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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329786

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a need for automated, high throughput assays to quantify immune response after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study assessed the combined utility of the Roche assays, Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (ACOV2S) and Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (ACOV2N) using samples from the 2019-nCoV vaccine (mRNA-1273, Spikevax™) phase 2 trial ( NCT04405076 ). Methods: Samples from 593 healthy participants in two age cohorts (18-54 years and ≥55 years), who received two injections with either placebo (n=198) or mRNA-1273 at a dose of either 50 ≥g (n=197) or 100 ≥g (n=198), were collected at Days 1 (first vaccination), 15, 29 (second vaccination), 43 and 57. ACOV2S results were used to assess the humoral response to vaccination in different clinical trial subgroups and were compared to a live virus microneutralization assay. Sample panels from patients with evidence of previous or concomitant infection (as identified using ACOV2N) or with an inconsistent antibody response pattern were analyzed separately. Results: Receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibodies were readily detectable by ACOV2S for the vast majority of participants (174/189 [50 ≥g dose group] and 178/192 [100 ≥g]) at the first time point of assessment, with non-converters predominantly older in age. Complete seroconversion for all participants was observed at the subsequent timepoint (Day 29) and before administration of the second dose of vaccine. Two weeks after the first vaccine dose (Day 15), geometric mean concentration (GMC) of antibody levels were 1.37-fold higher in the 100 ≥g compared with the 50 ≥g dose group;this difference reduced to 1.09-fold two weeks after the second dose (Day 43). In both the 50 ≥g and 100 ≥g dose groups, a more pronounced response was observed in the younger versus the older age group on Day 15 (2.49-fold and 3.94-fold higher GMC, respectively) and Day 43 (1.35-fold and 1.50-fold higher GMC). Few subjects had a previous or concomitant natural SARS-CoV-2-infection (n=8). Vaccination of pre-infected individuals boosted the immune response to very high ACOV2S results compared to infection-naïve vaccine recipients. ACOV2S measurements were strongly correlated with those from the live microneutralization assay (Pearson's r=0.779;p<0.0001) and good qualitative agreement was achieved (100% positive and 91.8% negative percentage agreement;90.0% positive and 100% negative predictive value). Conclusion: The results from this study confirmed that ACOV2S is a highly valuable assay for the tracking of vaccine-related immune responses. Combined application with ACOV2N enables serologic monitoring for breakthrough infection or stratification of previous natively-infected individuals. The adaptive measuring range and high resolution of ACOV2S allows for the early identification of seroconversion as well as for resolution of very high titers and detection of longitudinal differences between age and dose groups. Additionally, good correlation of ACOV2S with live virus microneutralization indicates the utility of ACOV2S as a reliable estimate of neutralization capacity in routine diagnostic settings.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 798117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674335

ABSTRACT

Background: The ability to quantify an immune response after vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential. This study assessed the clinical utility of the quantitative Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay (ACOV2S) using samples from the 2019-nCoV vaccine (mRNA-1273) phase 1 trial (NCT04283461). Methods: Samples from 30 healthy participants, aged 18-55 years, who received two injections with mRNA-1273 at a dose of 25 µg (n=15) or 100 µg (n=15), were collected at Days 1 (first vaccination), 15, 29 (second vaccination), 43 and 57. ACOV2S results (shown in U/mL - equivalent to BAU/mL per the first WHO international standard) were compared with results from ELISAs specific to antibodies against the Spike protein (S-2P) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) as well as neutralization tests including nanoluciferase (nLUC80), live-virus (PRNT80), and a pseudovirus neutralizing antibody assay (PsVNA50). Results: RBD-specific antibodies were already detectable by ACOV2S at the first time point of assessment (d15 after first vaccination), with seroconversion before in all but two participants (25 µg dose group); all had seroconverted by Day 29. Across all post-baseline visits, geometric mean concentration of antibody levels was 3.27-7.48-fold higher in the 100 µg compared with the 25 µg dose group. ACOV2S measurements were highly correlated with those from RBD ELISA (Pearson's r=0.938; p<0.0001) and S-2P ELISA (r=0.918; p<0.0001). For both ELISAs, heterogeneous baseline results and smaller increases in antibody levels following the second vs first vaccination compared with ACOV2S were observed. ACOV2S showed absence of any baseline noise indicating high specificity detecting vaccine-induced antibody response. Moderate-strong correlations were observed between ACOV2S and neutralization tests (nLUC80 r=0.933; PsVNA50, r=0.771; PRNT80, r=0.672; all p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion: The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay (ACOV2S) can be regarded as a highly valuable method to assess and quantify the presence of RBD-directed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 following vaccination and may indicate the presence of neutralizing antibodies. As a fully automated and standardized method, ACOV2S could qualify as the method of choice for consistent quantification of vaccine-induced humoral response.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Automation , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Reference Standards , Young Adult
3.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1505-1518, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quantitative serological assays detecting response to SARS-CoV-2 are needed to quantify immunity. This study analyzed the performance and correlation of two quantitative anti-S1 assays in oligo-/asymptomatic individuals from a population-based cohort. METHODS: In total, 362 plasma samples (108 with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]-positive pharyngeal swabs, 111 negative controls, and 143 with positive serology without confirmation by RT-PCR) were tested with quantitative assays (Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [EI-S1-IgG-quant]) and Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S [Ro-RBD-Ig-quant]), which were compared with each other and confirmatory tests, including wild-type virus micro-neutralization (NT) and GenScript®cPass™. Square roots R of coefficients of determination were calculated for continuous variables and non-parametric tests were used for paired comparisons. RESULTS: Quantitative anti-S1 serology correlated well with each other (true positives, 96%; true negatives, 97%). Antibody titers decreased over time (< 30 to > 240 days after initial positive RT-PCR). Agreement with GenScript-cPass was 96%/99% for true positives and true negatives, respectively, for Ro-RBD-Ig-quant and 93%/97% for EI-S1-IgG-quant. Ro-RBD-Ig-quant allowed distinct separation between positives and negatives, and less non-specific reactivity versus EI-S1-IgG-quant. Raw values (95% CI) ≥ 28.7 U/mL (22.6-36.4) for Ro-RBD-Ig-quant and ≥ 49.8 U/mL (43.4-57.1) for EI-S1-IgG-quant predicted NT > 1:5 in 95% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest both quantitative anti-S1 assays (EI-S1-IgG-quant and Ro-RBD-Ig-quant) may replace direct neutralization assays in quantitative measurement of immune protection against SARS-CoV-2 in certain circumstances. However, although the mean antibody titers for both assays tended to decrease over time, a higher proportion of Ro-RBD-Ig-quant values remained positive after 240 days.

