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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312909

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has renewed interest and discussion about clinical phenotypes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Since the Berlin definition, various clinical disease courses with fatal outcome have been described but early objective indicators predicting distinct clinical courses have remained elusive. Objectives: Identify clinically available predictors that distinguish between two phenotypes of fatal ARDS due to pneumonia. Methods: 104 Japanese patients with pneumonia induced ARDS were extracted from our prospectively collected database. Fatal cases were divided into early (< 7 days after diagnosis) and late death (≥ 7 days) groups and their clinical variables and prognostic factors were statistically evaluated. Results: Of 50 cases, fatal within 180 days, 18 (36%) comprised the early death group (median 2 days, IQR [1, 5]) and 32 (64%), the late death group (median 16 days, IQR [13, 29]). Multivariate regression analyses showed APACHE II score (HR 1.14, 95%CI 1.01-1.28, p 0.047) was the only independent prognostic factor for early death. Late deaths were associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation score (HR 1.30, 95%CI 1.07-1.58, p 0.007), culture sensitivity to initial antimicrobials (HR 3.42, 95%CI 1.86-6.29, p <0.0001), and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score indicating early fibroproliferation. ROC analyses estimated a late death propensity score for HRCT score ≥ 211, of 5.42 (95%CI 1.54–19.12;p 0.008). Conclusions: The extent of fibroproliferation on HRCT, along with coagulation abnormalities and APACHE II scores, should be considered for use in predictive trial enrichment and personalized medicine for patients with ARDS due to pneumonia.

2.
Eur J Radiol Open ; 7: 100297, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947205

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe computed tomography (CT) findings of influenza H1N1 virus-associated pneumonia (IH1N1VAP), and to correlate CT findings to pathological ones. METHODS: The study included 24 patients with IH1N1VAP. Two observers independently evaluated the presence, distribution, and extent of CT findings. CT features were divided into either classical form (C-form) or non-classical form (NC-form). C-form included: A.) broncho-bronchiolitis and bronchopneumonia type, whereas NC-forms included: B.) diffuse peribronchovascular type, simulating subacute rheumatoid arthritis-associated (RA) interstitial lung disease (ILD) and C.) lower peripheral and/or peribronchovascular type, resembling dermatomyositis-associated ILD and COVID-19 pneumonia. In 10 cases with IH1N1VAP where lung biopsy was performed, CT and pathology findings were correlated. RESULTS: The most common CT findings were ground-glass opacities (24/24, 100 %) and airspace consolidation (23/24, 96 %). C-form was found in 11 (46 %) patients while NC-form in 13 (54 %). Types A, B, and C were seen in 11(46 %), 4 (17 %), and 9 (38 %) patients, respectively. The lung biopsy revealed organizing pneumonia in all patients and 6 patients (60 %) showed incorporated type organizing pneumonia that was common histological findings of rapidly progressive ILD. CONCLUSION: In almost half of patients of IH1N1VAP, CT images show NC-form pneumonia pattern resembling either acute or subacute RA or dermatomyositis-associated ILD and COVID-19 pneumonia.

3.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(157)2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2. Consensus suggestions can standardise care, thereby improving outcomes and facilitating future research. METHODS: An International Task Force was composed and agreement regarding courses of action was measured using the Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence (CORE) process. 70% agreement was necessary to make a consensus suggestion. RESULTS: The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials. It also suggested that COVID-19 patients with a venous thromboembolic event be treated with therapeutic anticoagulant therapy for 3 months. The Task Force was unable to reach sufficient agreement to yield consensus suggestions for the post-hospital care of COVID-19 survivors. The Task Force fell one vote shy of suggesting routine screening for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The Task Force addressed questions related to pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19 and the post-hospital care of survivors, yielding several consensus suggestions. Management options for which there is insufficient agreement to formulate a suggestion represent research priorities.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , International Cooperation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Medicine/standards , Societies, Medical , COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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