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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-9, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the cumulative seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among employees of a large pediatric healthcare system. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational cohort study open to adult employees at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, conducted April 20-December 17, 2020. METHODS: Employees were recruited starting with high-risk exposure groups, utilizing e-mails, flyers, and announcements at virtual town hall meetings. At baseline, 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months, participants reported occupational and community exposures and gave a blood sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A post hoc Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to identify factors associated with increased risk for seropositivity. RESULTS: In total, 1,740 employees were enrolled. At 6 months, the cumulative seroprevalence was 5.3%, which was below estimated community point seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among employees who provided direct care and was 3.4% among employees who did not perform direct patient care. Most participants who were seropositive at baseline remained positive at follow-up assessments. In a post hoc analysis, direct patient care (hazard ratio [HR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.68), Black race (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.24-5.87), and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 2.71-6.88) were associated with statistically significant increased risk for seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: Employee SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rates remained below the point-prevalence rates of the surrounding community. Provision of direct patient care, Black race, and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting conferred increased risk. These data can inform occupational protection measures to maximize protection of employees within the workplace during future COVID-19 waves or other epidemics.

3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(11): e28693, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743696

ABSTRACT

There are no proven safe and effective therapies for children who develop life-threatening complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Convalescent plasma (CP) has demonstrated potential benefit in adults with SARS-CoV-2, but has theoretical risks.We present the first report of CP in children with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), providing data on four pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We measured donor antibody levels and recipient antibody response prior to and following CP infusion. Infusion of CP was not associated with antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and did not suppress endogenous antibody response. We found CP was safe and possibly efficacious. Randomized pediatric trials are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
4.
J Clin Invest ; 130(11): 5967-5975, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDInitial reports from the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic described children as being less susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than adults. Subsequently, a severe and novel pediatric disorder termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged. We report on unique hematologic and immunologic parameters that distinguish between COVID-19 and MIS-C and provide insight into pathophysiology.METHODSWe prospectively enrolled hospitalized patients with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and classified them as having MIS-C or COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 were classified as having either minimal or severe disease. Cytokine profiles, viral cycle thresholds (Cts), blood smears, and soluble C5b-9 values were analyzed with clinical data.RESULTSTwenty patients were enrolled (9 severe COVID-19, 5 minimal COVID-19, and 6 MIS-C). Five cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) contributed to the analysis. TNF-α and IL-10 discriminated between patients with MIS-C and severe COVID-19. The presence of burr cells on blood smears, as well as Cts, differentiated between patients with severe COVID-19 and those with MIS-C.CONCLUSIONPediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk for critical illness with severe COVID-19 and MIS-C. Cytokine profiling and examination of peripheral blood smears may distinguish between patients with MIS-C and those with severe COVID-19.FUNDINGFinancial support for this project was provided by CHOP Frontiers Program Immune Dysregulation Team; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Cancer Institute; the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; Cookies for Kids Cancer; Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation for Childhood Cancer; Children's Oncology Group; Stand UP 2 Cancer; Team Connor; the Kate Amato Foundations; Burroughs Wellcome Fund CAMS; the Clinical Immunology Society; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology; and the Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokines/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
5.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(3): 393-398, 2020 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-681598

ABSTRACT

We present a series of 6 critically ill children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Key findings of this syndrome include fever, diarrhea, shock, and variable presence of rash, conjunctivitis, extremity edema, and mucous membrane changes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
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