4.
Gut ; 70(10): 1884-1893, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Delayed second dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination trades maximal effectiveness for a lower level of immunity across more of the population. We investigated whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with infliximab have attenuated serological responses to a single dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. DESIGN: Antibody responses and seroconversion rates in infliximab-treated patients (n=865) were compared with a cohort treated with vedolizumab (n=428), a gut-selective anti-integrin α4ß7 monoclonal antibody. Our primary outcome was anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody concentrations, measured using the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) antibody assay 3-10 weeks after vaccination, in patients without evidence of prior infection. Secondary outcomes were seroconversion rates (defined by a cut-off of 15 U/mL), and antibody responses following past infection or a second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. RESULTS: Geometric mean (SD) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations were lower in patients treated with infliximab than vedolizumab, following BNT162b2 (6.0 U/mL (5.9) vs 28.8 U/mL (5.4) p<0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (4.7 U/mL (4.9)) vs 13.8 U/mL (5.9) p<0.0001) vaccines. In our multivariable models, antibody concentrations were lower in infliximab-treated compared with vedolizumab-treated patients who received the BNT162b2 (fold change (FC) 0.29 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.40), p<0.0001) and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (FC 0.39 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.51), p<0.0001) vaccines. In both models, age ≥60 years, immunomodulator use, Crohn's disease and smoking were associated with lower, while non-white ethnicity was associated with higher, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations. Seroconversion rates after a single dose of either vaccine were higher in patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. CONCLUSION: Infliximab is associated with attenuated immunogenicity to a single dose of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Vaccination after SARS-CoV-2 infection, or a second dose of vaccine, led to seroconversion in most patients. Delayed second dosing should be avoided in patients treated with infliximab. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45176516.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests
5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(10)2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693541

ABSTRACT

The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics) was developed to provide accurate, reliable detection of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We evaluated sensitivity, specificity, cross-reactivity, and agreement with a vesicular stomatitis virus-based pseudoneutralization assay for the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay. Sensitivity and agreement between Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay and pseudoneutralization assay measurements were evaluated using samples from patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, a majority of whom were hospitalized. Specificity was evaluated using samples from routine diagnostic testing/blood donors collected before December 2019 and thus deemed negative for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Cross-reactivity was evaluated using samples containing a wide range of potentially cross-reacting analytes, purchased from commercial vendors. For sensitivity and specificity, point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Agreement between the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay and the pseudoneutralization assay was calculated. The sensitivity of the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay in patients with prior PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was 99.5% (95% CI, 97.0 to 100.0%) at ≥14 days post-PCR confirmation. Overall specificity (n = 10,453) was 99.80% (95% CI, 99.69 to 99.88%). Only 4/792 samples containing potential cross-reacting analytes were reactive with the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay, resulting in an overall specificity in this cohort of 99.5% (95% CI, 98.6 to 99.9%). Positive, negative, and overall agreement (n = 46) between the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay and the pseudoneutralization assay were 86.4% (95% CI, 73.3 to 93.6%), 100% (95% CI, 34.2 to 100%), and 87.0% (95% CI, 74.3 to 93.9%), respectively. The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay demonstrated high sensitivity (99.5% at ≥14 days post-PCR confirmation) and specificity (99.80%), supporting its use as a tool for identification of past SARS-CoV-2 infection, including use in populations with low disease prevalence.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Immunoassay , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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