoring, were more likely to require oxygen support. Mechanical ventilation exhibited a strong effect on SpO2 dynamics by significantly reducing the frequency and depth of desaturations. OBMs related to periodicity and hypoxic burden were markedly affected, up to several hours before the initiation of the mechanical ventilation. In summary, OBMs, traditionally used in the field of sleep medicine research, are informative for continuous assessment of disease severity and response to respiratory support of hospitalised COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, OBMs may improve risk stratification and therapy management of critical care patients with respiratory impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Oximetry , Oxygen , Respiratory Rate
2.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift ; 109(Artikel 11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025202

ABSTRACT

We have evaluated the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic point-of-care tests (POCT) for the detection of rotavirus, coronavirus, Escherichia (E.) coli F5, Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum, Clostridium (Cl.) perfringens and Giardia (G.) intestinalis in fresh and thawed faecal samples from calves aged up to six months with diarrhoea. We performed POCTs to detect rotavirus, coronavirus, E. coli F5, C. parvum, Cl. perfringens and G. intestinalis on fresh samples in a field study and re-evaluated the performance for C. parvum, Cl. perfringens and G. intestinalis using thawed samples. We calculated the performance based on the results of the reference methods, which were RT-qPCR for the detection of rota- and coronavirus and bacteriological culturing and PCR to detect E. coli F5 and Cl. perfringens a and ss2 toxins. C. parvum was detected by phase-contrast microscopy and G. intestinalis by immunofluorescence microscopy. We collected 177 faecal samples from diarrhoeic calves. We found good performance for the POCT targeting rotavirus (sensitivity (SE)=92.9%;specificity (SP)=95.6%) and C. parvum (SE=63.3%;SP=96.2%). For E. coli F5, the number of true positive samples (n=1) was too low to evaluate the performance. The POCT to detect coronavirus gave a poor performance (SE=3.3%;SP=96.6%) and the POCT to detect Cl. perfringens a moderate performance (SE=52.8%;SP=78.2%). G. intestinalis POCT showed a higher sensitivity to immunofluorescence microscopy in thawed than in fresh faecal samples (SE=43.9% versus SE=29.2%). There are substantial differences in diagnostic performance between the commercially available immunochromatographic POCTs. Still, POCT can make a valuable contribution to the diagnosis and prevention of calf diarrhoea.

3.
Cardiovascular Journal of Africa ; 33(SUPPL):61, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1766887

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Studies show that children account for only 1-5% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases, they have milder disease than adults and deaths are extremely rare. The complete clinical picture of pediatric COVID-19 has not yet been fully reported or defined. Additionally, the South African pediatric population has unique clinical characteristics and risk implications and needs investigating. We aimed to characterize COVID-19 in Cape Town children. Methods: The UCT COVID-19 pediatric repository is a prospective cohort recruited via convenience sampling at 3 Western Cape Hospitals. All patients ≤ 18 years who test COVID-19 positive are eligible for inclusion in the study. Results: To date 227 participants, 56%(125/227) male with median age 2 years (IQR:0-6), have been enrolled. Only 28(12%) participants were in contact with a confirmed COVID-19 positive case, 67% of these, were first degree relatives, 28% second degree relatives and 6% health care workers. Comorbidities were present in 125(56%) participants. Of 32 recorded comorbidities, congenital heart disease (CHD), found in 7% of participants, ranked third. CHD subtypes included PDA (4), Tetralogy of Fallot (3), AVSD (2), Pulmonary atresia with VSD (2), truncus arteriosus (1), Coarctation of the Aorta (1), Congenital aortic valve stenosis (1), and ASD (1). Other cardiac comorbidities were, cardiomyopathy (2), primary pulmonary hypertension (1) and rhabdomyoma (1). On presentation 173 (76%) were symptomatic. Predominant symptoms included cough 40%, history of fever 36%, documented fever 34%, difficulty breathing 28%, and nausea or vomiting 20%. On examination, 65% had abnormal heart rates, 47% abnormal respiratory rates, 35% were in respiratory distress and 24% were hypoxic. Of the 227 patients, 169(74%) were admitted to hospital and 33 (15%) were admitted to ICU. In the ICU 79% of patients required non-invasive and 24% invasive ventilation, median length of ICU admission was 3 days (IQR:2-7.5). During admission 38(17%) patients developed COVID-19 complications: secondary infection 10%, sepsis 4%, MIS-C 2%, and myocarditis or new onset heart failure 1%) and 2(0.9%) died, including one patient with AVSD, who presented with severe pulmonary hypertension and acute heart failure post cardiac surgery. Conclusion: We present the initial findings of the UCT pediatric COVID-19 registry. We anticipate that these data will help to complete the clinical picture of COVID-19 in the South African pediatric population.

4.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.09.26.21264135

ABSTRACT

BackgroundNon-invasive oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement is a central vital sign that supports the management of COVID-19 patients. However, reports on SpO2 characteristics (patterns and dynamics) are scarce and none, to our knowledge, has analysed high resolution continuous SpO2 in COVID-19. MethodsSpO2 signal sampled at 1Hz and clinical data were collected from COVID-19 departments at the Rambam Health Care Campus (Haifa, Israel) between May 1st, 2020 and February 1st, 2021. Data from a total of 367 COVID-19 patients, totalling 27K hours of continuous SpO2 recording, could be retrieved, including 205 non-critical and 162 critical cases. Desaturations based on different SpO2 threshold definitions and oximetry derived digital biomarkers (OBMs) were extracted and compared across severity and support levels. FindingsAn absolute SpO2 threshold at 93% was the most efficient in discriminating between critical and non-critical patients without support or under oxygen support. Under no support, the non-critical group depicted a fold change (FC) of 1 {middle dot}8 times more frequent desaturations compared to the critical group. However, the hypoxic burden was 1 {middle dot}6 times more important in critical versus non-critical patients. Other OBMs depicted significant differences, notably the percentage of time below 93% SpO2 (CT93) was the most discriminating OBM. Mechanical ventilation depicted a strong effect on SpO2 by significantly reducing the frequency (1 {middle dot}85 FC) and depth (1 {middle dot}21 FC) of desaturations. OBMs related to periodicity and hypoxic burden were markedly affected up to several hours before the initiation of the mechanical ventilation. InterpretationThis is the first report investigating continuous SpO2 measurements in hospitalized patients affected with COVID-19. SpO2 characteristics differ between critical and non-critical patients and are impacted by the level of support. OBMs from high resolution SpO2 signal may enable to anticipate clinically relevant events, monitoring of treatment response and may be indicative of future deterioration. FundingThe Milner Foundation, The Placide Nicod fundation and the Technion Machine Learning and Intelligent Systems center (MLIS).


Subject(s)
Hypoxia , COVID-19
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 656405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247875

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a newly recognized illness with a predominantly respiratory presentation. It is important to characterize the differences in disease presentation and trajectory between COVID-19 patients and other patients with common respiratory illnesses. These differences can enhance knowledge of pathogenesis and help in guiding treatment. Methods: Data from electronic medical records were obtained from individuals admitted with respiratory illnesses to Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel, between October 1st, 2014 and October 1st, 2020. Four groups of patients were defined: COVID-19 (693), influenza (1,612), severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) (2,292), and Others (4,054). The variable analyzed include demographics (7), vital signs (8), lab tests (38), and comorbidities (15) from a total of 8,651 hospitalized adult patients. Statistical analysis was performed on biomarkers measured at admission and for their disease trajectory in the first 48 h of hospitalization, and on comorobidity prevalence. Results: COVID-19 patients were overall younger in age and had higher body mass index, compared to influenza and SARI. Comorbidity burden was lower in the COVID-19 group compared to influenza and SARI. Severely- and moderately-ill COVID-19 patients older than 65 years of age suffered higher rate of in-hospital mortality compared to hospitalized influenza patients. At admission, white blood cells and neutrophils were lower among COVID-19 patients compared to influenza and SARI patients, while pulse rate and lymphoctye percentage were higher. Trajectories of variables during the first 2 days of hospitalization revealed that white blood count, neutrophils percentage and glucose in blood increased among COVID-19 patients, while decreasing among other patients. Conclusions: The intrinsic virulence of COVID-19 appeared higher than influenza. In addition, several critical functions, such as immune response, coagulation, heart and respiratory function, and metabolism were uniquely affected by COVID-19.

6.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.11.19.20235077

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCOVID-19 is a newly recognized illness with a predominantly respiratory presentation. As winter approaches in the northern hemisphere, it is important to characterize the differences in disease presentation and trajectory between COVID-19 patients and other patients with common respiratory illnesses. These differences can enhance knowledge of pathogenesis and help in guiding treatment. MethodsData from electronic medical records were obtained from individuals admitted with respiratory illnesses to Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel, between October 1st, 2014 and September 1st, 2020. Four groups of patients were defined: COVID-19 (693), influenza (1,612), severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) (2,292) and Others (4,054). The variable analyzed include demographics (7), vital signs (8), lab tests (38), and comorbidities (15) from a total of 8,651 hospitalized adult patients. Statistical analysis was performed on biomarkers measured at admission and for their disease trajectory in the first 48 hours of hospitalization, and on comorobidity prevalence. ResultsCOVID-19 patients were overall younger in age and had higher body mass index, compared to influenza and SARI. Comorbidity burden was lower in the COVID-19 group compared to influenza and SARI. Severely- and moderately-ill COVID-19 patients older than 65 years of age suffered higher rate of in-hospital mortality compared to hospitalized influenza patients. At admission, white blood cells and neutrophils were lower among COVID-19 patients compared to influenza and SARI patients, while pulse rate and lymphoctye percentage were higher. Trajectories of variables during the first two days of hospitalization revealed that white blood count, neutrophils percentage and glucose in blood increased among COVID-19 patients, while decreasing among other patients. ConclusionsThe intrinsic virulence of COVID-19 appeared higher than influenza. In addition, several critical functions, such as immune response, coagulation, heart and respiratory function and metabolism were uniquely affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
7.
Physiol Meas ; 41(10): 10TR01, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780288

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is rapidly spreading across the globe. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requires early detection and monitoring, within a clinical environment for critical cases and remotely for mild cases, with a large spectrum of symptoms. The fear of contamination in clinical environments has led to a dramatic reduction in on-site referrals for routine care. There has also been a perceived need to continuously monitor non-severe COVID-19 patients, either from their quarantine site at home, or dedicated quarantine locations (e.g. hotels). In particular, facilitating contact tracing with proximity and location tracing apps was adopted in many countries very rapidly. Thus, the pandemic has driven incentives to innovate and enhance or create new routes for providing healthcare services at distance. In particular, this has created a dramatic impetus to find innovative ways to remotely and effectively monitor patient health status. In this paper, we present a review of remote health monitoring initiatives taken in 20 states during the time of the pandemic. We emphasize in the discussion particular aspects that are common ground for the reviewed states, in particular the future impact of the pandemic on remote health monitoring and consideration on data privacy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
8.
arxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-ARXIV | ID: ppzbmed-2005.08537v5

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is rapidly spreading across the globe. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia ranges from mild to critically ill cases and requires early detection and monitoring, within a clinical environment for critical cases and remotely for mild cases. The fear of contamination in clinical environments has led to a dramatic reduction in on-site referrals for routine care. There has also been a perceived need to continuously monitor non-severe COVID- 19 patients, either from their quarantine site at home, or dedicated quarantine locations (e.g., hotels). Thus, the pandemic has driven incentives to innovate and enhance or create new routes for providing healthcare services at distance. In particular, this has created a dramatic impetus to find innovative ways to remotely and effectively monitor patient health status. In this paper we present a short review of remote health monitoring initiatives taken in 19 states during the time of the pandemic. We emphasize in the discussion particular aspects that are common ground for the reviewed states, in particular the future impact of the pandemic on remote health monitoring and consideration on data privacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
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